Surah Ali Imran Ayat 190 In Arabic
إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لَآيَاتٍ لِأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ ﴿190﴾
Surah Ali Imran Ayat 190 Transliteration
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
Inna fee khalqis samaawaati wal ardi wakhtilaafil laili wannahaari la Aayaatil liulil albaab
Surah Ali Imran Ayat 190 Translation
Surely, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are signs for the people of wisdom,
Surah Ali Imran Ayat 190 Explanation
Verse 189 appearing immediately earlier particularly and strongly stressed upon Tauhid, the Oneness of Allah. So, the verse (190) which follows here, presents the proof of Tauhid and, along with it, mentions the merit of those who act strictly in accordance with the dictates of Tauhid and, by implication, it also motivates others to do the same.
In addition, the earlier mention of pain caused by the disbelievers bears congruity to the verses appearing presently. This can be under-stood in the background in which the disbelievers, out of hostility, requested the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) that he should turn Mount Safa into solid gold. Thereupon, this verse was revealed indicating that there were so many proofs confirming the Truth all around them – why would they not deliberate in them?
As for the reality of their request to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) it was not motivated to find out the Truth. Instead, it was out of hostility – so, they would have still not believed, even if their request was granted.
The background of Revelation
Commenting on the background of revelation concerning these verses, Ibn Hibban in his Sahih and Ibn ` Asakir in his History have reported that the Companion ` Ata ibn Abi Rabah (رض) went to Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) and said to her: ‘Of the things about the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، tell me what you saw as most unique out of the many states of his life.’ Thereupon, Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) said: ‘Which state are you talking about? In reality, everything about him was unique. Yet, I would tell you about one very unique event. It so happened that the noble Prophet, may Allah bless and protect him, came to me one night and entered into the comforter with me. Then, he said: ‘Allow me to worship my Lord.’ He rose from the bed, made وضو Wudu and stood up for Salah. And in this standing position of قیام Qiyam, he wept, so much so that his tears trickled down his blessed chest.
Then, he bent down for Ruk’ u رکوع and there too he wept. Then he did his Sajdah and kept weeping in the Sajdah very much like before. Then, he raised his head and continued weeping until came the morning. Sayyidna Bilal (رض) came in and informed him about the time of the صلاۃ الفجر Fajr Salah. Sayyidna Bilal (رض) says: I submitted: ‘my master, why do you weep like that? Is’nt it that Allah Almighty has forgiven you all your past and future sins?’ He said: ‘So then, should I not continue to be a grateful servant of Allah? And in offering this gratitude of mine, why should I not shed tears, especially tonight when Allah Almighty has revealed this blessed verse to me:
إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ
Surely, in the creation of the heavens and the earth… (190)
After that he said: “Ruined is the person who recited these verses but failed to deliberate therein.”
So, in order to deliberate into this verse, let us begin by answering some questions first.
What does ‘the creation of the heavens and the earth’ mean?
Since خَلْق Khalq is a verbal noun which signifies creation or origina¬tion, it means that there are, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, great signs of Allah Almighty. Therefore, all those Divinely created beings and things in the heavens and the earth also get to be included therein. Then, among these created beings there are king¬doms after kingdoms – each having different types and states – yet each and every such created being is comprehensively pointing out to its Creator. Then, going a little deeper, one would discover that ‘the heavens’ is inclusive of all heights and ‘the earth’ covers all lows. Thus, high or low, all dimensions owe their existence to Allah Almighty.
The different forms of ‘the alternation of the night and day’
Let us now determine the meaning of ‘the alternation of the night and day’. The word اخْتِلَاف ‘Ikhtilaf translated here as ‘alternation’ is derived from the Arabic usage: اَختلفِ فلان فلاناً (Such and such person arrived after such and such person). So, the Arabic expression translated as the alternation of the night and day’ means that the night goes and the day comes and when the day goes, night comes.
The word اخْتِلَاف Ikhtilaf translated here as ‘alternation’ could also be taken to mean increase or decrease. For example, during winter, the night is long and the day is short; while during the summer, the order is reversed. Similarly, the difference between the night and day is also mused by the difference in the geographical location of countries. For example, countries closer to the North Pole have longer days as compared to areas farther away from it. So, it should not be difficult to infer from each such phenomena the essential proof of the most perfect power of Allah Almighty.
What is the meaning of the word, آيت Ayat ?
Ayat (آيت) is the plural of Ayah (آیہ) and is used to express more than one single meaning. Miracles are known as آیت Ayat. It is also applied to the verses of the Holy Qur’an. It is also used in a third sense, that of proof and sign. Here, in the present context, this very third sense is what is intended – meaning that, in these manifestations, there are great signs of Allah, and the proofs of His power.
Wise are those who believe in Allah and always remember Him
To determine the meaning of the expression أُولِي الْأَلْبَاب ، we look into the word ‘albab’ which is the plural of لُب lub. Lexically, it means the essence. Since the essence of everything is its sum-total and the key to its nature and uses, therefore, human wisdom has been called lub, for wisdom is the essence of human nature. Thus, أَلْبَاب ‘albab’ means the people of wisdom’.
Now the problem before us is how to identify the people of wisdom because the whole world claims to be wise. Not even a moron would be ready to admit being devoid of wisdom, reason or sense. Therefore, the Holy Qur’an has told us about some signs which are, in fact, the most sound criterion of wisdom. The first such sign is Faith in Allah. Think of the knowledge which comes from the senses such as hearing, seeing, smelling and tasting and communication, something also found in non-rational animals. Now, it is the job of wisdom or reason to arrive, through signs, circumstantial evidence and proofs, at a particular conclusion which is beyond sense-perception and through which it may become possible to grasp the final link of the chain of causes.
Keeping this rule in view, just think about this universe around us. It should not be too difficult to realize that this wonderfully organised system – comprising the heavens and the earth and containing the whole of creation in between them which is further streamlined by the most deft management of everything, big or small, existing therein – certainly points out to a special Being that has to be the highest and the foremost in terms of Knowledge, Wisdom, Power and Authority. A Being who originated and fashioned all these components with the wisest of consideration and under Whose intention and will this whole system keeps operating. That Being, as obvious, can only be that of the most-exalted Allah. How well some spiritual master has put it in a few words:
ہر گیا ہے کہ از زمین روید
وَحدَہُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ گوید
Every blade of grass sprouting from the earth
Says: He is One; there are no partners in Him.
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
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