Surah Al Qasas In Aranic
طسم ﴿1﴾ تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ الْمُبِينِ ﴿2﴾ نَتْلُو عَلَيْكَ مِنْ نَبَإِ مُوسَىٰ وَفِرْعَوْنَ بِالْحَقِّ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿3﴾ إِنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ عَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَجَعَلَ أَهْلَهَا شِيَعًا يَسْتَضْعِفُ طَائِفَةً مِنْهُمْ يُذَبِّحُ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيِي نِسَاءَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مِنَ الْمُفْسِدِينَ ﴿4﴾ وَنُرِيدُ أَنْ نَمُنَّ عَلَى الَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَنَجْعَلَهُمْ أَئِمَّةً وَنَجْعَلَهُمُ الْوَارِثِينَ ﴿5﴾ وَنُمَكِّنَ لَهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَنُرِيَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَهَامَانَ وَجُنُودَهُمَا مِنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَحْذَرُونَ ﴿6﴾ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمِّ مُوسَىٰ أَنْ أَرْضِعِيهِ ۖ فَإِذَا خِفْتِ عَلَيْهِ فَأَلْقِيهِ فِي الْيَمِّ وَلَا تَخَافِي وَلَا تَحْزَنِي ۖ إِنَّا رَادُّوهُ إِلَيْكِ وَجَاعِلُوهُ مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ ﴿7﴾ فَالْتَقَطَهُ آلُ فِرْعَوْنَ لِيَكُونَ لَهُمْ عَدُوًّا وَحَزَنًا ۗ إِنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ وَهَامَانَ وَجُنُودَهُمَا كَانُوا خَاطِئِينَ ﴿8﴾ وَقَالَتِ امْرَأَتُ فِرْعَوْنَ قُرَّتُ عَيْنٍ لِي وَلَكَ ۖ لَا تَقْتُلُوهُ عَسَىٰ أَنْ يَنْفَعَنَا أَوْ نَتَّخِذَهُ وَلَدًا وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ ﴿9﴾ وَأَصْبَحَ فُؤَادُ أُمِّ مُوسَىٰ فَارِغًا ۖ إِنْ كَادَتْ لَتُبْدِي بِهِ لَوْلَا أَنْ رَبَطْنَا عَلَىٰ قَلْبِهَا لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿10﴾ وَقَالَتْ لِأُخْتِهِ قُصِّيهِ ۖ فَبَصُرَتْ بِهِ عَنْ جُنُبٍ وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ ﴿11﴾ وَحَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِ الْمَرَاضِعَ مِنْ قَبْلُ فَقَالَتْ هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَىٰ أَهْلِ بَيْتٍ يَكْفُلُونَهُ لَكُمْ وَهُمْ لَهُ نَاصِحُونَ ﴿12﴾ فَرَدَدْنَاهُ إِلَىٰ أُمِّهِ كَيْ تَقَرَّ عَيْنُهَا وَلَا تَحْزَنَ وَلِتَعْلَمَ أَنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿13﴾ وَلَمَّا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَاسْتَوَىٰ آتَيْنَاهُ حُكْمًا وَعِلْمًا ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ ﴿14﴾ وَدَخَلَ الْمَدِينَةَ عَلَىٰ حِينِ غَفْلَةٍ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا فَوَجَدَ فِيهَا رَجُلَيْنِ يَقْتَتِلَانِ هَٰذَا مِنْ شِيعَتِهِ وَهَٰذَا مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ ۖ فَاسْتَغَاثَهُ الَّذِي مِنْ شِيعَتِهِ عَلَى الَّذِي مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَوَكَزَهُ مُوسَىٰ فَقَضَىٰ عَلَيْهِ ۖ قَالَ هَٰذَا مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۖ إِنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ مُضِلٌّ مُبِينٌ ﴿15﴾ قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي فَاغْفِرْ لِي فَغَفَرَ لَهُ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿16﴾ قَالَ رَبِّ بِمَا أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ فَلَنْ أَكُونَ ظَهِيرًا لِلْمُجْرِمِينَ ﴿17﴾ فَأَصْبَحَ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي اسْتَنْصَرَهُ بِالْأَمْسِ يَسْتَصْرِخُهُ ۚ قَالَ لَهُ مُوسَىٰ إِنَّكَ لَغَوِيٌّ مُبِينٌ ﴿18﴾ فَلَمَّا أَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَبْطِشَ بِالَّذِي هُوَ عَدُوٌّ لَهُمَا قَالَ يَا مُوسَىٰ أَتُرِيدُ أَنْ تَقْتُلَنِي كَمَا قَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا بِالْأَمْسِ ۖ إِنْ تُرِيدُ إِلَّا أَنْ تَكُونَ جَبَّارًا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا تُرِيدُ أَنْ تَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِينَ ﴿19﴾ وَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَقْصَى الْمَدِينَةِ يَسْعَىٰ قَالَ يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنَّ الْمَلَأَ يَأْتَمِرُونَ بِكَ لِيَقْتُلُوكَ فَاخْرُجْ إِنِّي لَكَ مِنَ النَّاصِحِينَ ﴿20﴾ فَخَرَجَ مِنْهَا خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ ۖ قَالَ رَبِّ نَجِّنِي مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿21﴾ وَلَمَّا تَوَجَّهَ تِلْقَاءَ مَدْيَنَ قَالَ عَسَىٰ رَبِّي أَنْ يَهْدِيَنِي سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ ﴿22﴾ وَلَمَّا وَرَدَ مَاءَ مَدْيَنَ وَجَدَ عَلَيْهِ أُمَّةً مِنَ النَّاسِ يَسْقُونَ وَوَجَدَ مِنْ دُونِهِمُ امْرَأَتَيْنِ تَذُودَانِ ۖ قَالَ مَا خَطْبُكُمَا ۖ قَالَتَا لَا نَسْقِي حَتَّىٰ يُصْدِرَ الرِّعَاءُ ۖ وَأَبُونَا شَيْخٌ كَبِيرٌ ﴿23﴾ فَسَقَىٰ لَهُمَا ثُمَّ تَوَلَّىٰ إِلَى الظِّلِّ فَقَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي لِمَا أَنْزَلْتَ إِلَيَّ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَقِيرٌ ﴿24﴾ فَجَاءَتْهُ إِحْدَاهُمَا تَمْشِي عَلَى اسْتِحْيَاءٍ قَالَتْ إِنَّ أَبِي يَدْعُوكَ لِيَجْزِيَكَ أَجْرَ مَا سَقَيْتَ لَنَا ۚ فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُ وَقَصَّ عَلَيْهِ الْقَصَصَ قَالَ لَا تَخَفْ ۖ نَجَوْتَ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿25﴾ قَالَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا يَا أَبَتِ اسْتَأْجِرْهُ ۖ إِنَّ خَيْرَ مَنِ اسْتَأْجَرْتَ الْقَوِيُّ الْأَمِينُ ﴿26﴾ قَالَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُنْكِحَكَ إِحْدَى ابْنَتَيَّ هَاتَيْنِ عَلَىٰ أَنْ تَأْجُرَنِي ثَمَانِيَ حِجَجٍ ۖ فَإِنْ أَتْمَمْتَ عَشْرًا فَمِنْ عِنْدِكَ ۖ وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنْ أَشُقَّ عَلَيْكَ ۚ سَتَجِدُنِي إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ ﴿27﴾ قَالَ ذَٰلِكَ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ ۖ أَيَّمَا الْأَجَلَيْنِ قَضَيْتُ فَلَا عُدْوَانَ عَلَيَّ ۖ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ مَا نَقُولُ وَكِيلٌ ﴿28﴾ فَلَمَّا قَضَىٰ مُوسَى الْأَجَلَ وَسَارَ بِأَهْلِهِ آنَسَ مِنْ جَانِبِ الطُّورِ نَارًا قَالَ لِأَهْلِهِ امْكُثُوا إِنِّي آنَسْتُ نَارًا لَعَلِّي آتِيكُمْ مِنْهَا بِخَبَرٍ أَوْ جَذْوَةٍ مِنَ النَّارِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَصْطَلُونَ ﴿29﴾ فَلَمَّا أَتَاهَا نُودِيَ مِنْ شَاطِئِ الْوَادِ الْأَيْمَنِ فِي الْبُقْعَةِ الْمُبَارَكَةِ مِنَ الشَّجَرَةِ أَنْ يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنِّي أَنَا اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿30﴾ وَأَنْ أَلْقِ عَصَاكَ ۖ فَلَمَّا رَآهَا تَهْتَزُّ كَأَنَّهَا جَانٌّ وَلَّىٰ مُدْبِرًا وَلَمْ يُعَقِّبْ ۚ يَا مُوسَىٰ أَقْبِلْ وَلَا تَخَفْ ۖ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الْآمِنِينَ ﴿31﴾ اسْلُكْ يَدَكَ فِي جَيْبِكَ تَخْرُجْ بَيْضَاءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ سُوءٍ وَاضْمُمْ إِلَيْكَ جَنَاحَكَ مِنَ الرَّهْبِ ۖ فَذَانِكَ بُرْهَانَانِ مِنْ رَبِّكَ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَئِهِ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمًا فَاسِقِينَ ﴿32﴾ قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي قَتَلْتُ مِنْهُمْ نَفْسًا فَأَخَافُ أَنْ يَقْتُلُونِ ﴿33﴾ وَأَخِي هَارُونُ هُوَ أَفْصَحُ مِنِّي لِسَانًا فَأَرْسِلْهُ مَعِيَ رِدْءًا يُصَدِّقُنِي ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ يُكَذِّبُونِ ﴿34﴾ قَالَ سَنَشُدُّ عَضُدَكَ بِأَخِيكَ وَنَجْعَلُ لَكُمَا سُلْطَانًا فَلَا يَصِلُونَ إِلَيْكُمَا ۚ بِآيَاتِنَا أَنْتُمَا وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَكُمَا الْغَالِبُونَ ﴿35﴾ فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ مُوسَىٰ بِآيَاتِنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ قَالُوا مَا هَٰذَا إِلَّا سِحْرٌ مُفْتَرًى وَمَا سَمِعْنَا بِهَٰذَا فِي آبَائِنَا الْأَوَّلِينَ ﴿36﴾ وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ رَبِّي أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ جَاءَ بِالْهُدَىٰ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ وَمَنْ تَكُونُ لَهُ عَاقِبَةُ الدَّارِ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ ﴿37﴾ وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يَا أَيُّهَا الْمَلَأُ مَا عَلِمْتُ لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرِي فَأَوْقِدْ لِي يَا هَامَانُ عَلَى الطِّينِ فَاجْعَلْ لِي صَرْحًا لَعَلِّي أَطَّلِعُ إِلَىٰ إِلَٰهِ مُوسَىٰ وَإِنِّي لَأَظُنُّهُ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ ﴿38﴾ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ هُوَ وَجُنُودُهُ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْنَا لَا يُرْجَعُونَ ﴿39﴾ فَأَخَذْنَاهُ وَجُنُودَهُ فَنَبَذْنَاهُمْ فِي الْيَمِّ ۖ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿40﴾ وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ ۖ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا يُنْصَرُونَ ﴿41﴾ وَأَتْبَعْنَاهُمْ فِي هَٰذِهِ الدُّنْيَا لَعْنَةً ۖ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ هُمْ مِنَ الْمَقْبُوحِينَ ﴿42﴾ وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا أَهْلَكْنَا الْقُرُونَ الْأُولَىٰ بَصَائِرَ لِلنَّاسِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ ﴿43﴾ وَمَا كُنْتَ بِجَانِبِ الْغَرْبِيِّ إِذْ قَضَيْنَا إِلَىٰ مُوسَى الْأَمْرَ وَمَا كُنْتَ مِنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ ﴿44﴾ وَلَٰكِنَّا أَنْشَأْنَا قُرُونًا فَتَطَاوَلَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْعُمُرُ ۚ وَمَا كُنْتَ ثَاوِيًا فِي أَهْلِ مَدْيَنَ تَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِنَا وَلَٰكِنَّا كُنَّا مُرْسِلِينَ ﴿45﴾ وَمَا كُنْتَ بِجَانِبِ الطُّورِ إِذْ نَادَيْنَا وَلَٰكِنْ رَحْمَةً مِنْ رَبِّكَ لِتُنْذِرَ قَوْمًا مَا أَتَاهُمْ مِنْ نَذِيرٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ ﴿46﴾ وَلَوْلَا أَنْ تُصِيبَهُمْ مُصِيبَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُوا رَبَّنَا لَوْلَا أَرْسَلْتَ إِلَيْنَا رَسُولًا فَنَتَّبِعَ آيَاتِكَ وَنَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿47﴾ فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ عِنْدِنَا قَالُوا لَوْلَا أُوتِيَ مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ ۚ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفُرُوا بِمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ قَالُوا سِحْرَانِ تَظَاهَرَا وَقَالُوا إِنَّا بِكُلٍّ كَافِرُونَ ﴿48﴾ قُلْ فَأْتُوا بِكِتَابٍ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ هُوَ أَهْدَىٰ مِنْهُمَا أَتَّبِعْهُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿49﴾ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكَ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يَتَّبِعُونَ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنِ اتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ بِغَيْرِ هُدًى مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿50﴾ وَلَقَدْ وَصَّلْنَا لَهُمُ الْقَوْلَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ ﴿51﴾ الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ هُمْ بِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿52﴾ وَإِذَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِهِ إِنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا مِنْ قَبْلِهِ مُسْلِمِينَ ﴿53﴾ أُولَٰئِكَ يُؤْتَوْنَ أَجْرَهُمْ مَرَّتَيْنِ بِمَا صَبَرُوا وَيَدْرَءُونَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ ﴿54﴾ وَإِذَا سَمِعُوا اللَّغْوَ أَعْرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَقَالُوا لَنَا أَعْمَالُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَالُكُمْ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ لَا نَبْتَغِي الْجَاهِلِينَ ﴿55﴾ إِنَّكَ لَا تَهْدِي مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ ﴿56﴾ وَقَالُوا إِنْ نَتَّبِعِ الْهُدَىٰ مَعَكَ نُتَخَطَّفْ مِنْ أَرْضِنَا ۚ أَوَلَمْ نُمَكِّنْ لَهُمْ حَرَمًا آمِنًا يُجْبَىٰ إِلَيْهِ ثَمَرَاتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ رِزْقًا مِنْ لَدُنَّا وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿57﴾ وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ بَطِرَتْ مَعِيشَتَهَا ۖ فَتِلْكَ مَسَاكِنُهُمْ لَمْ تُسْكَنْ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا ۖ وَكُنَّا نَحْنُ الْوَارِثِينَ ﴿58﴾ وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ مُهْلِكَ الْقُرَىٰ حَتَّىٰ يَبْعَثَ فِي أُمِّهَا رَسُولًا يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِنَا ۚ وَمَا كُنَّا مُهْلِكِي الْقُرَىٰ إِلَّا وَأَهْلُهَا ظَالِمُونَ ﴿59﴾ وَمَا أُوتِيتُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ فَمَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَزِينَتُهَا ۚ وَمَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَىٰ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ ﴿60﴾ أَفَمَنْ وَعَدْنَاهُ وَعْدًا حَسَنًا فَهُوَ لَاقِيهِ كَمَنْ مَتَّعْنَاهُ مَتَاعَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ثُمَّ هُوَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنَ الْمُحْضَرِينَ ﴿61﴾ وَيَوْمَ يُنَادِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُ أَيْنَ شُرَكَائِيَ الَّذِينَ كُنْتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ ﴿62﴾ قَالَ الَّذِينَ حَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقَوْلُ رَبَّنَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ أَغْوَيْنَا أَغْوَيْنَاهُمْ كَمَا غَوَيْنَا ۖ تَبَرَّأْنَا إِلَيْكَ ۖ مَا كَانُوا إِيَّانَا يَعْبُدُونَ ﴿63﴾ وَقِيلَ ادْعُوا شُرَكَاءَكُمْ فَدَعَوْهُمْ فَلَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَهُمْ وَرَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ ۚ لَوْ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يَهْتَدُونَ ﴿64﴾ وَيَوْمَ يُنَادِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُ مَاذَا أَجَبْتُمُ الْمُرْسَلِينَ ﴿65﴾ فَعَمِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَنْبَاءُ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَهُمْ لَا يَتَسَاءَلُونَ ﴿66﴾ فَأَمَّا مَنْ تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَعَسَىٰ أَنْ يَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُفْلِحِينَ ﴿67﴾ وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيَخْتَارُ ۗ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ ۚ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿68﴾ وَرَبُّكَ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُكِنُّ صُدُورُهُمْ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ ﴿69﴾ وَهُوَ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي الْأُولَىٰ وَالْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَلَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ ﴿70﴾ قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمُ اللَّيْلَ سَرْمَدًا إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَنْ إِلَٰهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَأْتِيكُمْ بِضِيَاءٍ ۖ أَفَلَا تَسْمَعُونَ ﴿71﴾ قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمُ النَّهَارَ سَرْمَدًا إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَنْ إِلَٰهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَأْتِيكُمْ بِلَيْلٍ تَسْكُنُونَ فِيهِ ۖ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ ﴿72﴾ وَمِنْ رَحْمَتِهِ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لِتَسْكُنُوا فِيهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِهِ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿73﴾ وَيَوْمَ يُنَادِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُ أَيْنَ شُرَكَائِيَ الَّذِينَ كُنْتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ ﴿74﴾ وَنَزَعْنَا مِنْ كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ شَهِيدًا فَقُلْنَا هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ فَعَلِمُوا أَنَّ الْحَقَّ لِلَّهِ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ ﴿75﴾ إِنَّ قَارُونَ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمِ مُوسَىٰ فَبَغَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ وَآتَيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْكُنُوزِ مَا إِنَّ مَفَاتِحَهُ لَتَنُوءُ بِالْعُصْبَةِ أُولِي الْقُوَّةِ إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ قَوْمُهُ لَا تَفْرَحْ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَرِحِينَ ﴿76﴾ وَابْتَغِ فِيمَا آتَاكَ اللَّهُ الدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ ۖ وَلَا تَنْسَ نَصِيبَكَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَأَحْسِنْ كَمَا أَحْسَنَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ وَلَا تَبْغِ الْفَسَادَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُفْسِدِينَ ﴿77﴾ قَالَ إِنَّمَا أُوتِيتُهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ عِنْدِي ۚ أَوَلَمْ يَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَهْلَكَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ مِنَ الْقُرُونِ مَنْ هُوَ أَشَدُّ مِنْهُ قُوَّةً وَأَكْثَرُ جَمْعًا ۚ وَلَا يُسْأَلُ عَنْ ذُنُوبِهِمُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ ﴿78﴾ فَخَرَجَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فِي زِينَتِهِ ۖ قَالَ الَّذِينَ يُرِيدُونَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا يَا لَيْتَ لَنَا مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيَ قَارُونُ إِنَّهُ لَذُو حَظٍّ عَظِيمٍ ﴿79﴾ وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ وَيْلَكُمْ ثَوَابُ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لِمَنْ آمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا وَلَا يُلَقَّاهَا إِلَّا الصَّابِرُونَ ﴿80﴾ فَخَسَفْنَا بِهِ وَبِدَارِهِ الْأَرْضَ فَمَا كَانَ لَهُ مِنْ فِئَةٍ يَنْصُرُونَهُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُنْتَصِرِينَ ﴿81﴾ وَأَصْبَحَ الَّذِينَ تَمَنَّوْا مَكَانَهُ بِالْأَمْسِ يَقُولُونَ وَيْكَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَيَقْدِرُ ۖ لَوْلَا أَنْ مَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْنَا لَخَسَفَ بِنَا ۖ وَيْكَأَنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الْكَافِرُونَ ﴿82﴾ تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فَسَادًا ۚ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿83﴾ مَنْ جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ خَيْرٌ مِنْهَا ۖ وَمَنْ جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلَا يُجْزَى الَّذِينَ عَمِلُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ إِلَّا مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿84﴾ إِنَّ الَّذِي فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لَرَادُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ ۚ قُلْ رَبِّي أَعْلَمُ مَنْ جَاءَ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَمَنْ هُوَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ ﴿85﴾ وَمَا كُنْتَ تَرْجُو أَنْ يُلْقَىٰ إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابُ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً مِنْ رَبِّكَ ۖ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ ظَهِيرًا لِلْكَافِرِينَ ﴿86﴾ وَلَا يَصُدُّنَّكَ عَنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ بَعْدَ إِذْ أُنْزِلَتْ إِلَيْكَ ۖ وَادْعُ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ ۖ وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ﴿87﴾ وَلَا تَدْعُ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَٰهًا آخَرَ ۘ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ ۚ لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ ﴿88﴾
Surah Qasas Transliteration In English
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Tilka Aayaatul Kitaabil mubeen
- Natloo ‘alaika min naba-i Moosaa wa Fir’awna bilhaqqi liqawminy yu’miinoon
- Inna Fir’awna ‘alaa fil ardi wa ja’ala ahlahaa shiya’ai yastad’ifu taaa’ifatam minhum yuzabbihu abnaaa’ahum wa yastahyee nisaaa’ahum; innahoo kaana minal mufsideen
- Wa nureedu an namunna ‘alal lazeenas tud’ifoo fil ardi wa naj’alahum a’immatanw wa naj’alahumul waariseen
- Wa numakkina lahum fil ardi wa nuriya Fir’awna wa Haamaana wa junoodahumaa minhum maa kaanoo yahzaroon
- Wa awhainaaa ilaaa ummi Moosaaa an ardi’eehi faizaa khifti ‘alaihi fa alqeehi filyammi wa laa takhaafee wa laa tahzaneee innaa raaaddoohu ilaiki wa jaa’iloohu minal mursaleen
- Faltaqatahooo Aalu Fir’awna li yakoona lahum ‘aduwwanw wa hazanaa; inna Fir’awna wa Haamaana wa junooda humaa kaanoo khaati’een
- Wa qaalatim ra atu Fir’awna qurratu ‘aynil lee wa lak; laa taqtuloohu ‘asaaa aiyanfa’anaa aw nattakhizahoo waladanw wa hum laa yash’uroon
- Wa asbaha fu’aadu ummi Moosaa faarighan in kaadat latubdee bihee law laaa arrabatnaa ‘alaa qalbihaa litakoona minal mu’mineen
- Wa qaalat li ukhtihee qusseehi fabasurat bihee ‘an junubinw wahum laa yash’uroon
- Wa harramnaa ‘alaihil maraadi’a min qablu faqaalat hal adullukum ‘alaaa ahli baitiny yakfuloonahoo lakum wa hum lahoo naasihoon
- Faradadnaahu ilaa ummihee kai taqarra ‘ainuhaa wa laa tahzana wa lita’lama anna wa’dal laahi haqqunw wa laakinna aksarahum laa ya’lamoon (section 1)
- Wa lammaa balagha ashuddahoo wastawaaa aatai naahu hukmanw wa ‘ilmaa; wa kazaalika najzil muhsineen
- Wa dakhalal madeenata ‘alaa heene ghaflatim min ahlihaa fawajada feeha raju laini yaqtatilaani haazaa min shee’atihee wa haaza min ‘aduwwihee fastaghaasahul lazee min shee’atihee ‘alal lazee min ‘aduwwihee fawakazahoo Moosaa faqadaa ‘alaihi qaala haaza min ‘amalish Shaitaani innahoo ‘aduwwum mmudillum mubeen
- Qaala Rabbi innee zalamtu nafsee faghfir lee faghafaralah; innahoo Huwal Ghafoorur Raheem
- Qaala Rabbi bimaaa an’amta ‘alaiya falan akoona zaheeral lilmujrimeen
- Fa asbaha fil madeenati khaaa’ifany yataraqqabu fa izal lazis tansarahoo bil amsi yastasrikhuh; qaala lahoo moosaaa innaka laghawiyyum mubeen
- Falammaaa an araada ai yabtisha billazee huwa ‘aduwwul lahumaa qaala yaa Moosaaa atureedu an taqtulanee kamaa qatalta nafsam bil amsi in tureedu illaaa an takoona jabbaaram fil ardi wa maa tureedu an takoona minal musliheen
- Wa jaaa’a rajulum min aqsal madeenati yas’aa qaala yaa Moosaaa innal mala a yaa tamiroona bika liyaqtulooka fakhruj innee laka minan naasiheen
- Fakharaja minhaa khaaa ‘ifany-yataraqqab; qaala Rabbi najjinee minal qawmiz zaalimeen (section 2)
- Wa lammaa tawajjaha tilqaaa’a Madyana qaala ‘asaa Rabbeee ai yahdiyanee Sawaaa’as Sabeel
- Wa lammaa warada maaa’a Madyana wajada ‘alaihi ummatam minannaasi yasqoona wa wajada min doonihimum ra ataini tazoodaani qaala maa khatbukumaa qaalataa laa nasqee hatta yusdirar ri’aaa’u wa aboonaa shaikhun kabeer
- Fasaqaa lahumaa summa tawallaaa ilaz zilli faqaala Rabbi innee limaaa anzalta ilaiya min khairin faqeer
- Fajaaa’at hu ihdaahumaa tamshee ‘alas tihyaaa’in qaalat inna abee yad’ooka li yajziyaka ajra maa saqaita lanaa; falammaa jaaa’ahoo wa qassa ‘alaihil qasasa qaala laa takhaf najawta minal qawmiz zaalimeen
- Qaalat ihdaahumaa yaaa abatis taajirhu inna khaira manistaajartal qawiyyul ameen
- Qaala innee ureedu an unkihaka ihdab nataiya haataini ‘alaaa an taajuranee samaaniya hijaj; fa in atmamta ‘ashran famin ‘indika wa maaa ureedu an ashuqqa ‘alaik; satajiduneee in shaaa’al laahu minas saaliheen
- Qaala zaalika bainee wa bainaka aiyamal ajalaini qadaitu falaa ‘udwaana ‘alaiya wallaahu ‘alaa ma naqoolu Wakeel (section 3)
- Falammmaa qadaa Moosal ajala wa saara bi ahliheee aanasa min jaanibit Toori naaran qaala li ahlihim kusooo inneee aanastu naaral la ‘alleee aateekum minhaa bikhabarin aw jazwatim minan naari la ‘allakum tastaloon
- Falammaaa ataahaa noodiya min shaati’il waadil aimani fil buq’atil muubaarakati minash shajarati ai yaa Moosaaa inneee Anal laahu Rabbul ‘aalameen
- Wa an alqi ‘asaaka falam maa ra aahaa tahtazzu ka annnahaa jaaannunw wallaa mudbiranw wa lam yu’aqqib; yaa Moosaa aqbil wa laa takhaf innaka minal aamineen
- Usluk yadaka fee jaibika takhruj baidaaa’a min ghairi sooo’inw wadmum ilaika janaahaka minar rahbi fazaanika burhaanaani mir Rabbika ilaa Fir’awna wa mala’ih; innahum kaanoo qawman faasiqeen
- Qaala Rabbi innee qataltu minhum nafsan fa akhaafu ai yaqtuloon
- Wa akhee Haaroonu huwa afsahu minnee lisaanan fa arsilhu ma’iya rid ai yusaddiquneee innee akhaafu ai yukazziboon
- Qaala sanashuddu ‘adudaka bi akheeka wa naj’alu lakumaa sultaanan falaa yasiloona ilaikumaa; bi Aayaatinaa antumaa wa manit taba’akumal ghaaliboon
- Falammaa jaaa’ahum Moosaa bi Aayaatinaa baiyinaatin qaaloo maa haazaaa illaa sihrum muftaranw wa maa sami’naa bihaazaa feee aabaaa’inal awwaleen
- Wa qaala Moosaa Rabbeee a’alamu biman jaaa’a bilhudaa min ‘indihee wa man takoonu lahoo ‘aaqibatud daari innahoo laa yuflihuz zaalimoon
- Wa qaala Fir’awnu yaaa aiyuhal mala-u maa ‘alimtu lakum min ilaahin ghairee fa awqid lee yaa Haamaanu ‘alatteeni faj’al lee sarhal la’alleee attali’u ilaaa ilaahi Moosaa wa innee la azunnuhoo minal kaazibeen
- Wastakbara huwa wa junooduhoo fil ardi bighairil haqqi wa zannooo annahum ilainaa laa yurja’oon
- Fa akhaznaahu wa junoo dahoo fanabaznaahum fil yammi fanzur kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatuz zaalimeen
- Wa ja’alnaahum a’immatany yad’oona ilan Naari wa Yawmal Qiyaamati laa yunsaroon
- Wa atba’naahum fee haazihid dunyaa la’natanw wa Yawmal Qiyaamati hum minal maqbooheen (section 4)
- Wa laqad aatainaa Moosal Kitaaba mim ba’di maaa ahlaknal quroonal oolaa basaaa’ira linnaasi wa hudanw wa rahmatal la’allahum yata zakkkaroon
- Wa maa kunta bijaanibil gharbiyyi iz qadainaaa ilaa Moosal amra wa maa kunta minash shaahideen
- Wa laakinnaa anshaanaa quroonan fatataawala ‘alaihimul ‘umur; wa maa kunta saawiyan feee ahli Madyana tatloo ‘alaihim Aayaatinaa wa laakinnaa kunnaa mursileen
- Wa maa kunta bijaanibit Toori iz naadainaa wa laakir rahmatam mir Rabbika litunzira qawmam maaa ataahum min nazeerim min qablika la’allahum yatazakkaroon
- Wa law laaa an tuseebahum museebatum bimaa qaddamat aideehim fa yaqooloo Rabbanaa law laaa arsalta ilainaa Rasoolan fanattabi’a Aayaatika wa nakoona minal mu’mineen
- Falammaa jaaa’ahumul haqqu min ‘indinaa qaaloo law laa ootiya misla maaa ootiyaa Moosaa; awalam yakfuroo bimaaa ootiya Moosaa min qablu qaaloo sihraani tazaaharaa wa qaalooo innaa bikullin kaafiroon
- Qul faatoo bi Kitaabim min ‘indil laahi huwa ahdaa minhu maaa attabi’hu in kuntum saadiqeen
- Fa il lam yastajeeboo laka fa’lam annamaa yattabi’oona ahwaaa’ahum; wa man adallu mimmanit taba’a hawaahu bighari hudam minal laah; innal laaha laa yahdil qawmaz zaalimeen (section 5)
- Wa laqad wassalnaa lahumul qawla la’allahum yatazakkaroon
- Allazeena aatainaahu mul Kitaaba min qablihee hum bihee yu’minoon
- Wa izaa yutlaa ‘alaihim qaaloo aamannaa biheee innahul haqqu mir rabbinaaa innaa kunnaa min qablihee muslimeen
- Ulaaa’ika yu’tawna ajrahum marratayni bimaa sabaroo wa yadra’oona bil hasanatis saiyi’ata wa mimmmaa razaq naahum yunfiqoon
- Wa izaa sami’ul laghwa a’radoo ‘anhu wa qaaloo lanaaa a’maalunaa wa lakum a’maalukum salaamun ‘alaikum laa nabtaghil jaahileen
- Innaka laa tahdee man ahbabta wa laakinn Allaha yahdee mai yashaaa’; wa huwa a’lamu bil muhtadeen
- Wa qaalooo in nattabi’il hudaa ma’aka nutakhattaf min ardinaa; awalam numakkkil lahum haraman aaminany yujbaaa ilaihi samaraatu kulli shai’ir rizqam mil ladunnaa wa laakinna aksarahum laa ya’lamoon
- Wa kam ahlaknaa min qaryatim batirat ma’eeshatahaa fatilka masaakinuhum lam tuskam mim ba’dihim illaa qaleelaa; wa kunnaa Nahnul waariseen
- Wa maa kaana Rabbuka muhlikal quraa hattaa yab’asa feee ummihaa Rasoolany yatloo ‘alaihim aayaatina; wa maa kunnaa muhlikil quraaa illaa wa ahluhaa zaalimoon
- Wa maaa ooteetum min shai’in famataa’ul hayaatid dunyaa wa zeenatuhaa; wa maa ‘indal laahi khairunw wa abqaa; afalaa ta’qiloon (section 6)
- Afamanw wa’adnaahu wa’dan hasanan fahuwa laaqeehi kamam matta’naahu mataa’al hayaatid dunyaa summa huwa Yawmal Qiyaamati minal muhdareen
- Wa Yawma yunaadeehim fa-yaqoolu aina shurakaaa ‘iyal lazeena kuntum taz’umoon
- Qaalal lazeena haqqa ‘alaihimul qawlu Rabbanaa haaa’ulaaa’il lazeena aghwainaa aghwainaahu kamaa ghawainaa tabarraanaaa ilaika maa kaanoo iyyaanaa ya’budoon
- Wa qeelad ‘oo shurakaaa’akum fada’awhum falam yastajeeboo lahum wa ra awul ‘azaab; law annahum kaanoo yahtadoon
- Wa Yawma yunaadeehim fa yaqoolu maazaaa ajabtumul mursaleen
- Fa’amiyat ‘alaihimul ambaaa’u Yawma’izin fahum laa yatasaaa’aloon
- Fa ammaa man taaba wa aamana wa ‘amila saalihan fa’asaaa ai yakoona minal mufliheen
- Wa Rabbuka yakhuluqu maa yashaaa’u wa yakhtaar; maa kaana lahumul khiyarah; Subhannal laahi wa Ta’aalaa ‘ammmaa yushrikoon
- Wa Rabbuka ya’lamu maa tukinnu sudooruhum wa maa yu’linoon
- Wa Huwal laahu laaa ilaaha illaa Huwa lahul hamdu fil oolaa wal Aakhirati wa lahul hukmu wa ilaihi turja’oon
- Qul ara’aitum in ja’alal laahu ‘alaikumul laila sarmadan ilaa Yawmil Qiyaamati man ilaahun ghairul laahi yaa teekum bidiyaaa’in afalaa tasma’oon
- Qul ara’aitum in ja’alal laahu ‘alaikumun nahaara sarmadan ilaa Yawmil Qiyaamati man ilaahun ghairul laahi yaateekum bilailin taskunoona feehi afalaa tubsiroon
- Wa mir rahmatihee ja’ala lakumul laila wannahaara litaskunoo feehi wa litabtaghoo min fadlihee wa la’allakum tashkuroon
- Wa Yawma yunaadeehim fa yaqoolu aina shurakaaa’iyal lazeena kuntum tazz’umoon
- Wa naza’naa min kulli ummatin shaheedan faqulnaa haatoo burhaanakum fa’alimooo annal haqqa lillaahi wa dalla ‘anhum maa kaanoo yaftaroon (section 7)
- Inna Qaaroona kaana min qawmi Moosaa fabaghaaa ‘alaihim wa aatainaahu minal kunoozi maaa inna mafaati hahoo latanooo’u bil’usbati ulil quwwati iz qaala lahoo qawmuhoo laa tafrah innal laahaa laa yuhibbul fariheen
- Wabtaghi feemaaa aataakal laahud Daaral Aakhirata wa laa tansa naseebaka minad dunyaa wa ahsin kamaaa ahsanal laahu ilaika wa laa tabghil fasaada fil ardi innal laaha laa yuhibbul mufsideen
- Qaala innamaaa ootee tuhoo ‘alaa ‘ilmin ‘indeee; awalam ya’lam annal laaha qad ahlaka min qablihee minal qurooni man huwa ashaddu minhu quwwatanw wa aksaru jam’aa; wa laa yus’alu ‘an zunoobihimul mujrimoon
- Fakharaja ‘alaa qawmihee fee zeenatih; qaalal lazeena yureedoonal hayaatad dunyaa yaalaita lanaa misla maaa ootiya Qaaroonu innahoo lazoo hazzin ‘azeem
- Wa qaalal lazeena ootul ‘ilma wailakum sawaabul laahi khairul liman aamana wa ‘amila saalihaa; wa laa yulaq qaahaaa illas saabiroon
- Fakhasafnaa bihee wa bidaarihil arda famaa kaana lahoo min fi’atiny yansuroo nahoo min doonil laahi wa maa kaana minal muntasireen
- Wa asbahal lazeena tamannaw makaanahoo bil amsi yaqooloona waika annal laaha yabsutur rizqa limany ya shaaa’u min ‘ibaadihee wa yaqdiru law laaa am mannal laahu ‘alainaa lakhasafa binaa waika annahoo laa yuflihul kaafiroon (section 8)
- Tilkad Daarul Aakhiratu naj’aluhaa lillazeena laa yureedoona ‘uluwwan fil ardi wa laa fasaadaa; wal ‘aaqibatu lilmuttaqeen
- Man jaaa’a bilhasanati falahoo khairum minhaa wa man jaaa’a bissaiyi’ati falaa yujzal lazeena ‘amilus saiyiaati illaa maa kaanoo ya’maloon
- Innal lazee farada ‘alaikal Qur-aana laraaadduka ilaa ma’aad; qur Rabbeee a’lamu man jaaa’a bil hudaa wa man huwa fee dalaalim mubeen
- Wa maa kunta tarjooo ai yulqaaa ilaikal Kitaabu illaa rahmatan mir Rabbika falaa takoonanna zaheeral lil kaafireen
- Wa laa yasuddunnaka ‘an Aayaatil laahi ba’da iz unzilat ilaika wad’u ilaa Rabbika wa laa takoonanna minal mushrikeen
- Wa laa tad’u ma’al laahi ilaahan aakhar; laaa ilaaha illaa Hoo; kullu shai’in haalikun illaa Wajhah; lahul hukkmu wa ilaihi turja’oon (section 9)
Translation In English
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
- Sin. Mim.
- These are revelations of the Scripture that maketh plain.
- We narrate unto thee (somewhat) of the story of Moses and Pharaoh with truth, for folk who believe.
- Lo! Pharaoh exalted himself in the earth and made its people castes. A tribe among them he oppressed, killing their sons and sparing their women. Lo! he was of those who work corruption.
- And We desired to show favour unto those who were oppressed in the earth, and to make them examples and to make them the inheritors,
- And to establish them in the earth, and to show Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts that which they feared from them.
- And We inspired the mother of Moses, saying: Suckle him and, when thou fearest for him, then cast him into the river and fear not nor grieve. Lo! We shall bring him back unto thee and shall make him (one) of Our messengers.
- And the family of Pharaoh took him up, that he might become for them an enemy and a sorrow, Lo! Pharaoh and Haman and their hosts were ever sinning.
- And the wife of Pharaoh said: (He will be) a consolation for me and for thee. Kill him not. Peradventure he may be of use to us, or we may choose him for a son. And they perceived not.
- And the heart of the mother of Moses became void, and she would have betrayed him if We had not fortified her heart, that she might be of the believers.
- And she said unto his sister: Trace him. So she observed him from afar, and they perceived not.
- And We had before forbidden foster-mothers for him, so she said: Shall I show you a household who will rear him for you and take care of him?
- So We restored him to his mother that she might be comforted and not grieve, and that she might know that the promise of Allah is true. But most of them know not.
- And when he reached his full strength and was ripe, We gave him wisdom and knowledge. Thus do We reward the good.
- And he entered the city at a time of carelessness of its folk, and he found therein two men fighting, one of his own caste, and the other of his enemies; and he who was of his caste asked him for help against him who was of his enemies. So Moses struck him with his fist and killed him. He said: This is of the devil’s doing. Lo! he is an enemy, a mere misleader.
- He said: My Lord! Lo! I have wronged my soul, so forgive me. Then He forgave him. Lo! He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.
- He said: My Lord! Forasmuch as Thou hast favoured me, I will nevermore be a supporter of the guilty.
- And morning found him in the city, fearing, vigilant, when behold! he who had appealed to him the day before cried out to him for help. Moses said unto him: Lo! thou art indeed a mere hothead.
- And when he would have fallen upon the man who was an enemy unto them both, he said: O Moses! Wouldst thou kill me as thou didst kill a person yesterday. Thou wouldst be nothing but a tyrant in the land, thou wouldst not be of the reformers.
- And a man came from the uttermost part of the city, running. He said: O Moses! Lo! the chiefs take counsel against thee to slay thee; therefor escape. Lo! I am of those who give thee good advice.
- So he escaped from thence, fearing, vigilant. He said: My Lord! Deliver me from the wrongdoing folk.
- And when he turned his face toward Midian, he said: Peradventure my Lord will guide me in the right road.
- And when he came unto the water of Midian he found there a whole tribe of men, watering. And he found apart from them two women keeping back (their flocks). He said: What aileth you? The two said: We cannot give (our flocks) to drink till the shepherds return from the water; and our father is a very old man.
- So he watered (their flock) for them. Then he turned aside into the shade, and said: My Lord! I am needy of whatever good Thou sendest down for me.
- Then there came unto him one of the two women, walking shyly. She said: Lo! my father biddeth thee, that he may reward thee with a payment for that thou didst water (the flock) for us. Then, when he came unto him and told him the (whole) story, he said: Fear not! Thou hast escaped from the wrongdoing folk.
- One of the two women said: O my father! Hire him! For the best (man) that thou canst hire in the strong, the trustworthy.
- He said: Lo! I fain would marry thee to one of these two daughters of mine on condition that thou hirest thyself to me for (the term of) eight pilgrimages. Then if thou completest ten it will be of thine own accord, for I would not make it hard for thee. Allah willing, thou wilt find me of the righteous.
- He said: That (is settled) between thee and me. Whichever of the two terms I fulfil, there will be no injustice to me, and Allah is Surety over what we say.
- Then, when Moses had fulfilled the term, and was travelling with his housefolk, he saw in the distance a fire and said unto his housefolk: Bide ye (here). Lo! I see in the distance a fire; peradventure I shall bring you tidings thence, or a brand from the fire that ye may warm yourselves.
- And when he reached it, he was called from the right side of the valley in the blessed field, from the tree: O Moses! Lo! I, even I, am Allah, the Lord of the Worlds;
- Throw down thy staff. And when he saw it writhing as it had been a demon, he turned to flee headlong, (and it was said unto him): O Moses! Draw nigh and fear not. Lo! thou art of those who are secure.
- Thrust thy hand into the bosom of thy robe it will come forth white without hurt. And guard thy heart from fear. Then these shall be two proofs from your Lord unto Pharaoh and his chiefs. Lo! they are evil-living folk.
- He said: My Lord! Lo! I killed a man among them and I fear that they will kill me.
- My brother Aaron is more eloquent than me in speech. Therefor send him with me as a helper to confirm me. Lo! I fear that they will give the lie to me.
- He said: We will strengthen thine arm with thy brother, and We will give unto you both power so that they cannot reach you for Our portents. Ye twain, and those who follow you, will be the winners.
- But when Moses came unto them with Our clear tokens, they said: This is naught but invented magic. We never heard of this among our fathers of old.
- And Moses said: My Lord is Best Aware of him who bringeth guidance from His presence, and whose will be the sequel of the Home (of bliss). Lo! wrong-doers will not be successful.
- And Pharaoh said: O chiefs! I know not that ye have a god other than me, so kindle for me (a fire), O Haman, to bake the mud; and set up for me a lofty tower in order that I may survey the god of Moses; and lo! I deem him of the liars.
- And he and his hosts were haughty in the land without right, and deemed that they would never be brought back to Us.
- Therefor We seized him and his hosts, and abandoned them unto the sea. Behold the nature of the consequence for evil-doers!
- And We made them patterns that invite unto the Fire, and on the Day of Resurrection they will not be helped.
- And We made a curse to follow them in this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be among the hateful.
- And We verily gave the Scripture unto Moses after We had destroyed the generations of old: clear testimonies for mankind, and a guidance and a mercy, that haply they might reflect.
- And thou (Muhammad) wast not on the western side (of the Mount) when We expounded unto Moses the commandment, and thou wast not among those present;
- But We brought forth generations, and their lives dragged on for them. And thou wast not a dweller in Midian, reciting unto them Our revelations, but We kept sending (messengers to men).
- And thou was not beside the Mount when We did call; but (the knowledge of it is) a mercy from thy Lord that thou mayst warn a folk unto whom no warner came before thee, that haply they may give heed.
- Otherwise, if disaster should afflict them because of that which their own hands have sent before (them), they might say: Our Lord! Why sentest Thou no messenger unto us, that we might have followed Thy revelations and been of the believers?
- But when there came unto them the Truth from Our presence, they said: Why is he not given the like of what was given unto Moses? Did they not disbelieve in that which was given unto Moses of old? They say: Two magics that support each other; and they say: Lo! in both we are disbelievers.
- Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Then bring a scripture from the presence of Allah that giveth clearer guidance than these two (that) I may follow it, if ye are truthful.
- And if they answer thee not, then know that what they follow is their lusts. And who goeth farther astray than he who followeth his lust without guidance from Allah. Lo! Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk.
- And now verily We have caused the Word to reach them, that haply they may give heed.
- Those unto whom We gave the Scripture before it, they believe in it,
- And when it is recited unto them, they say: We believe in it. Lo! it is the Truth from our Lord. Lo! even before it we were of those who surrender (unto Him).
- These will be given their reward twice over, because they are steadfast and repel evil with good, and spend of that wherewith We have provided them,
- And when they hear vanity they withdraw from it and say: Unto us our works and unto you your works. Peace be unto you! We desire not the ignorant.
- Lo! thou ( O Muhammad) guidest not whom thou lovest, but Allah guideth whom He will. And He is Best Aware of those who walk aright.
- And they say: If we were to follow the Guidance with thee we should be torn out of our land. Have We not established for them a sure sanctuary, whereunto the produce of all things is brought (in trade), a provision from Our presence? But most of them know not.
- And how many a community have We destroyed that was thankless for its means of livelihood! And yonder are their dwellings, which have not been inhabited after them save a little. And We, even We, were the inheritors.
- And never did thy Lord destroy the townships, till He had raised up in their mother (-town) a messenger reciting unto them Our revelations. And never did We destroy the townships unless the folk thereof were evil-doers.
- And whatsoever ye have been given is a comfort of the life of the world and an ornament thereof; and that which Allah hath is better and more lasting. Have ye then no sense?
- Is he whom We have promised a fair promise which he will find (true) like him whom We suffer to enjoy awhile the comfort of the life of the world, then on the Day of Resurrection he will be of those arraigned?
- On the day when He will call unto them and say: Where are My partners whom ye imagined?
- Those concerning whom the Word will have come true will say: Our Lord! These are they whom we led astray. We led them astray even as we ourselves were astray. We declare our innocence before Thee: us they never worshipped.
- And it will be said: Cry unto your (so-called) partners (of Allah). And they will cry unto them, and they will give no answer unto them, and they will see the Doom. Ah, if they had but been guided!
- And on the Day when He will call unto them and say: What answer gave ye to the messengers?
- On that day (all) tidings will be dimmed for them, nor will they ask one of another,
- But as for him who shall repent and believe and do right, he haply may be one of the successful.
- Thy Lord bringeth to pass what He willeth and chooseth. They have never any choice. Glorified be Allah and Exalted above all that they associate (with Him) !
- And thy Lord knoweth what their breasts conceal, and what they publish.
- And He is Allah; there is no Allah save Him. His is all praise in the former and the latter (state), and His is the command, and unto Him ye will be brought back.
- Say: Have ye thought, if Allah made night everlasting for you till the Day of Resurrection, who is a god beside Allah who could bring you light? Will ye not then hear?
- Say: Have ye thought, if Allah made day everlasting for you till the Day of Resurrection, who is a god beside Allah who could bring you night wherein ye rest? Will ye not then see?
- Of His mercy hath He appointed for you night and day, that therein ye may rest, and that ye may seek His bounty, and that haply ye may be thankful.
- And on the Day when He shall call unto them and say: Where are My partners whom ye pretended?
- And We shall take out from every nation a witness and We shall say: Bring your proof. Then they will know that Allah hath the Truth, and all that they invented will have failed them.
- Now Korah was of Moses’ folk, but he oppressed them; and We gave him so much treasure that the stores thereof would verily have been a burden for a troop of mighty men. When his own folk said unto him: Exult not; lo! Allah loveth not the exultant;
- But seek the abode of the Hereafter in that which Allah hath given thee and neglect not thy portion of the world, and be thou kind even as Allah hath been kind to thee, and seek not corruption in the earth; lo! Allah loveth not corrupters,
- He said: I have been given it only on account of knowledge I possess. Knew he not that Allah had destroyed already of the generations before him men who were mightier than him in strength and greater in respect of following? The guilty are not questioned of their sins.
- Then went he forth before his people in his pomp. Those who were desirous of the life of the world said: Ah, would that we had the like of what hath been given unto Korah! Lo! he is lord of rare good fortune.
- But those who had been given knowledge said: Woe unto you! The reward of Allah for him who believeth and doeth right is better, and only the steadfast will obtain it.
- So We caused the earth to swallow him and his dwelling-place. Then he had no host to help him against Allah, nor was he of those who can save themselves.
- And morning found those who had coveted his place but yesterday crying: Ah, welladay! Allah enlargeth the provision for whom He will of His slaves and straiteneth it (for whom He will). If Allah had not been gracious unto us He would have caused it to swallow us (also). Ah, welladay! the disbelievers never prosper.
- As for that Abode of the Hereafter We assign it unto those who seek not oppression in the earth, nor yet corruption. The sequel is for those who ward off (evil).
- Whoso bringeth a good deed, he will have better than the same; while as for him who bringeth an ill-deed, those who do ill-deeds will be requited only what they did.
- Lo! He Who hath given thee the Qur’an for a law will surely bring thee home again. Say: My Lord is Best Aware of him who bringeth guidance and him who is in error manifest.
- Thou hadst no hope that the Scripture would be inspired in thee; but it is a mercy from thy Lord, so never be a helper to the disbelievers.
- And let them not divert thee from the revelations of Allah after they have been sent down unto thee; but call (mankind) unto thy Lord, and be not of those who ascribe partners (unto Him).
- And cry not unto any other god along with Allah. There is no Allah save Him. Everything will perish save His countenance. His is the command, and unto Him ye will be brought back.
From Holy Quran Translation by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall]
تِلْكَ اٰيٰتُ الْكِتٰبِ الْمُبِيْنِ
Surah Al-Qasas is the very last among the Makki Surahs. It was revealed between Makkah and Juhfah (Rabigh) during the migration. It is mentioned in some narrations that during the journey from Makkah to Madinah when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) reached near Juhfah or Rabigh, Jibra’il (عليه السلام) came to him and enquired whether he was feeling home sick, as he was leaving the place where he was born and spent all his life. To this the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) replied in the affirmative. Then Jibra’il (عليه السلام) recited this Surah and gave him the good tiding that ultimately Makkah will fall to him and come under his control. The related verse is as follows:
إِنَّ الَّذِي فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لَرَادُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ
Surely the one who has enjoined the Qura’n upon you will surely bring you back to the place of return – 28:85
Surah Al-Qasas begins with the story of Sayyidna Musa first briefly then in detail. Firs- half of the Surah contains Sayyidna Musa’s (عليه السلام) episodes with the Pharaoh, and towards the end of the Surah his episode with Qarun is related.
The story of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) is related extensively in the Qur’ an, at places briefly while at others in detail. In Surah Al-Kahf (Cave) that part of the story is related in which he encountered Al-Al-khadir (عليه السلام) . Then, in Surah Taha other parts of the story are related in some detail, while some details are related in Surah An-Naml. Now, in Surah Al-Qasas they are being reiterated. In Surah Taha where Allah Ta` ala has said about Musa (عليه السلام) فَتَنَّاكَ فُتُونًا (And We tested you with a great ordeal – 20:40). Imam Nasa’i and some other commentators have penned down the entire story at that point. The writer has followed suit, and by quoting Ibn Kathir has written the whole story under Surah Taha. All the relevant parts of the story, it’s related important issues, and rulings have been discussed in detail under Surahs al-Kahf and Taha. For any reference of an issue or ruling it would be apt to look up there. Now in this Surah commentary will be restricted to brief explanation of the wordings of these verses.
وَنُرِيْدُ اَنْ نَّمُنَّ عَلَي الَّذِيْنَ اسْتُضْعِفُوْا فِي الْاَرْضِ وَنَجْعَلَهُمْ اَىِٕمَّةً وَّنَجْعَلَهُمُ الْوٰرِثِيْنَ
وَنُرِيدُ أَن نَّمُنَّ عَلَى الَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَنَجْعَلَهُمْ أَئِمَّةً (رض) (And We intended to favour those who were held as weak in the land and to make them leaders – 28:5). In this verse it is emphasized that the plan of the Pharaoh was not equal to that of the divine fate, rather it turned out to be completely ineffective and he and his entire courtiers were befooled. On the basis of the dream and it’s interpretation about an Isra’ili boy from whom the life of the Pharaoh was at risk, and because of which hundreds of newly born Isra’ili male issues were put to death on their birth, it so turned out that Allah Ta` ala made that very boy to grow up in his own house. Not only that, but for the solace of his mother it was arranged to send him back to her for nursing in a most astonishing manner. On top of that the Pharaoh was made to pay a service charge for nursing, which according to some narrations was one Dinar a day. Since this service charge was taken from an infidel with his consent, hence there is no confusion about its admissibility. The cruelty he had perpetrated to quell the risk was of no avail to him, because that very danger was ultimately made to rear in his own home, and ultimately erupted like lava. This way the dream came true, and he saw that happening with his own eyes. The verse وَنُرِيَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَهَامَانَ وَجُنُودَهُمَا مِنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَحْذَرُونَ and to make the Pharaoh and Haman and their armies see [ that ] what they were fearing from (had actually happened – 28:6) describes this only.
وَلَمَّا بَلَغَ اَشُدَّهٗ وَاسْتَوٰٓى اٰتَيْنٰهُ حُكْمًا وَّعِلْمًا ۭ وَكَذٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِيْنَ
وَلَمَّا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَاسْتَوَىٰ (And when he reached his maturity and became perfect – 28:14). The literal meaning of ‘ashudd (أَشُدَّ ) is to attain the peak of strength or intensity. For instance a person gradually develops from the position of juvenile weakness to the strength of adulthood. A time comes when he has attained full strength and vigour that he could achieve. That point in life is called أَشُدَّ ‘ashudd. In different parts of the world and for different people this point in life varies according to climate, character of the land, race etc. Some people attain it early while others take time. ` Abd Ibn Humaid has reported that Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas and Mujahid have placed the age of ‘ashudd as 33rd year of one’s life. This is called the age of perfection or the age of discernment, when the development of body stops after reaching its peak. After this age a period of hold commences, which lasts until the age of forty. This period is mentioned in the verse as اسْتَوَىٰ Istawa (translated above as became perfect). After the age of forty years the decline and weakness sets in. Hence, it can be said that ‘ashudd (أَشُدَّ ) of a person starts from the age of 33 years and lasts through 40 years. (Ruh, Qurtubi).
آتَيْنَاهُ حُكْمًا وَعِلْمًا (We gave him wisdom and knowledge – 28:14) The word (حُکُم) lukm (translated above as ‘wisdom’ ) is used here for prophethood, and the word ‘knowledge’ refers to the knowledge of divine injunctions.
وَدَخَلَ الْمَدِينَةَ عَلَىٰ حِينِ غَفْلَةٍ مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا (And he entered the city at a time of unawareness of its people – 15). Most commentators have interpreted that the word ‘city’ is used here for the main city of Egypt. The words ‘he entered’ indicate that Musa (عليه السلام) ، had gone away somewhere out of Egypt. Then he entered back at a time when people normally sleep. It is also mentioned in the incident of killing of the ‘Qibti’ that it was the time when Musa (عليه السلام) had already announced his prophethood and had started preaching the religion of truth. As a result of his preaching some people had converted, and were known as his disciples. The word مِن شِيعَتِهِ (from his group – 28:15) is a proof of that. All these versions give credence to the narration which is quoted by Ibn Ishaque and Ibn Zaid that when Musa (عليه السلام) had started talking to the people about the religion of truth, the Pharaoh turned against him and wanted to kill him. But on the appeal of his wife, Sayyidah ‘Asiyah, he restrained himself, and instead commanded him to go in exile. After that Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) shifted to some hiding place and would come to the city of Egypt occasionally in hiding. Most commentators are of the opinion that by عَلَىٰ حِينِ غَفْلَةٍ مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا (28:15) the time of afternoon is meant, when people generally take a siesta. (Qurtubi)
فَوَكَزَهُ مُوسَىٰ (So Musa struck him with his fist). Wakaza (وَكَزَ ) means to box فَقَضَىٰ عَلَيْهِ (28:15). The phrase of Qadahu (قَضَاہ) and Qada ‘Alaihi (فَقَضَىٰ عَلَيْهِ ) is used when one is totally finished. Hence, here it means that he killed him. (Mazhari)
قَالَ رَبِّ اِنِّىْ ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِيْ فَاغْفِرْ لِيْ فَغَفَرَ لَهٗ ۭ اِنَّهٗ هُوَ الْغَفُوْرُ الرَّحِيْمُ
قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي فَاغْفِرْ لِي فَغَفَرَ لَهُ (He said, “0 my Lord, I have wronged myself, so forgive me.” So he forgave him – 28:16). The gist of this verse is that Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) regarded the killing of the infidel Qibti as a sin, despite the fact that it had happened without any intention on his part, because it was in conflict with his status of prophethood, and thus below his dignity. So, he begged Allah’s pardon for the act, which was duly granted.
The first question that arises here is that this Qibti was an infidel combatant (harbi) in the religious term. Hence, his killing was permissible and preferable, because he was neither a dhimmi (ذِمِّی), i.e the citizen of an Islamic state nor under any covenant with Musa (عليه السلام) . Then why did Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) regarded it a sin and an act of Shaitan? His killing should have been regarded as an act worth the reward, because the Qibti was harming a Muslim unjustly, and got killed in the process when Musa (عليه السلام) tried to save the life of the Muslim. The answer to this question is that covenants of peace are sometimes written or spoken in express words, and sometimes they come into effect by consistent practice of the parties that amounts to an implied agreement and is as good as a written covenant. Violation of the covenants of this type is also prohibited in Islam.
The covenant established by practice can be understood by the example that if in a non-Islamic state Muslims and non-Muslims are living in harmony and there is no conflict between them, and any pillage or fighting with each other is regarded as treachery, then this consistent practice of co-existence would be regarded as an implied agreement for peaceful living, and its violation is not allowed. The proof of this principle can be found in a lengthy hadith of Sayyidna Mughirah Ibn Shu’bah that has been reported by Imam Bukhari in his book in the chapter entitled as kitab Ash-Shurut. The hadith runs like this: Sayyidna Mughirah Ibn Shu` bah* had good relations with a group of infidels before the advent of Islam, and later he killed them and took possession of all their wealth. Then he went to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) I and submitted to Islam, and presented all that wealth to him. On this action the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said to him أمّا الإسلام فأقبل وأم المال فلست منہ في شٰٔی (As far as your embracing Islam is concerned, I accept it, but I have nothing to do with this wealth ) Abu Dawud has quoted this hadith like this: امّا المال فمال غدر لا حاجۃ لنا فیہ (As for wealth, we have no concern with it).
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) declared in this hadith that he accepted his submission to Islam, but this wealth has been snatched by breach of trust and was a treachery, hence he did not have any desire for this wealth. Hafiz Ibn Hajar has observed in his commentary that this hadith has laid down the principle that grabbing of wealth of the infidels during peacetime is not permissible. It is for the simple reason that people living together in a city or township or those who work together regard themselves secured from each other. The agreement established through their practice is like a trust, which must be honoured by each and every person, no matter whether he is a Muslim or an infidel. The property of infidels permitted for possession by the Muslims is only that which is acquired during a war with them. It is not permitted to grab the wealth of infidels during peacetime, when one feels secured from one another. Qastalani has observed in his commentary on Bukhari as follows:
لأن أموال المشركين وإن كانت مغنومة عند القهر فلا يحلّ أخذها عند الأمن، فإذا كان الإنسان مصاحبًا لهم فقد أمّن كل واحد منهما صاحبه فسفك الدماء وأخذ الأموال عند ذلك غدر والغدر بالكفار وغيرهم محظور وإنما تحل أموالهم بالمحاربة والمغالبة ولعله -صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ- ترك المال في يده لإمكان أن يسلم قومه فيردّ إليهم أموالهم. شرح القسطلاني = إرشاد الساري لشرح صحيح البخاري (4/ 447)
` No doubt the wealth of infidels is permitted (to take possession) during war or jihad, but in peacetime it is not lawful. Therefore, any Muslim living and socializing with infidels in the manner that they are safe and secure for each other, for him it is unlawful to slay them, or forcefully grab their wealth, unless the peace agreement established through practice is abrogated through an announcement’.
The gist of the discussion is that if the Qibti would have been killed with preconceived resolve in the presence of an implied peace agreement, it would not have been lawful. But Musa did not have the intention of killing the Qibti. He only hit him with his bare hands to save the Isra’illi from his grip. In the normal course, it should not have been fatal, but he died all the same by that blow. Then Musa ~JI realized that a lighter blow would also have done the job of getting rid of him. Realizing that harder blow was not needed, he repented and invoked Allah’s mercy.
The above principle was explained to me by Sayyidi Maulana Ashraf Thanivi (رح) when I was writing the commentary of Surah Al-Qasas in Ahkamul-Qur’an, the Arabic commentary written under his supervision. It is the last academic discourse of Sayyidi from which I have benefited, as he had completed this work on Rajab 2, 1362 A.H, and after that his sickness intensified and on Rajab 16, 1362, he passed away. إِنَّا لِلَّـهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ
Some commentators have observed that although killing of the Qibti was permissible, but prophets take extra care in special cases even in performing permissible acts and avoid them, unless they receive a cue from Allah Ta` ala. On this occasion Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) did not wait for the permission from Allah Ta’ ala and acted on his own. Therefore, in view of his status as a prophet, he maintained that it was a sin on his part, and hence, invoked Allah’s pardon. (Ruh)
قَالَ رَبِّ بِمَآ اَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ فَلَنْ اَكُوْنَ ظَهِيْرًا لِّلْمُجْرِمِيْنَ
قَالَ رَبِّ بِمَا أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ فَلَنْ أَكُونَ ظَهِيرًا لِّلْمُجْرِمِينَ (He [ Musa ] said, “0 my Lord, since You have favoured me, I will never be a supporter to the sinners.” -28:17). When Allah Ta’ ala pardoned this slip of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) he said in gratitude to Allah Ta` ala that he would never again help a criminal. The second incident of the quarrel had proved that the Isra’ili in whose defense Musa (عليه السلام) had involved himself in the brawl was quarrelsome. Therefore, by declaring him a criminal he vowed not to help such a person again. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) while explaining this verse, has maintained that the word ‘criminals’ stands here for infidels. Qatadah has also interpreted the verse in almost the same way. On the basis of these commentaries it seems that actually the Isra’ili, whom Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) had defended, was not a Muslim but he helped him considering that he was an oppressed person.
It is worth noting here that this saying of Musa (عليه السلام) has established two rulings about two issues. One, that even if an oppressed person is a sinner or infidel, he should be helped. The second ruling is that it is not permitted to help any criminal or oppressor. Scholars have argued on the basis of this verse that working in the employment of cruel rulers is also not permitted, for they too would be regarded as their associates. Many citations from the righteous salaf (elders) have also been quoted in support of this argument. (Ruh u1-Ma’ ani) To provide support to the oppressors or to the infidels may take different forms. The different rulings about these forms are laid down in the books of fiqh in detail. This humble writer has also dealt with the subject in his Arabic book Ahkamul-Qur’an with greater elaboration. The scholars interested in the subject may consult it.
وَلَمَّا تَوَجَّهَ تِلْقَاۗءَ مَدْيَنَ قَالَ عَسٰى رَبِّيْٓ اَنْ يَّهْدِيَنِيْ سَوَاۗءَ السَّبِيْلِ
وَلَمَّا تَوَجَّهَ تِلْقَاءَ مَدْيَنَ (And when he set out towards Madyan – 28:22). Madyan (مَدْيَنَ ) is the name of a city in Sham (a large territory now consisting of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine) which was named after Madyan, the son of Ibrahim (عليه السلام) . This area was outside the empire of the Pharaoh. It was eight days journey from Egypt. When Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) was taken over by the natural fright of the pursuing army of the Pharaoh, which was not in conflict either with the prophethood or with trust in Allah, he resolved to leave Egypt. Perhaps he decided to proceed toward Madyan because it was a habitation of the descendants of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) and he was also his progeny.
When Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) left Egypt, he was in a condition that he had neither any provisions for the journey nor any baggage, and also he did not know the route. In this state of helplessness he turned to Allah Ta` ala and asked عَسَىٰ رَبِّي أَن يَهْدِيَنِي سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ (I hope my Lord will guide me to the straight path – 28:22), Allah Ta` ala accepted this prayer. Scholars have observed that the only food Musa عليه السلام had during this journey was the leaves of trees. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has said that this was the first trial and test of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) . Details of trials and tests of Musa (عليه السلام) have already been described under Surah Taha while quoting a lengthy hadith.
وَلَمَّا وَرَدَ مَاۗءَ مَدْيَنَ وَجَدَ عَلَيْهِ اُمَّةً مِّنَ النَّاسِ يَسْقُوْنَ ۋ وَوَجَدَ مِنْ دُوْنِهِمُ امْرَاَتَيْنِ تَذُوْدٰنِ ۚ قَالَ مَا خَطْبُكُمَا ۭ قَالَتَا لَا نَسْقِيْ حَتّٰى يُصْدِرَ الرِّعَاۗءُ ۫ وَاَبُوْنَا شَيْخٌ كَبِيْرٌ
(And when he arrived at the waters of Madyan, he found a large number of people watering (their animals) – 28:23) مَاءَ مَدْيَنَ (waters of Madyan) refers to the well from where people of that place used to make their animals drink water. وَوَجَدَ مِن دُونِهِمُ امْرَأَتَيْنِ تَذُودَانِ (found, aloof from them, two women keeping back (their animals) – 23). That is he saw two girls stopping their goats from going to the water, so that they did not get mixed up with other goats.
قَالَ مَا خَطْبُكُمَا ۖ قَالَتَا لَا نَسْقِي حَتَّىٰ يُصْدِرَ الرِّعَاءُ ۖ وَأَبُونَا شَيْخٌ كَبِيرٌ (He said, “What is the matter with you?” They said, “We cannot water (our animals) unless the shepherds bring (their animals) back and our father is very old man.” -28:23). The word خَطب Khatb means “matter”. The sense is that Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) asked the two girls ` What was it that you are stopping your goats from coming to the well for drinking water like other goats? The two girls answered that, in order to avoid mixing with men-folk, they used to make their goats wait until men had left the place after watering their animals. The question arose here whether they did not have any male member in the family to do this job . The girls answered this question on their own by saying that their father was very old and could not perform this job. This is why they were doing the job.
Some very important points are learnt by this incident. One, that it was the practice of the prophets to help the weak. Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) saw that two girls had brought their goats for drinking water, but they were unable to find room because of the rush of people. Therefore, he asked them about their problem. Two, that there is no harm to talk to stranger women, if no mischief is involved. Three, that although this incident had happened when hijab was not enjoined, a situation that continued even in the early days of Islam (hijab was enjoined in Madinah after the Hijrah), but the underlying spirit of hijab, i.e the natural instinct of modesty and bashfulness, was there even in those days. Because of this natural instinct the two girls preferred hardship rather than getting mixed with men-folk. Four, that it was not considered desirable for women even in those days to go out and perform such type of duties. It was for this reason that they put forward the justification that their father was very old and weak.
فَسَقٰى لَهُمَا ثُمَّ تَوَلّيٰٓ اِلَى الظِّلِّ فَقَالَ رَبِّ اِنِّىْ لِمَآ اَنْزَلْتَ اِلَيَّ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَقِيْرٌ
وَلَمَّا وَرَدَ مَاءَ مَدْيَنَ وَجَدَ عَلَيْهِ أُمَّةً مِّنَ النَّاسِ يَسْقُونَ فَسَقَىٰ لَهُمَا (So he (Musa) watered (their animal) for their sake – 28:24). That is Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) took pity on the girls and drew out ‘water from the well and satiated their goats. It is reported in some narrations that the shepherds after making their cattle drink water used to place a very heavy stone on the mouth of the well to make it unusable, and hence these girls would have only the left over water for their herd. The stone was so heavy that ten men together could move it, but Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) removed it all by himself, and drew water from the well. Perhaps for this reason one of the two girls reported to her father that Sayyidna Musa was very strong. (Qurtubi)
ثُمَّ تَوَلَّىٰ إِلَى الظِّلِّ فَقَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي لِمَا أَنزَلْتَ إِلَيَّ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَقِيرٌ (Then he turned to a shade and said, “0 my Lord, I am in need of whatever good you send down to me.” – 28:24). Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) did not have any food for the last seven days. He came under the shade of a tree and prayed to Allah describing his condition and need in an exquisite manner. The word Khair is sometimes used for wealth as in the case of إِن تَرَكَ خَيْرًا الْوَصِيَّةُ (he leaves some wealth – 2:180). Sometimes it is used for strength like أَهُمْ خَيْرٌ أَمْ قَوْمُ تُبَّعٍ they better, or the people of Tubba – 44:37) and sometimes for food as in the verse under reference. (Qurtubi)
فَجَاۗءَتْهُ اِحْدٰىهُمَا تَمْشِيْ عَلَي اسْـتِحْيَاۗءٍ ۡ قَالَتْ اِنَّ اَبِيْ يَدْعُوْكَ لِيَجْزِيَكَ اَجْرَ مَا سَقَيْتَ لَنَا ۭ فَلَمَّا جَاۗءَهٗ وَقَصَّ عَلَيْهِ الْقَصَصَ ۙ قَالَ لَا تَخَفْ ڣ نَجَوْتَ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظّٰلِمِيْنَ
فَجَاءَتْهُ إِحْدَاهُمَا تَمْشِي عَلَى اسْتِحْيَاءٍ (Then one of the two women came to him walking with shyness. – 28:25). In accordance with Qur’anic practice the story has been summarized here. The full story runs like this: When the two girls reached home earlier than usual, their father enquired the reason for that. So they related to him the whole incident. Their father thought that he should make up for the favour Musa (عليه السلام) had done to his daughters. Hence he asked one of his daughters to bring him with her. She went to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) and talked to him with an element of modesty. This shows that despite the fact that hijab was not enjoined by then, good women would not talk to men freely. She went to him with a need, so she talked with shyness. Some commentators have given the detail of her shyness that while talking she had raised her sleeve up to her face. The narrations as related in commentaries say that Musa (عليه السلام) had asked her to walk behind him and guide him from the back. The objective was that he could not cast his eye on her. Perhaps for this reason she told her father about him to be trustworthy.
Who was the father of these two girls? Commentators have different views on this subject. But Qur’anic verses allude that he was Sayyidna Shu` aib (عليه السلام) (7:85). (Qurtubi)
إِنَّ أَبِي يَدْعُوكَ (My father is calling you – 28:25). It was possible at that time that the girl would have invited him on her own, but she did not do so. Instead, she conveyed her father’s message to him, because it was against the modesty for a girl to invite a stranger at home.
إِنَّ خَيْرَ مَنِ اسْتَأْجَرْتَ الْقَوِيُّ الْأَمِينُ (The best man you hire is the one who is strong, trustworthy – 28:26), One of the daughters of Sayyidna Shu’aib (عليه السلام) pleaded to her father that as he needed the services of a man to help him in his. daily work at home, he might consider hiring him for this purpose. In support of her suggestion she said further that two qualities are required in a servant. One, that he should be strong, and the second, that he should be trustworthy. The girl pointed out that she had seen his strength when he removed the stone from the mouth of the well, and his integrity when he made her walk behind him.
قَالَ اِنِّىْٓ اُرِيْدُ اَنْ اُنْكِحَكَ اِحْدَى ابْنَـتَيَّ هٰتَيْنِ عَلٰٓي اَنْ تَاْجُرَنِيْ ثَمٰـنِيَ حِجَجٍ ۚ فَاِنْ اَتْمَمْتَ عَشْرًا فَمِنْ عِنْدِكَ ۚ وَمَآ اُرِيْدُ اَنْ اَشُقَّ عَلَيْكَ ۭ سَتَجِدُنِيْٓ اِنْ شَاۗءَ اللّٰهُ مِنَ الصّٰلِحِيْنَ
Two important conditions for hiring a person, and assigning a job
Allah Ta` ala made the daughter of Sayyidna Shu’aib (عليه السلام) say something of great wisdom. In the present set up of employment, great emphasis is laid at the time of interviews on scrutinizing the degrees and experience of a candidate, but no attention is paid to ascertain his integrity and trustworthiness. As a result of this, there is neither efficiency nor honesty of purpose in the offices. On the contrary bribery and nepotism are so common that there seems to be no law in operation. If people could pay heed to this Qur’anic verse, many a problems would be solved automatically.
قَالَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُنكِحَكَ إِحْدَى ابْنَتَيَّ هَاتَيْنِ (He (the father) said (to Musa), “I wish to marry one of these two daughters of mine to you on the condition that you serve me for eight years. – 28:27). Sayyidna Shu’aib (عليه السلام) made the proposal of marriage of his daughter to Musa (عليه السلام) on his own. It shows that the guardian of girls need not wait for the proposal to come from the boy’s side. If a suitable good match is available, the girl’s guardian may take the lead, for this has been the practice of the prophets. To quote an example, Sayyidna ` Umar Ibn Khattab (رض) had offered his daughter, Sayyidnh Hafsah (رض) for marriage to Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) and to Sayyidna ` Uthman (رض) when she became widow. (Qurtubi)
إِحْدَى ابْنَتَيَّ هَاتَيْنِ (one of these daughters of mine 28:27). Sayyidna Shu’aib (عليه السلام) did not make the selection of one or the other girl for the proposal of marriage, rather he kept it vague. It was not the formal nikah, that requires offer and acceptance in presence of two witnesses, but only a discussion to have his consent to work for eight years in lieu of marriage with a girl. Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) agreed to the proposal, and got married to one of the girls. The Holy Qur’an does not describe every detail of a story, the happening of which is obvious from the context. Therefore, it cannot be doubted here that without pinpointing the bride and without the presence of witnesses how the nikah was solemnized. (Ruh, Bayan ul Qur’ an)
عَلَىٰ أَن تَأْجُرَنِي ثَمَانِيَ حِجَجٍ (on the condition that you serve me for eight years – 28:27). Eight years service and employment was regarded the mahr (dower) (the dower) of marriage. Scholars have different points of view on the issue, whether a service rendered to one’s wife can be taken as a valid mahr (dower) or not. The subject is dealt with in detail in Ahkamul-Qur’an in Arabic language, under Surah Al-Qasas. Those who are interested can study the details there. For the common man it is enough to understand that if it is not allowed in the Muhammadi law, it might have been permitted in the code of law followed by Shu’aib (عليه السلام) . It is not uncommon to have minor differences in the laws (Shari’ ah) brought by various prophets.
Imam Abu Hanifah (رح) has ruled in his Zahir-ur-Riwayah that the service rendered for one’s wife cannot be considered as a valid mahr (dower). But in a later ruling by the scholars it is elaborated that though it is against the honour and dignity of husband to serve his wife in lieu of mahr (dower), but any duty performed outside the house, such as grazing of cattle or trading, can be made a substitute for it, provided a time frame is agreed upon before hand, as was in the case of Sayyidna Musa, where the parties had agreed before hand on eight years period of service. The reason is that the remuneration of the husband payable by his wife in this case will be treated as mahr (dower). (Bada` i’, from Nawadir Ibn Sama` ah).
Another question that arises here is that the mahr (dower) is the right of wife, and if it is paid to her father or any other relative without her consent, it will be taken as not paid. In this incident the words أَن تَأْجُرَنِي are a proof enough that Shu’aib (عليه السلام) had hired him for his duty. So, the benefit of service went to him. In that situation how could this be regarded as mahr (dower) of the wife? The answer to this question is that it is quite probable that the herd of goats was the property of the girls, and therefore, the benefit of service went to his wife. Alternatively, if the goats belonged to the father and the wages were due from him, then the money of the wages payable by the father belonged to the wife, as her mahr (dower). It is lawful for a father to spend the money of his daughter with her permission. It is quite obvious that this whole deal was carried out with the consent of the girl.
The word أُنكِحَكَ (I wish to marry…with you) has proved that the father had arranged the nikah. Jurists are unanimous that it should be done as such. It is the father’s duty and privilege to make arrangements of daughter’s marriage. A girl should not arrange her own marriage. But there is difference of opinion between jurists on the issue whether the nikah is lawful or not, if a girl arranges her own marriage due to some need or pressure. Imam Abu Hanifah (رح) has ruled that it is lawful. However, this verse is silent on the issue.
فَلَمَّا قَضٰى مُوْسَى الْاَجَلَ وَسَارَ بِاَهْلِهٖٓ اٰنَسَ مِنْ جَانِبِ الطُّوْرِ نَارًا ۚ قَالَ لِاَهْلِهِ امْكُثُوْٓا اِنِّىْٓ اٰنَسْتُ نَارًا لَّعَلِّيْٓ اٰتِيْكُمْ مِّنْهَا بِخَبَرٍ اَوْ جَذْوَةٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَصْطَلُوْنَ
فَلَمَّا قَضَىٰ مُوسَى الْأَجَلَ (So When Musa (عليه السلام) completed the term – 28:29). Then Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) completed his term of service, which was eight years compulsory and two years optional. A question arises here, whether he completed eight years of service or ten years. Sahih al-Bukhari has reported that when this question was put to Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، he answered ten years, and added that prophets always fulfill their commitments, rather they do more than what they agree to. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was also in the habit of giving more than due to the one having a right. He has also advised the Ummah to be selfless and considerate in the matters of employment, wages, and business dealings.
فَلَمَّآ اَتٰىهَا نُوْدِيَ مِنْ شَا۸ الْوَادِ الْاَيْمَنِ فِي الْبُقْعَةِ الْمُبٰرَكَةِ مِنَ الشَّجَرَةِ اَنْ يّٰمُـوْسٰٓي اِنِّىْٓ اَنَا اللّٰهُ رَبُّ الْعٰلَمِيْنَ
نُودِيَ مِن شَاطِئِ الْوَادِ الْأَيْمَنِ فِي الْبُقْعَةِ الْمُبَارَكَةِ مِنَ الشَّجَرَةِ أَن يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنِّي أَنَا اللَّـهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ He was called by a voice coming from a side of the right valley in the blessed ground, from the tree, saying” 0 Musa, I am Allah, the Lord of the worlds” – 28:30). This subject was also mentioned in Surahs Taha and An-Naml in the story of Musa (عليه السلام) . In Surah Taha it is said إِنِّي أَنَا رَبُّكَ (it is Me your Lord – 20:12) and in Surah An-Naml نُودِيَ أَن بُورِكَ مَن فِي النَّارِ (So when he came to it, he was called: “Blessed is the one who is in the fire – 27:8), while in the present Surah (Al-Qasas) it appears as إِنِّي أَنَا اللَّـهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ (I am Allah the Lord of the worlds – 28:30). Although the wordings are slightly different here, yet the meanings are almost the same. The incident is related in the words which suited to the situation being described. (کَذا قال الامام). The refulgence that Sayyidna Masa (عليه السلام) had seen in the form of fire was only in the form of an example (mithali), because it is impossible for a worldly being to see the actual refulgence of Allah Ta` ala. Masa (عليه السلام) is called لَن تَرَانِي (7:143) (You will never see Me) in respect of actual refulgence.
The place also becomes auspicious if righteous deeds are performed there
فِي الْبُقْعَةِ الْمُبَارَكَةِ (In the blessed ground – 28:30). The Holy Qur’an has termed the mount Tur as blessed ground. It is obvious that the reason of its being auspicious is the refulgence of Allah Ta` ala, which was manifested at that spot in the form of fire. It proves that if something virtuous happens at a place, that particular spot also turns auspicious.
وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يٰٓاَيُّهَا الْمَلَاُ مَا عَلِمْتُ لَكُمْ مِّنْ اِلٰهٍ غَيْرِيْ ۚ فَاَوْقِدْ لِيْ يٰهَامٰنُ عَلَي الطِّيْنِ فَاجْعَلْ لِّيْ صَرْحًا لَّعَلِّيْٓ اَطَّلِــعُ اِلٰٓى اِلٰهِ مُوْسٰي ۙ وَاِنِّىْ لَاَظُنُّهٗ مِنَ الْكٰذِبِيْنَ
فَأَوْقِدْ لِي يَا هَامَانُ عَلَى الطِّينِ (So kindle for me, 0 Haman, a fire on the clay (to bake bricks) – 28:38). When the Pharaoh planned to build a very tall palace for himself, he asked his minister Haman to get the bricks baked properly first, because half baked bricks could not take the load of a tall building. Some people have observed that the Pharaoh was the first one to have tough bricks baked for the buildings, as no one had used them before. Historical narrations have recorded that Haman had collected fifty thousand masons for building this palace. Skilled labour, such as carpenters and blacksmith, were additional. This palace was built so tall that there was no parallel to it in the world. When it was completed, Allah Ta` ala commanded Jibra’il (عليه السلام) to knock it down. He struck only one blow to it and it tumbled down in three pieces, killing thousands of soldiers of the Pharaoh’s army. (Qurtubi)
وَجَعَلْنٰهُمْ اَىِٕمَّةً يَّدْعُوْنَ اِلَى النَّارِ ۚ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيٰمَةِ لَا يُنْصَرُوْنَ
وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ (And We had made them leaders who called (people) towards hell. – 28:41). Allah Ta` ala had elevated the courtiers of the Pharaoh as leaders of their people, but these wrong-doers were busy inviting the people towards fire – jahannam. Most commentators have taken the expression ` invitation to fire’ as a metaphor. That is, by fire the allusion is toward evil deeds that will result in burning in the fire of Jahannam. But according to the work of my respected teacher Sayyidna Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri a (رح) the reward of the Hereafter is the deed itself. One’s deeds in this world will change their forms first in barzakh and then in mahshar. The righteous deeds will change into flowers and gardens and take the shape of the bounties of paradise; and the evil deeds will turn into snakes and scorpions, ultimately manifesting themselves in various types of torments. Therefore, if someone invites any one in this world toward evil and infidelity, he in fact is bidding him to go into the fire. Although these evils do not manifest themselves in this world as fire, yet in reality they are fire. Thus there is no metaphor in the verse, and it rests with its true meaning. If this course of argument is adopted in explaining the verses of Qur’an, then many of them will get rid of dependence on metaphors; and it will make the reading easy and straightforward. For instance, وَوَجَدُوا مَا عَمِلُوا حَاضِرًا (And they will find what they did all there – 18:49) or مَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ. (Whoever does good to the measure of a particle will see it. 99:7)mmmm48
وَلَقَدْ اٰتَيْنَا مُوْسَى الْكِتٰبَ مِنْۢ بَعْدِ مَآ اَهْلَكْنَا الْقُرُوْنَ الْاُوْلٰى بَصَاۗىِٕرَ لِلنَّاسِ وَهُدًى وَّرَحْمَةً لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُوْنَ
وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا أَهْلَكْنَا الْقُرُونَ الْأُولَىٰ بَصَائِرَ لِلنَّاسِ (And We gave Musa, after We destroyed the earlier generations, the Book having insights for people – 28:43). The words “earlier generations” refer to the people of Nuh, Hud, Salilh, and Lut (علیہم السلام) ، who were destroyed before the time of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) because of their denial of truth. بَصَائِرَ Basair is the plural of Basirah بَصِیرَہ whose literal meaning is sagacity, insight and discernment. Here it is purported for that light or refulgence which Allah Ta’ ala bestows in the hearts of people with which they find out the truth and discern the distinction between right and wrong. (Mazhari)
If the word Nas ناس (people) is used in the phrase بَصَائِرَ لِلنَّاسِ ( (28:43) (insights for people) for the people of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) then the meaning of the verse is quite clear. No doubt for the people of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) Torah was the book of wisdom. But if the word is used for all people in whom the Ummah of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is also included, then the question would arise that the Torah, which is available to the Ummah of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، is not the original one. In this Torah many changes have taken place. So, how could this Torah be regarded as a book of wisdom for them? Moreover, it will mean that the Muslims too should benefit from the Torah, while there is a well-known hadith that Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) once sought permission from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) for reading Torah, so that he could improve his knowledge and benefit from the injunctions contained in it. On this the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) got angry and said that if Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) was alive, he too would have been required to follow him. (The essence of this retort is that he [ Sayyidna ‘Umar (رض) ] should concentrate only on his teachings, and that he was not required to look into the teachings of Torah or Injil). It is worth reminding here that it was the time when revelation of Qur’an was still continuing, and in order to eliminate any possibility of mingling of hadith with the Qur’anic text, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had advised some of his companions to stop writing even the hadith.
Under such a situation it is obvious that reading of a cancelled divine book was not expedient. It, therefore, does not necessarily follow that reading of Torah and Injil is banned for all times. On the contrary, reading and quoting by the companions of that part of these books in which coming of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was predicted is well established. Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn Salam and Ka’b Al-Ahbar (رض) are quite well known for this. Other companions also did not raise a finger against it. The bottom line of this discussion is that it is allowed to benefit from the unaltered part of these books, which no doubt contains wisdom. But only those could draw any benefit from this who can distinguish between the altered and unaltered parts of the books; and they are the expert scholars. A common man should avoid such an exercise, lest he gets entangled in a quandary. The same ruling is applicable to all those books that are a mixture of right and wrong.
وَلَقَدْ وَصَّلْنَا لَـهُمُ الْقَوْلَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُوْنَ
وَلَقَدْ وَصَّلْنَا لَهُمُ الْقَوْلَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ (And We have conveyed (Our) words to them one after the other, so that they may take to advice. – 28:51). The word وَصَّلْنَا (wassalna) is derived from وتَصِیل (Tausil), which literally means to strengthen the rope by adding more strings to its strands. Here it means that Allah Ta` ala has maintained the continuity of guidance. Certain advisory subjects are repeated in the Qur’an in order to make them more effective.
Certain rules for preaching
It shows that an important trait of preaching carried out by the prophets was that they used to convey the truth to people continuously. Rejection and falsifying of truth did not deter them at all from their mission. Instead, if someone did not listen to them the first time, they repeated it the second time, and if they did not succeed even the second time, they used to reiterate it a third time, and so on, without showing any sign of exhaustion. It is true that no preacher or sympathizer has power to change one’s heart, but what the prophets could do was to keep on making their efforts without being dishearted or exhausted. Even today the same principle applies, and those who preach should take a serious note of it.
اَلَّذِيْنَ اٰتَيْنٰهُمُ الْكِتٰبَ مِنْ قَبْلِهٖ هُمْ بِهٖ يُؤْمِنُوْنَ
الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِهِ هُم بِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ (As for those to whom We gave the Book before this, they believe in it. (Qur’an) – 28:52). In this verse those people of the book are mentioned who had faith in the prophethood of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and revelation of the Qur’an on the basis of the prophesies given by Torah and Injil, even before the coming of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and the Qur’an. Thus they converted to Islam when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) announced his prophethood. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has reported that forty courtiers of the king Najashi of Habshah (Ethiopia) came to Madinah when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was busy in the Battle of Khybar. They also joined the jihad, and some got wounded, but none was killed. When they noticed the economic hardship of the companions, they told the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) that they were, by the grace of Allah, quite wealthy, and sought his permission to bring some of it when they would come next. On this occasion this verse was revealed الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِهِ هُم بِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿٥٢﴾ وَإِذَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِهِ إِنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا مِن قَبْلِهِ مُسْلِمِينَ ﴿٥٣﴾ أُولَـٰئِكَ يُؤْتَوْنَ أَجْرَهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ بِمَا صَبَرُوا وَيَدْرَءُونَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ ﴿٥٤﴾ (52 – 54). (Marduya, Tabrani, Mazhari)
Sayyidna Said Ibn Jubair (رض) has narrated that when Sayyidna Ja’far (رض) had gone to Habshah before the hijrah to Madinah, and presented the teachings of Islam in the court of Najashi, at that time Najashi and many of his courtiers, who were people of the book, had submitted to Islam, as Allah Ta` ala had put faith in their hearts. (Mazhari)
وَاِذَا يُتْلٰى عَلَيْهِمْ قَالُوْٓا اٰمَنَّا بِهٖٓ اِنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَّبِّنَآ اِنَّا كُنَّا مِنْ قَبْلِهٖ مُسْلِمِيْنَ
Is the word Muslim restricted to the Ummah of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) or it is common to all Ummahs?
إِنَّا كُنَّا مِن قَبْلِهِ مُسْلِمِينَ (And we are the ones who submitted (to it) even before it (was revealed) – 28:53). The word used by these people of the book for their submission is ‘muslims’ which may also be translated as ` We were Muslims even before the revelation of Qur’an’. If the word Muslim is taken here in its literal meaning, submissive or obedient, then the meaning is quite clear that the faith they had in Qur’an and the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، because of their books, is referred here by the use of words Islam and Muslims in its literal sense of submission. But if the word ‘Muslim’ is taken in the same meaning in which it is regarded as appellation of the Ummah of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، then it will signify that the words ‘Islam’ and ‘Muslim’ are not restricted to Ummah of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) alone, but they are common to the Ummahs of all the prophets. But some verses of Qur’an suggest that words ‘Islam’ and ‘Muslim’ are special names of the Ummah of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، for example the assertion of Sayyidna Ibrahim I recorded by the Qur’an itself هُوَ سَمَّاكُمُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ (He named you as Muslims – 22:78). ` Allamah Suyuti favours this course of argument and has written a book on the subject in support or his contention. He has explained this verse advocating that the word Muslimin is used here in the sense that` we were ready and prepared to accept Islam even before’. If one looks at the issue deeply, there is no conflict in the two versions; it is possible that Islam is the common attribute of the religion of all the prophets in its literal sense, and at the same time it is a special appellation of the Ummah of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . It is like the appellations of Siddiq and Faruq that are exclusive for Abu Bakr and ` Umar (رض) in the context of Ummah of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) but otherwise these words can apply to anyone else also falling within the scope of their attributive meaning.
اُولٰۗىِٕكَ يُؤْتَوْنَ اَجْرَهُمْ مَّرَّتَيْنِ بِمَا صَبَرُوْا وَيَدْرَءُوْنَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنٰهُمْ يُنْفِقُوْنَ
أُولَـٰئِكَ يُؤْتَوْنَ أَجْرَهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ (Such people will be given their reward twice – 28:54). That is, the believers who are also people of the book will be rewarded twice. A similar promise is made for the wives of the Holy Prophet ، (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) وَمَن يَقْنُتْ مِنكُنَّ لِلَّـهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا نُّؤْتِهَا أَجْرَهَا مَرَّتَيْنِ (And whoever from among you stands in obedience to Allah and His messenger and does righteous deeds, We will give her, her reward twice. – 33:31). In a hadith of Sahih a1 Bukhari three types of persons are mentioned for double reward One, those people of the book who had faith in their prophets initially, and then developed faith in the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . Two, the slave who is submissive and obedient to Allah Ta` ala and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، and also to his master. Three, the one who owned a slave girl, with whom he was allowed intercourse but he freed her and made her his formal wife by performing nikah.
The point worth consideration in this verse is the cause for which these categories of Muslims are given their reward twice. One cause could be that they have done two good deeds for which they are entitled to double reward. In all these three cases there are two good deeds involved. In the case of believers two good deeds are faith in their own prophet first, and then in the Holy Prophet and the Qur’an. In the case of the wives of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، two good deeds are that they loved and obeyed the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) both as a prophet and as husband. As for the owner of the slave girl, his first good deed is to free her, and the second to marry her. But this explanation may be subjected to the objection that two rewards for two good deeds are applicable to all, according to norms of justice; so where is the distinction for the people of the book or believers, and the wives of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، or the master of the slave girl? Keeping this objection in view, I have answered the original question in another way which is fully described in my book Ahkam ul-Qur’an under Surah Al-Qasas. According to that explanation, it is apparent by the wording of Qur’an that in all these examples, the relevant persons will not get two rewards for two deeds, but they will get double reward for each single deed, because the principle of ‘two rewards for two deeds’ is applicable to all, according to the express declaration of the Qur’an: لَا أُضِيعُ عَمَلَ عَامِلٍ مِّنكُم (I do not let go to waste the labour of a worker from you – 3:195), that is Allah Ta` ala does not waste deeds of any one of you. In fact one will get reward for every single good deed he performs. Therefore the double reward contemplated for all these types, is that for every single good deed they will be awarded double the reward. For instance, they will be given two rewards for a single prayer, two rewards for a single charity, and two rewards for each one good deed like fasting, performing Hajj etc.. If one contemplates on the wordings of Qur’an he will note that for giving two rewards the appropriate word was اَجرَین ، (two rewards) but instead of that Qur’an has used the word اَجرَھُم مرّتَین (their reward twice – 28:54), in which there is a clear hint that all their good deeds will be written twice and they will get double the reward for each one of them.
As for the reason why these people have been chosen for such an extra ordinary reward, the straight answer is that it is Allah Ta` ala’s prerogative to declare any deed preferable or superior to other deeds, and enhance its reward. No one has the right to question as to why He has enhanced the reward for a particular act as compared to the other, or why has He increased the reward of fasting while He has not done so in the case of zakah and charity. It is possible that the pedestal of deeds, mentioned in the verse under reference and the hadith of Bukhari, is higher in the sight of Allah in comparison to other deeds, and hence double the reward. Some prominent scholars have given the reason of this preference that they require excessive effort and hardship. This explanation is also probable, and the word بِمَا صَبَرُوا (because they observed patience) towards the end of this verse can be taken as a proof for the argument that the ground for double reward is their endurance on hardship. (Only Allah knows best).
وَيَدْرَءُونَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ (And they repel evil with good – 28:54). The scholars have made different assertions while explaining ‘evil’ and ‘good deed’ as they are contemplated in this verse. Some have explained that ‘good deed’ stands here for obedience, and ‘evil’ for sin, and the sense is that every good deed wipes out the sin, as is maintained in a hadith in which the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said to Sayyidna Mu` adh Ibn Jabal (رض) ‘ اَتبِعِ الحَسَنَۃَ السَّیِّٔۃَ تَمحُھَا (Perform a good deed after an evil deed, and it will wipe out the evil). According to this interpretation, the verse is praising these people that whenever they commit an evil act by mistake, they wipe it out by doing some good act. Some others are of the opinion that Hasanah (good deed) in this verse is used for knowledge and serenity, and sayyi’ah for ignorance and negligence. Thus it means that these people respond to the ignorant acts of others with serenity and forbearance and not with a similar ignorance. As a matter of fact, there is no contradiction in these explanations, because the words hasanah and sayyi` ah, that is virtue and evil, encompass all these things.
There are two important advices in this verse
Firstly, if someone commits a sin, its best remedy is that he should look for doing something good. The virtuous deed becomes expiation for the sin, as quoted in the hadi’th of Sayyidna Mu` adh ضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ above. Secondly, if a person behaves with someone badly, the wronged one is within his right to take revenge, provided he does not exceed the wrong done to him. However, it is much better for him that, instead of taking revenge, he returns the cruelty with kindness and the evil with virtue. It is an act of high degree of nobility of character. There are innumerable benefits in such an act, both in this world and in the Hereafter. In another Qur’anic verse this advice is given in very clear words ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ عَدَاوَةٌ كَأَنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيمٌ (Repel with that which is fairer and behold, he between whom and thee there is enmity shall be as if he were a loyal friend – 41:34). It means that one should act kindly in return of cruelty. In this way his foe will become his sincere friend.
اِنَّكَ لَا تَهْدِيْ مَنْ اَحْبَبْتَ وَلٰكِنَّ اللّٰهَ يَهْدِيْ مَنْ يَّشَاۗءُ ۚوَهُوَ اَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِيْنَ
The word as am hidayah (guidance) is used for several meanings. One meaning is to show the path, which does not necessarily mean that the one shown the path will reach his destination. Another meaning of hidayah is to make one reach his destination. According to first meaning of the word it is but obvious that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and all other prophets were guides, and that imparting guidance was within their control, because it was the obligation of their duty. If they did not have the control over imparting guidance, how could have they fulfilled their obligation? Therefore, the statement made in this verse that he did not have control over guidance, relate to the second meaning of this word that is to make one reach his destination. It means that it was not his duty or obligation to put faith in one’s heart in order to make him convert to Islam by his teachings and preaching. This is in the control of Allah Ta` ala only. The meaning and types of hidayah have already been discussed in detail under Surah Al-Baqarah.
Sahih Muslim has reported that this verse was revealed about the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ‘s uncle, Abu Talib. It was his great desire that Abu Talib should accept the faith. It was for this desire that he was advised that it was not within his control to put faith in anybody’s heart. It is observed in Ruh ul-Ma’ ani that one should abstain from discussing or passing judgment unnecessarily on the subject of acceptance of faith or otherwise by Abu Talib, because this may hurt the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ‘s feelings for his natural love toward his uncle. (وَاللہُ سبحانَہُ و تعالیٰ اَعلَم)
وَقَالُوْٓا اِنْ نَّتَّبِعِ الْهُدٰى مَعَكَ نُتَخَطَّفْ مِنْ اَرْضِنَا ۭ اَوَلَمْ نُمَكِّنْ لَّهُمْ حَرَمًا اٰمِنًا يُّجْــبٰٓى اِلَيْهِ ثَمَرٰتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ رِّزْقًا مِّنْ لَّدُنَّا وَلٰكِنَّ اَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُوْنَ
وَقَالُوا إِن نَّتَّبِعِ الْهُدَىٰ مَعَكَ نُتَخَطَّفْ مِنْ أَرْضِنَا (And they said, “If we follow the guidance with you (0 Muhammad), we will be driven out of our land.” – 28:57). Harith Ibn ` Uthman and other infidels of Makkah put forward one of the reasons for their non-acceptance of faith that although they believed that his teachings were based on truth, but they feared that if they followed him, the entire people of Arabia would turn against them, and as a consequence they will be driven out of their land. (Nasai’ etc.). The Holy Qur’an has given three answers to their lame excuse. One, نُمَكِّن لَّهُمْ حَرَمًا آمِنًا يُجْبَىٰ إِلَيْهِ ثَمَرَاتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ (Is it not that We have established them in the peaceful Haram (sanctuary) to which the fruits of everything are drawn as a provision from Us – 28:57) that is this excuse of theirs is false, because Allah Ta` ala had already made special arrangements for the safety of the people of Makkah by making its land Haram. All the tribes of Arabia, despite their mutual feuds and infidelity, were unanimous on the point that killing and feuds were strictly prohibited on the land of Makkah. If a killer of father met the son in the Haram, despite extremely strong feelings of revenge, he could not raise his hand against him. It was just not possible for anyone to kill or harm his enemy on the ground of Haram. Therefore, it was not at all a convincing excuse for not converting to faith. How was it possible that the Creator of everything would let them die as a believer, when He had made arrangement for their safety in Haram even as infidels? Yahya Ibn Sallam has explained this verse as: You were safe and secure because of حرم Haram, and were enjoying the sustenance provided by Me in plenty, still you used to worship others instead of Me. You did not get worried over this situation of yours, and on the contrary got worried over conversion to faith in Me’. (Qurtubi)
In this verse two qualities of Haram are described. One, that it is a place of peace, and the other that fruits from different parts of the world were brought there.
Availability of all types of produce in Haram of Makkah is a special Divine gift
Allah Ta` ala chose Makkah Mukkarramah, out of the whole world, to establish the Ka’bah and Haram. In terms of its environment and geography it is a region where, under the normal circumstances, hardly any economic or commercial goods and activity should have existed. Even the basic staple agricultural products like wheat, rice, gram and sundry cereals were not cultivated before on a significant scale, let alone its and variety of vegetables. Though, in recent years there has been some emphasis from the Saudi Government toward their cultivation. Yet, everything is available there in such an abundance that one gets amazed. During the period of hajj some two million people are drawn from all over the world and stay there for an average of one month. It has never been heard that any scarcity of food items was ever experienced there. On the contrary, everyone can witness that cooked and prepared food to cater for all types of races and people is readily available all the time. If we ponder over Qur’anic words, which say ثَمَرَاتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ (fruits of everything), a question arises that fruits are the product of trees, so it would have been apt to say ثَمَرَاتُ كُلِّ شَجر (fruits of every tree) rather than ثَمَرَاتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ (fruits of everything). Therefore, it is quite likely that the word ‘everything’ used here, encompasses the produce and products of all kind, including agricultural produce. For instance, the produce of industrial factories is also their fruit. Hence, the gist of the discussion is that not only food items but also all sorts of things of human need would be made available in Makkah. Any one visiting Makkah, either for hajj or ` umrah, can confirm that everything produced anywhere in the world is readily available there. This was one reply to the excuse put forward by the infidels of Makkah, and the gist of the reply was that the Lord who had been so kind to them that He had made available all the bounties of the world in their city, despite the fact that they are not produced there, and who had made the city completely free of risk and danger, it is the worst kind of ignorance to presume about Him that He would deprive them of these benefits if they would believe in Him.
وَكَمْ اَهْلَكْنَا مِنْ قَرْيَةٍۢ بَطِرَتْ مَعِيْشَتَهَا ۚ فَتِلْكَ مَسٰكِنُهُمْ لَمْ تُسْكَنْ مِّنْۢ بَعْدِهِمْ اِلَّا قَلِيْلًا ۭ وَكُنَّا نَحْنُ الْوٰرِثِيْنَ
The second reply to their excuse is given in the next verse وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِن قَرْيَةٍ بَطِرَتْ مَعِيشَتَهَا (And how many a town have We destroyed that were over-proud of their means of living. – 28:58). In this reply it is stressed that they should recall the plight of other infidel people of the world, how their habitations, strong forts, and all means of their protection were destroyed, because of their infidelity and rejection of the truth. at they should actually fear is their infidelity and associating others with Allah, which is the real cause of destruction. How foolish and ill informed they were that they feared faith and not the denial of truth and infidelity.
The third reply was given in the following verse: وَمَا أُوتِيتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَمَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا (And whatever thing you are given is the enjoyment of the worldly life – 28:60). Here it is explained that just in case they did get involved in some sort of trouble as a result of accepting faith, it would last only for a few days. Just as mundane wealth and comfort is temporary and would last for a short time only, worldly troubles are also transient and short-lived. Therefore, the wisdom lies in that one should seek and care for the comfort and happiness that is lasting. If one has to suffer trouble for a short time for the sake of permanent and everlasting wealth and comfort, it is well worth it.
لَمْ تُسْكَن مِّن بَعْدِهِمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا (Which were never inhabited after them except a few – 28:56). The habitations of the earlier people, which were destroyed by the Divine torment, still lie uninhabited, with the exception of a few. If the exemption ` except a few’ is taken for those living there and the places destroyed, as Zajjaj has construed it, then the meaning would be that those places could never get inhabited, except a few that are inhabited. But Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has given another explanation of the verse. According to his interpretation, the exemption is not for the place and houses, but for the time. Thus the meaning would be that even if someone lives there, it is for a short time, like travelers, who cannot be regarded as permanent residents.
وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ مُهْلِكَ الْقُرٰى حَتّٰى يَبْعَثَ فِيْٓ اُمِّهَا رَسُوْلًا يَّتْلُوْا عَلَيْهِمْ اٰيٰتِنَا ۚ وَمَا كُنَّا مُهْلِــكِي الْقُرٰٓى اِلَّا وَاَهْلُهَا ظٰلِمُوْنَ
حَتَّىٰ يَبْعَثَ فِي أُمِّهَا رَسُولًا (Unless he sends to their central place a messenger -28:59). Popular meaning of the word ‘Umm is mother, and since mother is the very basis of human creation, hence the word ‘Umm (اُمَّ ) is also used extensively for origin, base, and foundation. The pronoun ha (translated above as ‘their’ ) refers back to the towns, and ‘mother of the towns’ means the central town. The meaning of the verse is that Allah Ta` ala does not destroy a people unless He had sent His message through His messengers in their main cities. When the invitation to truth had reached, and yet people did not accept it, only then the torment is sent on those cities.
This verse has pointed out that Allah’s messengers and prophets are generally sent in big cities, and not in smaller towns, because such towns are normally under the influence of big cities, both for their economic and educational needs. If something is known in a big city, it becomes known automatically in the smaller towns around it. Hence, when a prophet is sent in a big city and he starts his call to the truth, the message is spread out in the surrounding towns in no time. This way Allah Ta` ala’s message reaches to all and sundry, and if they reject the message of truth, the torment is sent to all of them.
Small towns and villages are subject to the same laws as are applicable to the main cities
As in the case of economic needs, the smaller habitations are dependent on cities, and draw their requirements from there, similarly, when a law or an order is promulgated in the city, it automatically becomes effective in the surrounding towns and villages also. The excuse of having no knowledge of the law is not acceptable.
In the case of sighting of the moon for observing Ramadan and Eids (Shawwal and Dhulhajjah) too, the same principle has been declared by the jurists as applicable. That is, if the evidence of witnesses in the city establishes the sighting of moon, then the people of towns and villages would have to follow the same. But in the case of other cities, it would only apply when the Qadi of that city accepts the evidence and makes the announcement. (Al-Fataw al-Ghayathiyyah)
وَمَآ اُوْتِيْتُمْ مِّنْ شَيْءٍ فَمَتَاعُ الْحَيٰوةِ الدُّنْيَا وَزِيْنَتُهَا ۚ وَمَا عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ خَيْرٌ وَّاَبْقٰى ۭ اَفَلَا تَعْقِلُوْنَ
وَمَا عِندَ اللَّـهِ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَىٰ (And that which is with Allah is much better and far more lasting – 28:60). That is the mundane wealth and comforts are all mortal. But the recompense one would get in the Hereafter for the good deeds done in the world is much superior and everlasting as compared to the temporary worldly wealth and comforts. The best of comforts of this world are no match to the bounties of the Hereafter. Then, no matter how attractive mundane comforts are, they are but temporary. As against that, the bounties of the Hereafter will last forever. There is no doubt that anyone having some sense would prefer the better comforts and the ones that will last forever, rather than the short-lived temporary ones.
The sign of prudence is that one does not involve himself too much in worldly matters and cares more for the Hereafter
Imam Shafi` i (رح) has said that if a person bequeaths his wealth and property to be given to the wisest men, then the beneficiaries of such a will are those busy in worshipping and obeying Allah Ta` ala, because what they are doing is the demand of wisdom, and no doubt they are the wisest among worldly people. This ruling is also mentioned in Ad-Durr-al-Mukhtar, the famous book of Hanafi school. See its chapter on ‘wasiyyah’.
وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاۗءُ وَيَخْتَارُ ۭ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ ۭ سُبْحٰنَ اللّٰهِ وَتَعٰلٰى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُوْنَ
وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيَخْتَارُ (And your Lord creates what He wills and chooses – 28:68). According to one interpretation of this verse, the choice referred to here is Allah’s choice with regard to the divine commands, and the sense is that as Allah Ta` ala is unique in the creation of universe and no one is His partner, so is He in the issuance of His commands. He can give out any command to His creatures. But Imam Baghawi, in his commentary, and ` Allamah Ibn Al-Qayyim (رح) in the preface of Zad al-Ma` ad have adopted another interpretation according to which the choice of Allah Ta’ ala, as envisaged in this verse, relates to the prerogative of Allah Ta` ala by which He selects any one from His creatures for His favours. According to Baghawi, this was the reply given to the infidels of Makkah on their observation لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ هَـٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ عَلَىٰ رَجُلٍ مِّنَ الْقَرْيَتَيْنِ عَظِيمٍ (Why was this Qur’an not sent down upon some man of moment in the two cities? – 43:31) that is, ` If Allah had wished to reveal this Qur’an He should have revealed it on some dignitary of Makkah or Ta’if, so that he should have had respect and reverence. What was the wisdom in revealing it on a poor orphan?’ In answer to this suggestion it is said in the present verse that it is the prerogative of the Lord of universe, who has created all the creatures without any help or partner, to select any one from His creatures for the special favours He wishes to confer. It is not for you to suggest whom He should or should not select, nor is He bound to listen to your suggestions.
Giving preference to one thing over the other or to one person over the other, and determination of correct standard of preference, are all Divine prerogatives
Haafiz Ibn Al-Qayyim has drawn an outstanding rule from this verse that the preference given to places and things in this world are not achieved by them with their own efforts or deeds, but it is the result of direct selection and prerogative of the Creator of the universe. He has created seven skies, out of which He has given preference to highest sky over others, although the material of all is the same. Similarly, He has given preference to Jannat al- Firdaus over all other parts of the Jannah. Then, He preferred Jibra’il, Mika’il, Isra’fil, etc. over all other angels, and has placed prophets on highest pedestal among the humans. And among the prophets has given preference to more resolute ones over all other prophets. Then among the resolute, He has given preference to His Khalil Ibrahim (عليه السلام) and Habib Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) over all other resolute prophets. Then preference is given to progeny of Ismail (عليه السلام) over all other people of the world, then to Quraish among the progeny of Ismail (عليه السلام) and to Bani Hashim over all the Quraish, and finally to Sayyidna Muhammad Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) over entire Bani Hashim. Similarly, the preference given to companions of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and other elders of the Ummah, is all under the control and prerogative of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta` ala, and the result of His selection.
In the same way, many places of the world are preferred over other places, and many days and nights have preference over the normal days and nights. In short, the original standard of preference in the entire universe is His prerogative and selection. However, at times , human acts may also become a cause of preference in the sense that those performing righteous acts are preferred over the others, and the places where such people live or perform virtuous acts may also acquire preference over other places. This preference can be gained by sincerity of effort and righteous deeds. The gist of this discussion is that the basis of preference in the world is dependent on two things. One is beyond one’s control and rests entirely on the selection of Allah Ta’ ala, and the other is within the ability of human beings and may be achieved by righteous deeds and superior morals. Allamah Ibn al-Qayyim (رح) has deliberated in great detail on this subject and has concluded that the four Rightly Guided Caliphs have precedence over all other companions of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . Then Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) has preference over other three Caliphs. After that Sayyidna ` Umar Ibn al-Khattab (رض) has preference over the other two, and Sayyidna ` Uthman (رض) over Sayyidna ‘Ali (رض) . He has proved this sequence with the help of two standards discussed above. Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlavi (رح) has also written a booklet on this subject in Persian language, which I have translated in Urdu and Arabic. Urdu translation has been published under the title (بَعض التفسصِيل لمَسٔلۃ التفضیل) and Arabic translation is included in my book Ahkam al-Qur’an, under Surah Al-Qasas. This is a research work that would be of interest to scholars.
قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِن جَعَلَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْكُمُ اللَّيْلَ سَرْمَدًا إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَنْ إِلَـٰهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّـهِ يَأْتِيكُم بِضِيَاءٍ ۖ أَفَلَا تَسْمَعُونَ ﴿71﴾ قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِن جَعَلَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْكُمُ النَّهَارَ سَرْمَدًا إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَنْ إِلَـٰهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّـهِ يَأْتِيكُم بِلَيْلٍ تَسْكُنُونَ فِيهِ ۖ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ ﴿72﴾
Say, “Tell me, if Allah makes night continuing upon you forever upto the Day of Judgment, which god, other than Allah, would bring to you light? Then do you not listen?” Say, “Tell me, if Allah makes the day continuing upon you forever upto the Day of Judgment, which god, other than Allah, would bring to you night in which you may have comfort. Then, do you not see?” 28:71-72.
Allah Ta’ ala has mentioned a benefit of the night in this verse, that it provides rest بِلَيْلٍ تَسْكُنُونَ فِيهِ (28:72). As against this no mention is made about the benefits of day while referring to its light. The reason for this omission is but obvious. It is a well-known fact that the daylight is superior in its entity to darkness. The benefits of daylight are so numerous and well known that their repetition was not prudent. On the contrary the darkness of the night does not have any other benefit except that it provides rest to everything. As a matter of fact, its utility is based on the rest of people, hence that has been mentioned. It is to be noted that after describing daylight it is concluded with أَفَلَا تَسْمَعُونَ (Do you not listen? – 28:71), and after describing the night the concluding expression is أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ (Do you not see? – 28:72). It may have the allusion that the benefits of the day are so numerous that they cannot be seen, but can only be heard; hence the expression أَفَلَا تَسْمَعُونَ is used. The knowledge and understanding humans have acquired has mainly come through hearing and listening, and very little by way of seeing. The benefits of night are much less as compared to benefits of the day, and they can be seen; hence the expression أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ (Mazhari)
اِنَّ قَارُوْنَ كَانَ مِنْ قَوْمِ مُوْسٰي فَبَغٰى عَلَيْهِمْ ۠ وَاٰتَيْنٰهُ مِنَ الْكُنُوْزِ مَآ اِنَّ مَفَاتِحَهٗ لَتَنُوْۗاُ بِالْعُصْبَةِ اُولِي الْقُوَّةِ ۤ اِذْ قَالَ لَهٗ قَوْمُهٗ لَا تَفْرَحْ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَرِحِيْنَ
From the beginning of Surah Al-Qasas to this point, the story of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) with the Pharaoh and his people was narrated. From here onward another story about his is being related which is about Qarun, who belonged to his own fraternity. This story has an affinity with the previous verses in that it was said in an earlier verse that the wealth you are given in this world is temporary, and it is not wise to get involved in its love. وَمَا أُوتِيتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَمَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا (And whatever thing you are given is the enjoyment of the worldly life – 28:60). Now in the story of Qarun it is described that he forgot this caution after having received the wealth and got so much intoxicated by it that he displayed ingratitude and rejected to fulfill his obligations toward Allah Ta’ ala with regard to bounties he had received from Him. As a consequence of that, he was sunk in the ground along with his treasure.
Qarun is a non-Arabic word, perhaps from Hebrew. It is stated in the Qur’an itself that he belonged to the fraternity of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) ، Bani Isra’il. As for his actual relationship with Musa (عليه السلام) ، there are different versions. In a narration of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) he is mentioned as a cousin of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) . There are some other versions also beside this. (Qurtubi and Ruh).
A narration of Muhammad Ibn Ishaq, reproduced in Ruh ul-Ma’ ani, has observed that Qarun remembered Torah more than any other Isra’ili, but turned out to be a hypocrite like Samiri. The cause of his hypocrisy was his misplaced love and greed for worldly wealth and status. Leadership of the entire Bani Isra’ il was conferred on Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) and his brother, Sayyidna Harun (عليه السلام) ، who was his assistant and partner in prophethood. Hence, Qarun got jealous that after all he was also a cousin, but why did he not have a share in the leadership. So, he made a complaint to that effect before Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) . He replied that it was all from Allah Ta’ ala, and he had no power in this matter. But Qarun was not convinced on this reply and developed jealousy against Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) .
فَبَغَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ (Then he rebelled against them – 28:76). There are quite a few meanings of the word بَغَىٰ Bagha. The more popular meaning is to commit cruelty. It is possible to take this word in this meaning here. Thus the meaning of the sentence would be that having got intoxicated by his wealth, he started perpetrating cruelty on people. Yahya Ibn Sallam and Said Ibn Al-Musayyab have stated that Qarun was a wealthy man, and was appointed by the Pharaoh to keep vigilance on Bani Isra’il. Taking advantage of this position, he started harassing Bani Isra’il. (Qurtubi)
The other meaning of Bagha is conceit or arrogance. Many a commentators have adopted this meaning here. Hence, the meaning of the verse would be that having got intoxicated by his wealth, he became conceited and looked down upon Bani Isra’il.
وَآتَيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْكُنُوزِ (And We had given to then such treasures – 28 – 76. Kunuz کَنُوز is the plural of کَنز (Kanz), which means buried treasure. In the commonly used religious sense Kanz is that treasure on which zakah is not paid. Sayyidna ‘Ata’ (رض) has narrated that he got hold of a magnificent buried treasure of Sayyidna Yusuf (عليه السلام) . (Ruh)
لَتَنُوءُ بِالْعُصْبَةِ (would weigh too heavy for a strong group – 28:76). The word نَاَء (Na’ a) means to bend down with weight, and عُصْبَةِ ‘Usbah’ means a group. The meaning of the sentence is that his treasures were so many and their keys were in such large number, that if a group of strong people would try to lift them, they would bend down under their weight. Normally the keys of the locks are light, but because of their large number, their weight had multiplied so much that it was not possible even for a group of strong persons to lift them all. (Ruh)
لَا تَفْرَحْ (Do not exult – 28:76). Literal meaning of the word فَرَح (Farah) is the happiness one gets as a result of an instant pleasure. Many a Qur’anic verses have declared Farah as contemptible, as in this very verse also إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَرِحِينَ (Allah does not like the exultant – 28:76). In another verse it is said لَا تَفْرَحُوا بِمَا آتَاكُمْ (nor rejoice in what has come to you – 57:23). Yet another verse says فَرِحُوا بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا (And they are happy with the worldly life – 13:26). But in some verses Farah is allowed, rather in a way it is declared as desirable. For example in verses, يَوْمَئِذٍ يَفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ (And on that day the believers will rejoice – 30:4) and فَبِذَٰلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُوا (with these they should rejoice – 10:58). All these verses put together give us the guideline that Farah is contemptible and is not allowed when it reaches the level of arrogance and boasting. Thus one gets to a point where he regards the attainment of pleasure as his own personal achievement, and not a gift and favour from Allah Ta’ ala. But if the happiness and pleasure does not get to that position, then it is not disallowed; rather in a way it is desirable. In such a situation happiness would be to express the gratitude to Allah Ta’ ala.
وَابْتَغِ فِيْمَآ اٰتٰىكَ اللّٰهُ الدَّارَ الْاٰخِرَةَ وَلَا تَنْسَ نَصِيْبَكَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَاَحْسِنْ كَمَآ اَحْسَنَ اللّٰهُ اِلَيْكَ وَلَا تَبْغِ الْفَسَادَ فِي الْاَرْضِ ۭ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُفْسِدِيْنَ
وَابْتَغِ فِيمَا آتَاكَ اللَّـهُ الدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ ۖ وَلَا تَنسَ نَصِيبَكَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا (And seek the (betterment of) the ultimate Abode with what Allah has given to you, and do not neglect your share from this world – 28:77). The Muslims advised Qarun that he should try to do as much good as possible for the Hereafter by utilizing the wealth Allah Ta’ ala had given him, and ‘should not forget his share in the world’.
What is his ‘share in this world’? Many commentators have explained that it refers to his life in this world and the deeds that may help him in the Hereafter which include charity and all other righteous deeds. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has favoured this explanation. (Qurtubi) By adopting this explanation, the second sentence would be regarded as an emphasized repetition of the first sentence. The first sentence has directed that one should make use of all that has been gifted – the life, wealth, health, strength etc. – to collect that which would be of help in the Hereafter. In fact this portion of the worldly possessions is one’s own, which may help him in the Hereafter; the rest of the world’s possessions belongs to his heirs.
However, some other commentators have explained that the meaning of the second sentence is that whatever Allah has given you, make use of it for the Hereafter, without loosing sight of your needs in this world. In other words do not become a pauper by giving away everything in charity. Instead, retain something for your own needs as well. Under this explanation, ‘your share in the world’ means one’s own needs in this world.
قَالَ اِنَّمَآ اُوْتِيْتُهٗ عَلٰي عِلْمٍ عِنْدِيْ ۭ اَوَلَمْ يَعْلَمْ اَنَّ اللّٰهَ قَدْ اَهْلَكَ مِنْ قَبْلِهٖ مِنَ الْقُرُوْنِ مَنْ هُوَ اَشَدُّ مِنْهُ قُوَّةً وَّاَكْثَرُ جَمْعًا ۭ وَلَا يُسْـَٔــلُ عَنْ ذُنُوْبِهِمُ الْمُجْرِمُوْنَ
إِنَّمَا أُوتِيتُهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ عِندِي (This is given to me because of knowledge (I have) with me- 28:78). Some commentators are of the view that “knowledge” in this sentence refers to the understanding of Torah. As reported in some narrations, Qarun remembered Torah by heart and was an authority on it. He was one of the seventy scholars whom Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) had selected for Miqat (the appointed time and place for having conversation with Allah). But he became conceited on his knowledge, and regarded it as his personal achievement. The object of his above-referred utterance was to convey that whatever wealth he had possessed was the direct result of his personal skill and intelligence. Hence, he himself had the right on it, and that no one had done any favour to him.
However, it is more plausible in the context that the knowledge he was referring to as the basic cause of his being wealthy, was the understanding and skill of managing trade and industry, which brings in wealth. Thus the meaning is that whatever wealth he had collected had come to him as a result of his personal skill and efforts, and there was no favour of Allah Ta’ ala involved in it. What the foolish conceited man had ignored was that his skill, understanding, and experience were also the gift of Allah. He could not have gained them on his own.
أَوَلَمْ يَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّـهَ قَدْ أَهْلَكَ مِن قَبْلِهِ (Did he not know that Allah had destroyed, from the generations before him…28:78). The real answer to Qarun’s assertion that he had collected all his wealth by his personal skill and efforts is the one mentioned above; that even if it is accepted for a moment that he had acquired his wealth by his personal skill and knowledge, the point is that this knowledge and experience was also the gift of Allah Ta’ ala. But in order to bring home the more important aspect of the subject, the Qur’an has stated that the abundance of wealth is of no avail and is devoid of merit, nor does it help in distress. As a proof of that, the example of the wealthy from the earlier generations has been quoted, that when they disobeyed and rejected the truth, they were suddenly caught by the torment of Allah Ta’ ala.
تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْاٰخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَا لِلَّذِيْنَ لَا يُرِيْدُوْنَ عُلُوًّا فِي الْاَرْضِ وَلَا فَسَادًا ۭ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِيْنَ
لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فَسَادًا (We assigned it to those who intend neither haughtiness on earth nor mischief. – 28:83). This verse tells us that only those will achieve salvation and success in the Hereafter who do not intend any mischief, nor are indulged in عُلُوًّا ` Uluww in this world. عُلُوًّا ` Uluww means pride or conceit, that is, to present oneself as superior before others, and to look down upon others and treat them in an insulting manner. Mischief is used here for oppression. (Sufyan Ath-Thauri). Some commentators have observed that every sin is a ‘mischief in the world’, because the nuisance of the sin curtails the blessings of the world. This verse tells us that those who intend to do cruelty and feel proud, or commit sin have no share in the Hereafter.
Arrogance and conceit as condemned in this verse, is the behavior in which one shows off as being superior, and looks down upon others. Otherwise to strive for oneself a good dress, a good house, and good food, when it is not intended to show off, is no sin, as reported in a hadith in Sahih Muslim.
Firm intention to commit a sin is also sin
It is clarified in this verse that the intention for mischief and pride will debar one from the share of Hereafter. It is, therefore, clear that the firm intention of a sin is as much a sin. (Ruh) However, if one changes his mind for fear of Allah, then a reward is noted in his record instead of sin. But if he fails to act on that sin, due to reasons beyond his control, while he had firm intention to act upon it, then the sin stays against his name, and will be recorded as such. (Ghazzali)
The last verse وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ (And the (best) end is for the God-fearing – 28:83) elaborates that it is not enough to abstain from mischief and pride to get the share of the Hereafter, but following the righteous path is as much a requirement. To follow all the religious obligations is also essential for the salvation in the Hereafter.
اِنَّ الَّذِيْ فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْاٰنَ لَرَاۗدُّكَ اِلٰى مَعَادٍ ۭ قُلْ رَّبِّيْٓ اَعْلَمُ مَنْ جَاۗءَ بِالْهُدٰى وَمَنْ هُوَ فِيْ ضَلٰلٍ مُّبِيْنٍ
إِنَّ الَّذِي فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لَرَادُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ (Surely the One who has enjoined the Qur’ an upon you will surely bring you back to a place of return. – 28:85). At the end of Surah these verses were revealed to console the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، and to make him firm in his mission as a messenger. These verses are relevant to the previous verses in that in this Surah, Allah Ta’ ala has narrated in detail the story of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) with the Pharaoh, his enmity with Bani Isra’il, their fear of him and how he overpowered the people of the Pharaoh. Since the Holy Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) faced a similar situation in that he was harassed, and plans were made to kill him, the lives of Muslims were made miserable in Makkah, but following His (Allah) old tradition, Allah graced them with victory over all of them. He finally gifted the Muslims possession of Makkah, from where they were made to vacate.
الَّذِي فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ (The One who has enjoined the Qur’ an upon you – 28:85). It means that the Lord of the universe who has made it obligatory on you to recite, teach and act on it, will take you back to Ma` ad, which lexically means ‘a place of return’. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has explained that Ma` ad in this verse refers to Makkah, as reported in Sahih al-Bukhari. So, the meaning of the sentence is that although the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) would have to leave his hometown, especially the Haram for a short while, he would be brought back in Makkah by Allah Ta’ ala, who had revealed the Qur’an on him, and had made it obligatory to act upon it. The Imam of tafsir, Muqatil, has narrated that during the Hijrah (emigration) from Makkah to Madinah, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) came out from the cave of Thaur at night, and by passing the conventional route, treaded the unfamiliar paths, because the enemies were pursuing him. When he reached Juhfah, which was a well-known place on the way to Madinah near Rabigh, and where the conventional route to Madinah separates from that of Makkah, at that time he glanced back toward the route of Makkah and remembered his hometown. On that moment, Jibra’l (عليه السلام) descended with this verse, in which he was given the good tiding that separation from Makkah was temporary and he would return there soon. That was in fact the advance news of the victory of Makkah. It is in this background that Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has observed in a narration that this verse was revealed in Juhfah, and that it is neither Makki nor Madani. (Qurtubi).
Qur’ an is a means of victory over enemies and of one’s success in his objectives
While promising to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) that he will be brought back by Allah to his hometown which will be conquered by him, Allah Ta’ ala has made a special reference to Himself as ‘the One who has enjoined the Qur’ an on him’. This reference contains a hint to the fact that recitation of Qur’ an and acting on its injunctions would actually be the cause of the Divine help and manifest victory.
وَلَا تَدْعُ مَعَ اللّٰهِ اِلٰــهًا اٰخَرَ ۘ لَآ اِلٰهَ اِلَّا هُوَ ۣ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ اِلَّا وَجْهَهٗ ۭ لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَاِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُوْنَ
كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ (Everything is going to perish except His Face – 28:88). The word ‘His Face’ in this verse means the very Being of Allah Ta’ ala. Hence, the meaning of the verse is that except for Allah Ta’ ala everything is mortal and will get destroyed and will vanish. Some commentators have taken the phrase’ His Face’ to mean the good deeds performed by human beings exclusively for Allah Ta’ ala. In that case the meaning of the verse would be that those actions which are performed exclusively for Allah Ta’ ala will not be destroyed, while all other things will perish.
اَلحَمدُ للہ Al-hamdulillah, today on Dhulqa’dah 9, 1391-H (September 1971), the commentary on Surah Al-Qasas has concluded in such conditions that Pakistan was attacked by India and the unholy alliance of the big powers. For fourteen days Karachi was bombarded daily. The city was severely damaged. Hundreds of Muslims were martyred, and many a houses were demolished. Fourteen days war finished on the sad note that East Pakistan is cut off from Pakistan, and about ninety thousand troops have surrendered there. Killing is still going on in East Pakistan. Every Muslim is stuck with grief and bewilderment.
إِنَّا لِلَّـهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ و الیہ المشتکی ولا منجا من اللہ اِلَّا اِلیہ
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
Join our list
Subscribe to our mailing list and get interesting stuff and updates to your email inbox.