Surah Al hashr In Arabic
سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴿1﴾ هُوَ الَّذِي أَخْرَجَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ لِأَوَّلِ الْحَشْرِ ۚ مَا ظَنَنْتُمْ أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا ۖ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ مَانِعَتُهُمْ حُصُونُهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَأَتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَحْتَسِبُوا ۖ وَقَذَفَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الرُّعْبَ ۚ يُخْرِبُونَ بُيُوتَهُمْ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَيْدِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَاعْتَبِرُوا يَا أُولِي الْأَبْصَارِ ﴿2﴾ وَلَوْلَا أَنْ كَتَبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْجَلَاءَ لَعَذَّبَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابُ النَّارِ ﴿3﴾ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ شَاقُّوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۖ وَمَنْ يُشَاقِّ اللَّهَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ ﴿4﴾ مَا قَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ لِينَةٍ أَوْ تَرَكْتُمُوهَا قَائِمَةً عَلَىٰ أُصُولِهَا فَبِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَلِيُخْزِيَ الْفَاسِقِينَ ﴿5﴾ وَمَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ فَمَا أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلَا رِكَابٍ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلَىٰ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿6﴾ مَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَىٰ فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ مِنْكُمْ ۚ وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ ﴿7﴾ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا وَيَنْصُرُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ ﴿8﴾ وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيمَانَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّونَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِمَّا أُوتُوا وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ ۚ وَمَنْ يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ﴿9﴾ وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالْإِيمَانِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلًّا لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ ﴿10﴾ أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ نَافَقُوا يَقُولُونَ لِإِخْوَانِهِمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَئِنْ أُخْرِجْتُمْ لَنَخْرُجَنَّ مَعَكُمْ وَلَا نُطِيعُ فِيكُمْ أَحَدًا أَبَدًا وَإِنْ قُوتِلْتُمْ لَنَنْصُرَنَّكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ ﴿11﴾ لَئِنْ أُخْرِجُوا لَا يَخْرُجُونَ مَعَهُمْ وَلَئِنْ قُوتِلُوا لَا يَنْصُرُونَهُمْ وَلَئِنْ نَصَرُوهُمْ لَيُوَلُّنَّ الْأَدْبَارَ ثُمَّ لَا يُنْصَرُونَ ﴿12﴾ لَأَنْتُمْ أَشَدُّ رَهْبَةً فِي صُدُورِهِمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ ﴿13﴾ لَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ جَمِيعًا إِلَّا فِي قُرًى مُحَصَّنَةٍ أَوْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ جُدُرٍ ۚ بَأْسُهُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ شَدِيدٌ ۚ تَحْسَبُهُمْ جَمِيعًا وَقُلُوبُهُمْ شَتَّىٰ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ ﴿14﴾ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ قَرِيبًا ۖ ذَاقُوا وَبَالَ أَمْرِهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ﴿15﴾ كَمَثَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِذْ قَالَ لِلْإِنْسَانِ اكْفُرْ فَلَمَّا كَفَرَ قَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِنْكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿16﴾ فَكَانَ عَاقِبَتَهُمَا أَنَّهُمَا فِي النَّارِ خَالِدَيْنِ فِيهَا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿17﴾ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَلْتَنْظُرْ نَفْسٌ مَا قَدَّمَتْ لِغَدٍ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿18﴾ وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ نَسُوا اللَّهَ فَأَنْسَاهُمْ أَنْفُسَهُمْ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ ﴿19﴾ لَا يَسْتَوِي أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ وَأَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ ۚ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ ﴿20﴾ لَوْ أَنْزَلْنَا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُتَصَدِّعًا مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ ﴿21﴾ هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ ۖ هُوَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿22﴾ هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ ۚ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿23﴾ هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴿24﴾
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Sabbaha lillaahi maa fissamaawaati wa maa fil ardi wa Huwal ‘Azeezul Hakeem
- Huwal lazeee akharajal lazeena kafaroo min ahlil kitaabi min diyaarihim li awwalil Hashr; maa zanantum any yakhrujoo wa zannooo annahum maa ni’atuhum husoonuhum minal laahi faataahumul laahu min haisu lam yahtasiboo wa qazafa fee quloobihimur ru’ba yukhriboona bu yootahum bi aydeehim wa aydil mu’mineena fa’tabiroo yaaa ulil absaar
- Wa law laaa an katabal laahu ‘alaihimul jalaaa’a la’azzabahum fid dunyaa wa lahum fil Aakhirati ‘azaabun Naar
- Zaalika bi annahum shaaqqul laaha wa Rasoolahoo wa many yushaaaqqil laaha fa innal laaha shadeedul-‘iqaab
- Maa qata’tum mil leenatin aw taraktumoohaa qaaa’imatan’alaaa usoolihaa fabi iznil laahi wa liyukhziyal faasiqeen
- Wa maaa afaaa’al laahu ‘alaaa Rasoolihee minhum famaaa awjaftum ‘alaihi min khailiinw wa laa rikaabinw wa laakinnal laaha yusallitu Rusulahoo ‘alaa many yashaaa’; wallaahu ‘alaa kulli shai’in Qadeer
- Maaa afaaa’al laahu ‘alaa Rasoolihee min ahlil quraa falillaahi wa lir Rasooli wa lizil qurbaa wal yataamaa walmasaakeeni wabnis sabeeli kai laa yakoona doolatam bainal aghniyaaa’i minkum; wa maaa aataakumur Rasoolu fakhuzoohu wa maa nahaakum ‘anhu fantahoo; wattaqul laaha innal laaha shadeedul-‘iqaab
- Lilfuqaraaa’il Muhaaji reenal lazeena ukhrijoo min diyaarihim wa amwaalihim yabtaghoona fadlam minal laahi wa ridwaananw wa yansuroonal laaha wa Rasoolah; ulaaa’ika humus saadiqoon
- Wallazeena tabawwa’ud daara wal eemaana min qablihim yuhibboona man haajara ilaihim wa laa yajidoona fee sudoorihim haajatam mimmaa ootoo wa yu’siroona ‘alaa anfusihim wa law kaana bihim khasaasah; wa many yooqa shuhha nafsihee fa ulaaa’ika humul muflihoon
- Wallazeena jaaa’oo min ba’dihim yaqooloona Rabbanagh fir lanaa wa li ikhwaani nal lazeena sabqoonaa bil eemaani wa laa taj’al fee quloobinaa ghillalil lazeena aamanoo rabbannaaa innaka Ra’oofur Raheem
- Alam tara ilal lazeena naafaqoo yaqooloona li ikhwaanihimul lazeena kafaroo min ahlil kitaabi la’in ukhrijtum lanakhrujanna ma’akum wa laa nutee’u feekum ahadan abadanw-wa in qootiltum lanansuran nakum wallaahu yashhadu innahum lakaaziboon
- La’in ukhrijoo laa yakhrujoona ma’ahum wa la’in qootiloo laa yansuroonahum wa la’in nasaroohum la yuwallunnal adbaara summa laa yunsaroon
- La antum ashaddu rahbatan fee sudoorihim minal laah; zaalika bi annahum qawmul laa yafqahoon
- Laa yuqaatiloonakum jamee’an illaa fee quram muhas sanatin aw minw waraaa’i judur; baasuhum bainahum shadeed; tahsabuhum jamee’anw-wa quloobuhum shatta; zaalika biannahum qawmul laa ya’qiloon
- Kamasalil lazeena min qablihim qareeban zaaqoo wabaala amrihim wa lahum ‘azaabun aleem
- Kamasalish shaitaani izqaala lil insaanik fur falammaa kafara qaala innee bareee’um minka inneee akhaaful laaha rabbal ‘aalameen
- Fakaana ‘aaqibatahumaaa annahumaa fin naari khaalidaini feehaa; wa zaalika jazaaa’uz zaalimeen
- Yaaa ayyuhal lazeena aamanut taqul-laaha; waltanzur nafsum maa qaddamat lighadiw wattaqual laah; innal laaha khabeerum bimaa ta’maloon
- Wa laa takoonoo kallazeena nasul laaha fa ansaahum anfusahum; ulaaa’ika humul faasiqoon
- Laa yastaweee as-haabun naari wa ashaabul jannah; as haabul jannati humul faaa’izoon
- Law anzalnaa haazal quraana ‘alaa jabilil lara aytahoo khaashi’am muta saddi’am min khashiyatil laah; wa tilkal amsaalu nadribuhaa linnaasi la’allahum yatafakkaroon
- Huwal-laahul-lazee laaa Ilaaha illaa Huwa ‘Aalimul Ghaibi wash-shahaada; Huwar Rahmaanur-Raheem
- Huwal-laahul-lazee laaa Ilaaha illaa Huwal-Malikul Quddoosus-Salaamul Muminul Muhaiminul-‘aAzeezul Jabbaarul-Mutakabbir; Subhaanal laahi ‘Ammaa yushrikoon
- Huwal Laahul Khaaliqul Baari ‘ul Musawwir; lahul Asmaaa’ul Husnaa; yusabbihu lahoo maa fis samaawaati wal ardi wa Huwal ‘Azeezul Hakeem
In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
- Allah‘s purity has been proclaimed by all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.
- He is the One who expelled the disbelievers of the People of the Book from their homes at the time of the first gathering. You did not expect that they would leave, and they deemed that their fortresses would protect them from Allah. But Allah came to them from where they did not expect, and cast fear in their hearts when they were spoiling their homes with their own hands and with the hands of the believers. So, learn a lesson, O you who have eyes to see.
- If Allah had not destined exile for them, He would have punished them in the world. And for them in the Hereafter is the torment of the Fire.
- That is because they were hostile to Allah and His Messenger. And whoever has hostility with Allah (must know that) Allah is severe in punishment.
- Whatever palm-trees you have cut down, or have left them standing on their roots, it was with Allah‘s permission, and so that He might disgrace the transgressors.
- And whatever fai‘ (left over property) Allah has passed on to His Messenger from them, you had not urged on your horses or camels for it, but Allah gives predominance to His messengers over whomsoever He wills, and Allah is Powerful over every thing.
- Whatever fai‘ Allah has passed on to His Messenger from the people of the towns is for Allah and for the Messenger, and for the kinsmen and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, so that it may not circulate only between the rich among you. And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it, and whatever he forbids you from, abstain (from it). And fear Allah. Indeed Allah is severe in punishment.
- (And fai‘ is especially) for the poor emigrants who were expelled from their homes and properties, while they were seeking Allah‘s grace and pleasure, and were helping (the religion of) Allah and His Messenger. They are the truthful.
- And (fai‘ is also) for those who established themselves in the homeland (of Madinah) and in faith before the former ones (arrived in Madinah), who have love for those who emigrated to them, and do not feel in their hearts any ambition for what is given to the former ones (from fai‘), and give preference (to them) over themselves, even though they are in poverty. __And those who are saved from the greed of their hearts are the successful.
- And (fai‘ is also) for those who came after them saying, :Our Lord, forgive us and those of our brothers who preceded us in faith, and do not place in our hearts any rancor against those who believe; Surely, Our Lord, you are Very-Kind, Very-Merciful.
- Did you not see the hypocrites saying to their brothers from those of the people of the Book who are unbelievers, :If you are expelled, we will certainly go out with you, and we will never obey anyone about you. And if you are fought against, we will definitely help you. Allah bears witness that they are pure liars.
- If they are expelled, they will not go out with them, and if they are fought against, they will not help them. And even if they help them, they will surely turn their backs, then they will not be helped.
- In fact, your fear in their hearts is greater than (that of) Allah. That is because they are a people who do not understand.
- They do not fight you, even assembled together, but in fortified towns, or from behind the walls. Their quarrelling between themselves is severe. You think that they are united, while their hearts are divided. That is because they are a people who have no sense.
- The example (of Banu NaDir) is like those who were before them in near past, who tasted the evil consequence of their conduct, and for them (in the Hereafter) there is a painful punishment.
- The example (of the hypocrites) is like the ShaiTan when he says to a human being, :Become disbeliever then once he disbelieves, he says, :I disown you; I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds.
- So the end of both of them is that they will be in the Fire, living there forever. That is the punishment of the wrongdoers.
- O you who believe, fear Allah, and everybody must consider what he (or she) has sent ahead for tomorrow. And fear Allah. Surely Allah is fully aware of what you do.
- Do not be like those who forgot Allah, so He made them forget their own selves. Those are the sinners.
- The people of Hell and the people of Paradise are not equal. The people of Paradise are the successful.
- Had We sent down this Qur‘an to a mountain, you would have seen it humbled, burst apart out of awe for Allah. We cite such examples for people, so that they may ponder.
- He is Allah, besides whom there is no god, the Knower of the unseen and the seen. He is All-Merciful, Very-Merciful.
- He is Allah, besides whom there is no god, the Sovereign, the Supreme-In-Holiness, the Safe (from all defects) , the Giver-Of-Peace, the Guardian, the All-Mighty, the All-Repairer, the Sublime. Pure is Allah from what they associate with Him.
- He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Shaper. His are the Most Beautiful Names. His purity is proclaimed by all that is in the heavens and the earth, and He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.
Sequencing of Surahs
The preceding Surah had condemned the close friendship developed by the hypocrites with the Jews. The present Surah describes the punishment faced by the Jews in this world in the form of exile and in the Hereafter in the form of grievous torment.
Cause of Revelation
The story of their banishment from Madinah is that when the Messeger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) migrated to Madinah, he concluded a peace treaty with the Jews. Banu Nadir, one of the Jew tribes living around Madinah, were one of the three signatories. The latter tribe lived about two miles away from Madinah. Once it happened that ` Amr Ibn ‘Umayyah Damuri killed two persons by mistake. According to Law, the Muslims jointly had to settle the blood-wit. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) first collected money from the Muslims for this purpose. Then he decided to collect money from the Jews as well in terms of the treaty he already had with them. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) visited the tribe of Banu Nadir for this purpose. Before his arrival, they conspired to put an end to his life.
When he reached there, they made him sit against a wall and said to him that they were going to gather the blood money. In the meanwhile, they secretly plotted that someone should climb the particular wall in the shade of which the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was sitting and drop a rock on him and kill him. But before the Jews could execute their sinister plan, Allah revealed to him in time about their plot and conspiracy. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) instantly left the place, returned to Madinah and sent a message to Banu Nadir that they have betrayed the treaty. Therefore, they are given ten days in which to leave the town and go into exile, and were warned that if they would not meet the deadline, they might be killed at sight. They decided to leave, but ` Abdullah Ibn ‘Ubayy prevented them.
He said that they did not have to leave because he had an army of two thousand men who were willing to lay down their lives to protect the Jewish lives. It is stated in Ruh-ul-Ma` ani on the authority of Ibn Ishaq that along with ` Abdullah were Wadi’ah Ibn Malik, Suwaid and Ra’ish. The Jews fell into the trap of the three and sent a message to the Holy Prophet that they would not leave. As a result, he together with the noble Companions (رض) marched on that tribe. The Jews locked themselves up in the fortresses, but the hypocrites, being essentially cowards, hid themselves. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) laid a siege to the Jewish fortresses. Some of their date palms were felled and others were burnt down.
Eventually, they agreed to go into exile. So, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) forced them to evacuate and abandon their fortresses and, in kindness, allowed to take with them enough provisions, whatever their cavalry and camelry could carry except arms and weapons, which, they were told, would be confiscated. Some of them went to Syria, while others went to Khaibar. On account of their greed, they carried with them even beams, rafters, woods and the doors of their houses. This incident took place after the battle of Badr in RabI’-ul Awwal 4 AH. Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) ، during his caliphate, sent them away to Syria to live with the rest of the Jews. The two banishments go under the names of the ‘first banishment’ and the ‘second banishment’. [ Zad-ul-Ma’ ad ].
The Characteristics of Surah AI-Hashr and the History of Banu Nadir
The entire Surah Al-Hashr was revealed in connection with Bani Nadir [ Ibn Ishaq ]. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) used to call this Surah, Surah Banff Nadir. [ Ibn Kathir ]. Bani Nadir were the descendents of the Holy Prophet Harun (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . Their forefathers were scholars of Torah, which contained a full description of the Last Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) such as his physical features, his signs of Prophet-hood and his migration to Yathrib (Madinah). This tribe was under the impression that the Last Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) would be one of the descendents of Holy Prophet Harun (عليه السلام) and they would have the pleasure of being in his company. For this reason, they migrated from Syria and settled in Yathrib.
Some of the contemporaries of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) were also scholars of the Torah, who saw his physical features and other signs of Prophet-hood and recognized him as the Final Messenger but, as they thought that he would be one of the descendents of Harun they were disappointed when he was raised among the descendents of Ismail (عليه السلام) .
They were jealous and, on account of their jealousy, they were inhibited from embracing the Faith. But in their heart of hearts they knew that Sayyidna Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was the Final Messenger of Allah. When, in the battle of Badr, they saw the amazing victory of the Muslims and the humiliating defeat of the pagan Quraish, their degree of certainty was somewhat augmented. They even expressed their amazement. But distinguishing between truth and falsehood on the basis, measurement, or standard of the apparent victory and defeat is a weak yardstick. As a result, when in the battle of Uhud, Muslims initially suffered a temporary setback and some of the Companions (رض) were martyred, their certainty was shaken. After that they started conspiring with the pagan Arabs.
When the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) migrated to Madinah, as stated earlier, he with his political sagacity felt his first task was to enter into a peace treaty with the Jews of Madinah and other neighbouring Jewish tribes, stipulating that he would not fight them and they would not fight him, nor would they aid and abet those who take up arms against the Muslims, and if the Jews were attacked, the Muslims would assist them. There were many other clauses in the peace accord, the details of which are available in ‘Sirah of Ibn Hisham’. All the Jewish tribes, including Banu Nadir, had their area, strong fortresses and orchards at a distance of 3.2 kilometers from Madinah.
Up to the point of the battle of ‘Uhud, they apparently kept to the terms of the treaty. But after that battle, they betrayed the treaty and started conspiring secretly, in that a leader of Banu Nadir, Ka’b Ibn Ashraf, went to Makkah with a caravan of forty Jewish members to curry favour with the pagan Quraish who were anxious to avenge the defeat of the battle of Badr, and had gone to the battle of ‘Uhud for that reason but were eventually defeated in the latter battle as well. The defeated men returned and the Jews met them.
They conspired and agreed to wage a war against the Messenger of Allah and the Muslims. Ka’b Ibn Ashraf with his forty Jewish members and Abu Sufyan with his forty members of pagan Quraish entered the Sacred Mosque and, holding on the curtain of the House of Allah, pledged that they would jointly fight the Muslims and annihilate them.
When, after this pledge, Ka’b Ibn Ashraf returned to Madinah, Jibra’il (عليه السلام) descended and informed the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) about the entire episode and the details of the pledge. In the meantime, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) issued the command to kill Ka’b Ibn Ashraf. A noble Companion Muhammad Ibn Maslamah killed him.
Subsequently, Banu Nadir hatched many different plots to harm the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، one of which was, as reported earlier, their plot to kill him. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، after collecting blood money from the Muslims in a particular case of murder, decided to collect money from the Jews in terms of the treaty that was concluded between himself (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، the tribes of Banu Nadir, Banu Qainuqa` and Banu Quraizah. Before his arrival, they planned to kill him, as detailed above. The person who was entrusted with the task of throwing a rock on the head of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was a Jew ` Umar Ibn Jahhash by name who had volunteered himself for the task. Had it not been for the revelatory information the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ; received from Allah, their plot would have worked. But Allah protected His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and the conspiracy was thus thwarted and their plan failed.
It is a remarkable co-incidence that subsequently the entire Banu Nadir clan was expelled from Madinah except for two persons who embraced the Islamic Faith and were spared: One of them was ` Umar Ibn Jahhash and the other was his paternal uncle Yamin Ibn ` Amr Ibn Ka’b. [ Ibn Kathir ].
The Story of ` Amr Ibn Umayyah Damuri
Under the rubric of ’cause of revelation’ above, reference was made to the incident that ` Amr Ibn Umayyah Damuri accidentally killed two men. The Muslims as well as the Jews had to jointly settle the blood-wit in terms of the treaty existing between them. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) collected money from the Muslims for this purpose.
Then he decided to collect money from the Jews. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) visited the tribe of Banu Nadir in their area for this purpose. Ibn Kathir writes that the enemy plans to harm the Muslims are many and long-drawn-out. One famous incident in Islamic history is that of Bi’r Ma` unah: Some of the hypocrites and the non-believers requested the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) to send a band of the noble Companions (رض) to preach the religion of Islam. He dispatched about seventy Companions (رض) for the purpose.
Later on it was discovered that this was a mere conspiracy. The plan was to surround them and kill them, in which they succeeded. Of the seventy Muslims, only ` Amr Ibn Umayyah Damuri managed to escape. He had seen and experienced the dishonesty and treachery of the non-believers, and how they mercilessly massacred sixty-nine of his brethren. In the circumstances, one can imagine how his emotions would have been against the enemies.
Co-incidentally, when he was returning to Madinah he encountered two non-believers and killed them. Later on it was discovered that the two men killed were members of Bani ` Amir, a tribe which was an ally of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . Banu Nadir was also an ally of Bani ` Amir tribe.
The agreements of Muslim politicians were not like the political agreements of today in which every effort is made at the very beginning to find out ways to escape or violate it. In the case of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and the early sincere Muslims, whatever the tongue uttered or the pen wrote was treated as part of religion and Divine law and binding. When the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) learnt about ` Amr Ibn ‘Umayyah Damrui’s error of judgment, he decided to pay the blood-wit, in terms of the sacred law of Shari’ ah, for the two men killed. In this matter, he first collected money from the Muslims and then he had to go to Banu Nadir for collection. [ Ibn Kathir ]
Tolerance and Human Rights in Islam: A Model for Present-day Politicians
There are many lessons in the incidents cited above for the heralds of human rights, and for the political leaders and the big powers who talk highly about them and are deemed as ‘Champions of Human Rights’. Let us look at the case of Banu Nadir: They unceasingly were involved in conspiracies, endlessly behaved treacherously and continuously plotted to kill the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) .
Would the present-day political leaders or heads of governments tolerate all this? How would they treat them? Nowadays, the opponents are killed even by sprinkling petrol on them or in some other execution style. There is no need for political leadership or government for that purpose. A few wicked hooligans gather together and carry out the executions. The official wrath and anger manifest itself much more grievously.
But here we are describing the government of Allah and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) : Even when the enemy conspiracies and treacheries reached the peak, no massacre was contemplated. No thought of usurping their property and wealth was ever considered. In fact, the following humane punitive measures were taken:
[ 1] They were allowed to take all their wealth with them, and were ordered only to evacuate the town.
[ 2] To do this, they were given ten days, so that they might be able to take their things comfortably and transfer themselves to some other place. When they did not comply, it became necessary to take a sterner measure at national level.
[ 3] Some trees were though cut down and others were burned down, but even at that stage, no edict was issued to burn down their fortresses or attack them and kill them on a large scale.
[ 4] When they expressed that it was in their best interests to go into exile, they were given the choice that each man could take with him as much provisions as his camel could carry. As a result, they carried their hooks, latches, doors, planks, beams and rafters.
[ 5] No Muslim ever frowned upon any of the persons transferring his stuff. They took their things and moved out peacefully and safely.
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) showed this kindness to them when they were completely subdued and he was in complete command of the situation. He had the power to fully avenge their treachery, dishonesty and conspiracy. But he did not do it. This behavior of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) corresponds to his behavior with the pagans of Makkah when he entered the city after the triumph.
Let us now explain some expressions of these verses in the background of these events
مَا قَطَعْتُم مِّن لِّينَةٍ أَوْ تَرَكْتُمُوهَا قَائِمَةً عَلَىٰ أُصُولِهَا فَبِإِذْنِ اللَّـهِ وَلِيُخْزِيَ الْفَاسِقِينَ (Whatever palm-trees you have cut down, or have left them standing on their roots, it was with Allah’s permission, and so that He might disgrace the transgressors….59:5). The word linah refers to a ‘palm-tree’. Another opinion states that besides ` ajwah, all other palm trees are referred to as linah. Banu Nadir’s orchards were comprised of palm trees. The reference in the verse is to the cutting, by the orders of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، of the palm trees of Banu Nadir who had shut themselves in their fortresses in defiance of the Holy Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) orders to surrender. So, some of the blessed Companions, in order to anger them or cast terror into their hearts, cut and burned down some of their date trees.
Other Companions felt that the palm-trees should not be destroyed because soon, God willing, the Muslims will be victorious and the orchards will fall to their lot as booty. Thus they did not participate in the destruction of the trees. This was a difference of opinion. Later on when this disagreement was discussed, the Companions who participated in the destruction of the trees or orchards felt guilty. They asked the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) whether they were really guilty of a sin, in that they destroyed the property that was going to fall to the lot of the Muslims.
Verse [ 5] was revealed on that occasion to assuage the guilt-feeling of the Muslims that whatever they have done, whether they cut the trees or left them uncut, was by Allah’s leave and it was done to degrade the ungodly Jews.
Commandment of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is in fact the Commandment of Allah: A Warning for those who Refute the authority of the Ahadith
In verse [ 5], the cutting down of the trees or leaving them uncut is called bi-idhni-llah [ with Allah’s permission ] whereas neither of the actions was the explicit command of Allah. Apparently, whatever each group did was on the basis of independent reasoning [ Ijtihad ]. At most, it is possible that they might have sought the permission of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) which is a Hadith. The ‘Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) permission’ is referred to as ‘Allah’s permission’ in the Qur’an. Thus the Qur’an makes plain that Allah has given His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) the right to legislate laws. The forthcoming verse [ 7] of this Surah puts it that believers need to hold fast to what the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) bids them and abstain from what he forbids them. This shows conclusively that the Sunnah is an independent source of the Islamic Law.
Disagreement in ijtihad is not a sin
Another important principle derived from this verse is that if those who are competent to undertake ijtihad disagree with another on a particular issue, so as one of them holds something as permissible, while the other takes it as impermissible, neither of them would be counted as sinners, nor will the principle of nahy ` anil-munkar (forbidding evil) be applied to this situation, because none of the two rulings is an ‘evil’ in the sight of Allah. Under the concluding phrase of verse [ 5] لِيُخْزِيَ الْفَاسِقِينَ (…and that he might disgrace the transgressors) it was explained that the act of cutting or burning down the trees cannot be construed as disorderliness. But it was done to degrade the unbelievers, and therefore it carries reward in the Hereafter.
Is it legitimate to demolish or burn down the homes of the infidels, or cut or burn down their trees, or destroy their fields and farms? The leading authorities on Islamic Jurisprudence are not unanimous on this question. Imam A’zam Abu Hanifah (رح) rules that all of these actions are permitted. Shaikh Ibn Humam (رح) ، however, qualifies the ruling and restricts it. He rules that all of the above are permitted if and only if the enemies cannot be vanquished or overpowered without resorting to the above measures, or if the victory of Muslims is not probable or likely. The whole purpose of this ruling is to break the might and power of the enemy. In the case where Muslims do not win the struggle, destruction of their moveable and immovable properties may be included in weakening their might and main. [ Mazhari ]
The Concept of Fai’ and its Law of Distribution
وَمَا أَفَاءَ اللَّـهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ (And whatever fai’ [ left over property ] Allah has passed on to His Messenger from them, …59:6). The word afa’a is derived from fai’un which means ‘to return’. Thus the time of the afternoon when the shade of things returns to the east is referred to as fai’. The real ownership of the entire universe belongs to Allah.
The ownership of things can be ascribed to human beings when Allah Himself declares them, through His Law, to be under the ownership of a human being. However, when people rebel against Allah, indulging in disbelief and shirk, their lives and properties are confiscated through properly constituted Authority and their ownership return to the Real Owner, Allah. From this point of view, all properties acquired from the unbelievers should be called fai’. However, the sacred Law of Shari` ah draws a distinction between the terms ghanimah [ spoils ] and fai’. The former refers to a property which is acquired from non-Muslims through active armed struggle, as in [ 8:41] وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ (And know that whatever spoils you receive…).
However, the word ‘fai’ refers to a property acquired without resorting to an actual fight, (like in a state of peaceful surrender.) These two terms have been used to set down rules of these two types in the Holy Qur’an. Surah Al-Anfal dealt with injunctions relating to ghanimah or spoils, which is acquired from non-Muslims in the wake of armed struggle. The present Surah takes up the subject of fai’ and the law of its distribution. The term fai’ includes any property or wealth which the non-Muslims might leave behind and run away, or make over to the Muslim Authority willingly or with consent like Khiraj, jizyah or commercial duty.
مَّا أَفَاءَ اللَّـهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَىٰ (Whatever fai’ Allah has passed on to His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) from the people of the towns… 59:7). The phrase ahl ul-qura or ‘the people of the towns’ refers to the Jewish tribes like Banu Nadir and Banu Quraizah whose wealth and property were obtained without armed struggle. The laws pertaining to the distribution of the two types of spoils are different. Unlike ghanimah [ spoils of war ], fai’ is not distributed among the mujahidin (participants in fighting). The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is granted full authority to give as much as he likes to whomsoever he likes or to retain for himself at his discretion. However, a few classes of beneficiaries have been clearly defined. The fai’ must be distributed among the defined five classes.
The foregoing verses set down the rules pertaining to fai’, its beneficiaries and its method of distribution. Some details are available at the beginning of Surah Al-Anfal in Volume 4 of Ma` ariful Qur’an, pages 148-151 and more details of the injunctions are available in the same volume on pages 221-229, under verse 41. It needs to be borne in mind that the wordings of Surah Al-Anfal regarding Khums [ 1/5th ] of ghanimah is almost identical to the wordings of fai’ mentioned in the present verse. Let us compare: 8:41 reads: وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّـهِ خُمُسَهُ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ (And know that whatever spoils you receive, its one-fifth is for Allah and His Messenger and for kinsmen and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer… 8:41).
Verse [ 7] of the present Surah reads as above which means: “Whatever fai’ Allah has passed on to His Messenger from the people of the towns is for Allah and for His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، and for kinsmen and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer….59:7). In both these verses, six classes of beneficiaries are mentioned: Allah, the Messenger, kinsmen, orphans, the needy and the wayfarer. It is all too clear that Allah is the Real Owner and Master of this world, the next world and the entire creation.
The name of Allah in relation to the shares has been mentioned by way of blessing or benediction, because the wealth or property thus associated with Allah’s name attains honour and distinction. It also points to the permissibility and purity of the wealth. This is the view of Sayyidna Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, ` Ata’, Ibrahim, Sha’bi رحمۃ اللہ علیہم and the commentators in general. [ Mazhari ]
In the commentary of Surah Al-Anfal, it was fully and exhaustively explained how wealth attains honour and distinction by the mention of Allah’s name which, in brief, amounts to the following: The prophets are not allowed to avail of Sadaqat or charities, even though they are derived from the pure wealth of the Muslims. The question might arise how the ghanimah and fai’ are made lawful for the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، while they are derived from the infidels? By mentioning Allah’s name at the beginning of the verse, this doubt has been removed. The point is that Allah is the real owner of the entire universe. Human beings come to own certain things when Allah by His own grace declares for them to pass into human ownership.
However, when a certain segment of human beings rebels against Allah, Jihad is waged against them by Allah’s command, which means that, during the war, their lives and properties are no longer sacred. In this way, all their wealth is confiscated in the name of the Authority in command. The confiscated properties are named ghanimah, spoils or war booty – which goes out of the ownership of disbelievers and gets itself deposited separately as being under the ownership of Allah alone. And as stated earlier, the word fai’ contains the meaning of ‘return’ and the wealth is so called because its ownership is restored to the original owner, Allah. No human being has any entitlement to it. The beneficiaries who will receive a share of it will receive it direct from Allah, and therefore it will be lawful and pure like water and self-growing grass which are direct Divine gift, lawful and pure.
In short, the mention of Allah’s name in this context points to the fact that the entire wealth belongs to Allah, and it is granted to the beneficiaries on His behalf. It is no sadaqah or khairat [ charity ].
This leaves us with five classes of beneficiaries: [ 1] The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ; [ 2] kinsmen; [ 3] orphans; [ 4] the needy; and [ 5] the wayfarer. The same five classes of beneficiaries of khums [ 1/5th ] were determined in [ 8:41] and now the same classes of beneficiaries are determined for fai’ property. The rules relating to both ghanimah and fai’ properties are identical: They are in full authority of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، and after him in the authority of the Caliphs. The Authority may retain them for the benefit of Muslims in general, or they may deposit them in bait-ul-mal [ public treasury ] and do not grant anything to anyone, or they may distribute them. If it is decided to be distributed, it must be done within the five classes defined. [ Qurtubi ]
Companions shows that fai’ property was in the Authority of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) during his time, and was left to his discretion. He may disburse it as he deemed fit. After him, his Caliphs controlled it and disbursed it according to their best judgment.
After the demise of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، his share of the booty fell into disuse. The word ‘Kinsmen’ in the verse means the kinsmen of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . There were two reasons why they were granted a share from this booty: Firstly, because they helped the Holy Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and supported him in his Islamic activities. Therefore, even the rich kinsmen of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) used to be granted a share from the booty. [ 2] Sadaqah [ charity ] was unlawful for the Holy Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) kinsmen. Therefore, the poor and needy relatives of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) used to be granted a share from the fai’ rather than from the Sadaqah [ charity ].
After the demise of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، helping and supporting him came to an end. The first reason no longer existed. Therefore, the share from the fai’ of the rich relatives fell into disuse like that of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . However, the poor and the needy relatives continued to receive their share from the fai’ on account of poverty and need. Priority was given to the poor and needy relatives of Allah’s Messenger صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم over other poor and needy people. [ Hidayah ]. See Ma’ ariful Qur’ an, Vol. 4/pp 228-229.
كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ مِنكُمْ (…so that it may not circulate only between the rich among you 59:7). The word dulatah refers to the ‘wealth or good fortune that exchange hands’. [ Qurtubi ] The verse means that Allah has determined the heads of expenditure for the fai’ in this way so that the wealth does not circulate among the wealthy, who would spend it as they wish and desire and give none of it to the poor. The verse is aimed at abolishing an old practice of the Days of Ignorance where the circulation of such wealth used to remain confined to the privileged and propertied class or caste. The poorer segment of the society had no entitlement to the wealth of the nation.
Effective Measures taken by Islam against concentration of wealth
Allah is the creator, cherisher and sustainer of the universe. He knows the human needs. All human beings, whether believers or non-believers, whether lineally rich or poor, are equal in the sight of Allah. Allah has to a very large extent kept the distribution of man’s natural and basic needs in His own Hands, so that every class, every region, every weak and strong people might be able to benefit equally. Allah has, through His consummate wisdom, kept all such needs beyond man’s personal domination. No human being dare take possession of these things personally. Air, wind, atmosphere, the Sun, the Moon, the light of the stars and planets, the rain-laden clouds – all these things are such without which no human can survive for a moment. Allah, the Almighty, has declared all natural resources a public endowment for all. Not even the greatest of sovereign authorities, by virtue of their ruling powers, can ever monopolize or take possession of them. Allah’s creation avails of them equally everywhere.
The second category of necessities of life is what the earth produces, as for instance water and other food-stuff. This is not commonly available. However, Islamic law has declared hills and mountains, unpopulated jungles and natural springs as public endowments. However, legitimate right of ownership of some parts of the earth are allowed under special laws to specific human beings. Some people illegitimately grab the land, but naturally even the greatest capitalist cannot derive benefit from the land without the help of the poor, the farmers or the laborers. Thus despite a sort of ownership of it, he is forced to give shares to other powerless and the indigent.
The third category is gold, silver and money, which do not fall under the basic and natural necessities of life. But Allah has made them the means of acquiring all essentials of life. People who mine gold and silver from the ground become their owners subject to certain rules. The right of their ownership is transferred in various ways to other people. If they are widely distributed and are in easy circulation in human society, no individual will go without food and clothing. But what happens in our days is that the greedy people want to benefit from the wealth to the exclusion of others.
This led to miserliness and greed which, in turn, led to some old and some new systems of monopolization and concentration of wealth. As a result, people’s wealth concentrated in the hands of a few capitalists and people at the helm of affairs. The rest of the population who were poor and indigent had to suffer, because they were deprived of their share in the nation’s wealth. This economic situation, as a reaction, gave birth to such unreasonable economic systems as communism and socialism.
Islamic economic system, on the one hand, shows the highest respect to individual property rights, in that an individual’s lawful property is as sacred and inviolable as human life itself, and human life is as sacred and inviolable as the House of Allah. Its violation has been most strongly prohibited. On the other hand, if a hand filches or steals it, it is, under penal law, amputated. In the third place, all such doors have been shut, through which a particular individual or group of individuals might monopolize it and deprive the general public.
The unjust and unbalanced way of acquisition of wealth, such as by usury, speculation, gambling and betting, allows wealth to concentrate and circulate in the hands of a few individuals. Islam has declared all such gains as unlawful and cut at the root of all such transactions in trade and tenancy that are based on unlawful practices. Wealth that is gained through lawful means has specific ways of spending: The needy and the indigent are shareholders in the wealth in the form of Zakah, ` Ushr, Sadaqat-ul-Fitr [ Id charity ], various forms of expiation and so on. The surplus wealth may be given away in voluntary charity. If a man leaves behind assets at the time of his death, Divine wisdom has set down specific rules according to which it must be distributed. The shareholders in the assets are the relatives of the deceased, the principle in this case being al-‘aqrab- fal-‘aqrab, that is ‘relatives in order of relationship’.
In other words, Islamic law of succession is based on blood relationship; the nearer in degree to the deceased excludes the more remote. The needy in general have not been made the shareholders, because if that were the case, the dying person would have felt the need to spend his assets anyhow, rightly or wrongly, before his death. When he sees only his near and dear ones receiving, this urge does not develop in his heart.
This means of acquiring wealth blocks the way to monopolization. The second means of acquiring wealth is war and jihad. The gains made in this way are distributed according to the Islamic rules. Some of them have been set down in Surah Al-Anfal and others in this Surah. How unwise and short-sighted are those people who give up Islam’s balanced system of economics based on justice, fair-play and compassion, and innovate new systems of wealth distribution, which are unjust and unbalanced, and disturb world peace?
وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ (…Whatever the Messenger gives you, take it; and whatever thing he forbids you, abstain [ from it ]. And fear Allah….59:7). This verse is in connection with fai’ property, and it purports to say that Allah has set down the beneficiaries of this property. However, the question which beneficiary will receive how much have been left to the discretion of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . Therefore, the Muslims are advised to happily accept the amount the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) grants them, and they should not be anxious to receive what he has not given to them. This has been further emphasized by the injunction all (Fear Allah). If anyone collects under false pretext more than what he is granted, Allah is fully aware and will punish him.
The Messenger’s Command is Binding like the Qur’ anic Command
Although the verse was revealed in connection with fai’, its words are general. They are not specific to wealth. They cover all the commands as well. Hence, the generalized meaning of the verse is that whatever the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) gives to a person, be it wealth, any other grant or any command, the people must show their willingness to accept it. And whatever he forbids them, they should stay away from it.
Many of the Companions took the generalized sense of the verse, and on the basis of it, they took the Holy Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) commandment as binding as the Qur’anic commandment. Qurtubi said that in this verse the antonym of ata [ gives ] is naha [ forbids ]. This shows that the verb ata [ gives ] is used in the sense of amara [ commands ] which is the direct antonym of naha [ forbids ]. The Qur’an, instead of using the direct opposite of naha [ forbids ] which is amara [ commands ], employed the verb ` ata [ gives ] presumably to embrace the context of the subject-matter where the verse occurs, that is, the disbursement of fai’ property.
Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn Masud (رض) once saw a person in the state of ihram wearing sewn clothes (which is impermissible in that state). He asked him to take off the clothes. The person asked him to recite a Qur’anic verse in support of his claim that a pilgrim is prohibited to put on a sewn garb. Sayyidna ` Abdullan Ibn Masud (رض) recited this very verse آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ (Whatever the Messenger gives you, take it….”.
Imam Shafi` i (رح) once said to his congregation: (Ask whatever question you wish, and I will answer from the Qur’an.) A person said that a pilgrim killed a wasp in the state of ihram and asked: “What is the rule about it?” Imam Shafi` i (رح) recited this verse of the Qur’an مَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ. (Whatever the Messenger gives you, take it….” and coupled it with a Tradition which gives the injunction relating to the killing of a wasp. [ Qurtubi ].
لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ ([ And fai’ is especially ] for the poor emigrants…[ 59:8] “. The few verses from here till the end of the section describe the poor emigrants (muhajirin), helpers (Ansar) and the general members of Ummah that were yet to come in this world. Grammatically, the prepositional phrase ‘for the emigrants’ is a complement to the prepositional phrase ‘for the kinsmen’ occurring in verse [ 7] [ Mazhari ]. What this verse purports to say is that although the beneficiaries of fai’ are orphans, the needy and the wayfarers as mentioned in the preceding verse, priority and precedence will be given to those whose service to religion, personal qualities and religious perfection are well- known.
Priority should be given to the Indigent Righteous and Religious Scholars serving the Cause of Islam when distributing Charity
This shows that although charities, especially fai’ are meant to fulfill the needs of the indigent Muslims in general, the righteous, especially students and learned scholars serving the cause of religion should be given priority over all others. This is the reason why Islamic governments gave allowance from the fai’ fund to learned scholars, muftis and judges for serving the cause of education, propagation of Islam and reform of human beings, because these verses establish two categories of the noble Companions.
Under the first category fall the emigrants who in the very first instance made great sacrifices for Islam and the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . They endured great hardships, and eventually bid farewell to their wealth and property, to their land and country, and to their relatives and the near and dear ones, and emigrated to Madinah. Under the second category fall the Ansar, the natives of Madinah who helped the emigrants and cooperated with them. They invited the Messenger of Allah and with him the emigrants and thus caused the whole world around them to stand in their opposition. Their hospitality is unparalleled in the annals of the nations of the world. After these two major categories, comes a third category which comprises those people who embraced Islam after the blessed Companions and followed their footsteps closely. The last category embraces all Muslims who will follow until the Last Hour. The three categories are discussed below, in succession.
The Merits of al-Muhajirin [The Emigrants]
لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِن دِيَارِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّـهِ وَرِضْوَانًا وَيَنصُرُونَ اللَّـهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ
([ And fai’ is especially ] for the poor emigrants who were expelled from their homes and properties, while they were seeking the grace of Allah and (His) pleasure, and were helping Allah and His Messenger. They are the truthful…. 59:8)
This verse describes all the characteristics of the emigrants. The first of them is that they were driven from their homes and wealth, that is to say, their only crime was that they had embraced Islam and supported the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، as a result of which the pagans of Makkah persecuted them, so much so that they had to abandon their hearths and homes and emigrate to Madinah. Some of them had to tie stones to their stomach on account of unbearable hunger, and others used to protect themselves against cold by digging holes in the ground, because they did not have clothes to save them from the chill of winter. [ Mazhari, Qurtubi ]
An Important Issue: The rule about the control of unbelievers over the wealth and property of the Muslims
This verse describes the emigrants as poor, whereas a faqir [ poor ] in Islamic law refers to a person who has no property whatever, or a person who possesses a little property, but is poor because he does not possess the minimum amount of property constituting nisab of Zakah. However, most of the emigrants were rich, wealthy and affluent while they were in Makkah. Even after migration, if the wealth had remained in their ownership, it would be inappropriate to refer to them as ‘poor’ because they had nisab of Zakah. But the Qur’an refers to them as ‘poor’ and thus points out that the wealth and property which they had left behind in Makkah, and the pagans subsequently took possession of them, became the property of the pagans and the Muslims lost its ownership.
Therefore, Imams Abu Hanifah and Malik رحمة الله عليهما ruled that if Muslims abandon their homes and possessions and migrate to some other land, and the non-believers take control of their abandoned homes and property, the ownership passes into their hands and Muslims lose ownership. Similarly, if – God forbid! – the unbelievers conquer an Islamic country, usurping Muslim property and wealth, then after having full control over it, they are deemed as owners of that property. Consequently, their transactions of sale and purchase of such properties are recognized in Shari` ah. Mazhari has, on this occasion in his commentary, cited all the relevant Traditions supporting this view.
The second characteristic of the emigrants is described thus: يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّـهِ وَرِضْوَانًا (…seeking the grace of Allah and [ His ] pleasure…59:8). When they embraced Islam, abandoned their country and wealth and migrated, they did not have any ulterior motive. They did all this only to seek Divine favour and gain His good pleasure.
This indicates their perfect sincerity. The word fadl [ bounty, grace ] is normally used for worldly blessings and ridwan [ good pleasure ] for blessings of the Hereafter. From this viewpoint, the verse purports to describe that the emigrants gave up all their previous means of luxury, such as their hearths and homes, and now they were in quest of their worldly needs and the blessings of the Hereafter in the shade of Islam. Their objective was to seek the necessities of worldly life under the banner of Allah’s and His Messenger’s efficacious grace.
The third characteristic of the emigrants is described thus: وَيَنصُرُونَ اللَّـهَ وَرَسُولَهُ (…and were helping Allah and His Messenger…59:8). The phrase ‘help Allah’ means to help His religion, for which they made tremendous and amazing self-sacrifices.
The fourth characteristic of the emigrants is described thus: أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ (… They are the truthful…59:8). That is, such people are sincerely true in words and deeds. The covenant they made with Allah and His Messenger by reciting the kalimah, they duly fulfilled it and proved themselves to be true about it. This verse candidly testifies to the truthfulness of all emigrant Companions. Anyone calling any of them a ‘liar’ cannot be a Muslim, because he is rejecting this verse. God forbid! Rawafid call these Companions ‘hypocrites’. This is a clear rejection of the verse. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) held the emigrant Companions (رض) in such high esteem that when he prayed to Allah, he would supplicate through their wasilah. [ as transmitted by Al-Baghawi and Mazhari ].
The Merits of Ansar [The Helpers]
وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيمَانَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ( And [ fai’ is also for ] those who established themselves in the homeland [ of Madinah ] and in faith before the former ones [ arrived in Madinah ] …59:9). The word tabawwu’ means ‘to make dwelling in the abode’. The word dar refers to Madinah which has a special distinction. Therefore, Imam Malik (رح) ، from one point of view, regarded Madinah Tayyibah as the most distinguishable of all the cities in the world. He used to say that wherever Islam reached and any city that was conquered, it was conquered by means of jihad – including Makkah Mukarramah. Madinah Tayyibah is the only exception. It was conquered by means of ‘Iman. [ Qurtubi ].
In this verse, under the word tabawwu’ [ to settle in an abode ] the words dar [ home ] and ‘iman [ faith ] are coupled. It could be objected that a ‘home’ can be found in a place where a person might settle in, but ‘faith’ is not an ‘abode’ where a person might find a place to settle in. Some of the scholars take the position that in this context the following verbs اَخلَصُوا or تَمَکَّنُوا to be understood and they mean “These are the people who settled in their abode and became sincere and strong in their faith”. It is possible to take the word ‘faith’ in its metaphorical sense, that is in the sense that ‘it is a fortified house’ where refuge is taken. The phrase min qablihim [ before them ] describes another characteristic of Ansar, which means that they had settled in Madinah before the Emigrants, while Madinah was so important a city that all the Muslims living in Makkah were ordered to emigrate to it and it became the center of Islam.
The second characteristic of the Helpers is described in يُحِبُّونَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ (…have love for those who emigrated to them…59:9) The Emigrants from Makkah came to the Helpers, deprived and denuded of all their possessions. Normally, no community is willing to allow such a large number of distressed people to settle in their city. Instead, the quarrels between natives and emigrants are found everywhere.
But the Ansar received them with open arms and made them equal partners in their belongings. The bond of love and brotherhood which the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) established between the Emigrants and the Helpers, and to which this verse bears an eloquent testimony, stands unrivalled in the whole history of human relationships. There was no dearth of the Helpers who were eager to take on the Emigrants. In fact, for each Emigrant there were several applications to take him on. There were many instances in which lots had to be cast. When the lot of a particular Helper fell in favour of a particular Emigrant, he was handed to him. [ Mazhari ]
The third characteristic of the Helpers is described in وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِّمَّا أُوتُوا (…and do not feel in their hearts any need for what is given to the former ones [ from fai’], …[ 59:9] “. This statement is concerned with the banishment of Banu Nadir and their orchards and homes falling into Muslim hands.
Distribution of Banu Nadir’s properties
As stated earlier, the relevant verse has given discretionary powers to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) in matters of distributing the fai’ property. It was a time when the Muhajirin (Emigrants) had neither homes of their own nor any property. They lived in the homes of the Ansar, and worked on their farms to earn their livelihood. When the wealth of Banu Nadir and Banu Qainuqa` were obtained as fai’, the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) called the leader of the Ansar, Sayyidna Thabit Ibn Qais Ibn Shammas (رض) ، and asked him to bring his people to him. He asked: “O Messenger of Allah, should I call my tribe of the Ansar, Banu Khazraj, or all of the tribes of the Ansar?” He replied: “All of them.” They all gathered. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) delivered a sermon in which he spoke highly of the Ansar as to the manner in which they accommodated the Refugee brethren.
He said it was a work of great determination and courage. After that he said: ‘Allah has granted you the wealth of Banu Nadir. If you wish, I will divide the wealth between the Muhajirin and the Ansar; and the Refugees will remain as usual in the homes of the Ansar. Or if you wish, the wealth may be distributed among the homeless Refugees; and they may move out of your homes and settle in their own homes.’
Having heard this sermon, two of the great chiefs of the Ansar, Sayyidna Sa’d Ibn ` Ubadah and Sa’d Ibn Mu` adh (رض) – stood and said: “0 Messenger of Allah, we are of the view that the entire wealth of fai’ be distributed among the Refugee brethren, and in addition they may continue to reside in our homes as usual.” At this all the Ansar unanimously said, “We concur with this decision and are happy with it.” On that occasion, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) supplicated for the Ansar and their children.
He then distributed the entire fai’ among the Muhajirin. Only two of the Ansar received a grant from the fai’ , because they were very poor. Their names are Sayyidna Sahl Ibn Hunaif (رض) and Abu Dujanah (رض) . Sayyidna Sa’d Ibn Mu` adh (رض) was given a sword which was a distinguished sword of Ibn Abil-Huqaiq. [ Mazharl with reference to Sabi-ur-Rashad by Muhammad Ibn Yusuf As-Salihi ]
The present verse admires the Ansar on this attitude by saying, وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِّمَّا أُوتُوا (…and do not feel in their hearts any need for what is given to the former ones [ from fai’], ….59:9). The word ‘need’ means ‘any item of need’. The verse means ‘Whatever the Muhajirin were granted in this distribution, the Ansar happily accepted it as if they had no need for any of those items. It was inconceivable that they would complain about it enviously.’ When Bahrain was conquered, the same spirit of self-sacrifice was displayed again by the Ansr. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) expressed his intention to distribute the entire conquered lands of that territory among the Ansar, but they courteously refused to accept any share of it unless a similar share was granted to the Muhajirin.
The fourth characteristic of the Ansar is described in the verse is: وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ (…and give preference (to them) over themselves, even though they are in poverty ….59:9). The word khasasah means ‘poverty’ and the word ` ithar means ‘to prefer the wish, need and desire of others above those of oneself. The meaning of the verse is that the Ansar used to prefer the needs of others (i.e. the Muhajirin,) to their own needs. That is, the former used to fulfill the needs of the latter first, then they would fulfill their own needs, even though they themselves were poor and needy.
For the interpretation of the Qur’anic verses, there is no need to recount incidents. But because they develop in human beings the highest degree of human qualities and bring about a reform in their lives, the commentators have recounted these events in detail on this occasion, especially Qurtubi. We cite below a few of them from his commentary.
It is recorded in Tirmidhi on the authority of Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض) that one night a guest came to ansari’s house. The latter had only as much food as he and his children could eat. He said to his wife: ‘Put the children off to sleep somehow, and put out the lamp. Then place the food in front of the guest, and sit next to him so that he may be under the impression that we too are eating, but we will not eat so that the guest may be able to eat comfortably.’ At this, the present verse was revealed. [ At-Tirmidhi has rated this hadith as ‘hasan, sahih’].
Tirmidhi records another narration on the authority of Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض) that a person came to the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and said: “I am hungry and distressed.” The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) sent a message to one of his blessed wives, but she replied: “We do not have anything except water.” Then he sent a message to his another wife, and she made the same reply.
Then to a third one and then to a fourth one until the message went to all the mothers of the faithful, and they all replied that they had nothing besides water. Then he addressed the congregation and asked if any of them would be willing to entertain the guest, in response to which a venerable Ansari said: “0 Messenger of Allah, I will entertain him.” So he took him with and asked his wife whether there was anything to eat. She replied: “Only as much as our children could eat.” He asked his wife to put the children to sleep and then said: “Place the food in front of the guest, sit and then get up and put out the lamp. The guest should not feel that we are not eating.” The guest ate the food. In the morning, the Companion went to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) who informed him that Allah was very pleased with the way he handled the situation the previous night.
Mahdawi narrates a similar incident of Sayyidna Thabit Ibn Qais (رض) ، a venerable Ansari who entertained his guest one night by putting the light off. There is a common statement appended to all these incidents: ‘The above verse was revealed in connection with this event.’
Qushairi cites a story on the authority of Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Umar (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) who reports that a person sent the head of a goat as a gift to a venerable personality from among the blessed Companions. He thought that about a Muslim brother that he and his family are more in need of this, so he sent the head to him. When the second venerable Companion received it, he sent it to a third person who in turn sent it to a fourth person. In this way it circulated in seven houses and eventually it returned to the first venerable personality. On this occasion, the verse was revealed. Tha’labi has also recorded this narration on the authority of Sayyidna Anas (رض) .
It is recorded in Muwaatta’ of Imam Malik (رح) on the authority of Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) that a poor person wanted something to eat. She had only one bread, and she was fasting that day. She asked her maid to give him the bread. The maid said that if it was given away, there would be nothing left for her to break her fast in the evening. Sayyidnh ` A’ishah (رض) insisted and gave the bread to the poor person. The maid says: “It so happened after this that a person, who was not accustomed to send any gift, sent a whole roasted goat which was completely covered with batter on the outside, which is thought to be the best Arab dish.” Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) called the maid and said: “Come, eat this. This is better than that bread of yours.”
Nasa’i has recorded that once Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Umar (رض) fell sick and he felt like eating grapes. A bunch of grapes was bought for him for a dirham. Co-incidentally, a poor person came begging. Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Umar (رض) said that the bunch be given to him. One of the Companions furtively followed him, and bought off the bunch from the beggar and gave it back to Sayyidna Ibn ` Umar (رض) ، but the beggar came again and begged, Sayyidna Ibn ` Umar (رض) gave it to him again. Again someone went behind the beggar secretly and bought off the bunch from him for a dirham and gave it to Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Umar (رض) . The beggar wanted to turn up the third time and beg, but the people stopped him. If Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Umar (رض) knew that the bunch is the same one that he gave out in sadaqah, he would never have accepted it and eaten it. He probably thought that someone had brought it for him from the market-place, and therefore he had eaten it.
Sayyidna Ibn Mubarak reports on the authority of his chain of transmitters that once Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) sent four thousand Dinars in a moneybag to Sayyidna Abu ` Ubaidah (رض) with his servant, with the message that the money was being sent as a gift. He should use it as he deemed fit. The servant was instructed to remain for a while in the house to see what he would do with the money. The servant, accordingly, gave the moneybag to him and waited for a while. Sayyidna Abu ‘Ubaidah (رض) took the bag full of money and supplicated for Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) that Allah may reward him and shower his mercy upon him. Instantly, he called his slave-girl and instructed her to give seven Dinars to so-and-so, five Dinars to so-and-so until all four thousand Dinars were distributed then and there.
The servant came back and narrated the story. Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) filled another moneybag with four thousand Dinars and sent it with the servant to Sayyidna Mu` adh Ibn Jabal (رض) ، with the same message to him and with the same instruction to the servant. The servant followed the instruction. Sayyidna Mu’dh Ibn Jabal (رض) took the bag of money and supplicated to Allah for Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) ، thus: رَحِمَہُ اللہ وَ وَصلہ May Allah shower His mercy upon him and reward him.” Then he too immediately sat down to distribute the money. He divided the money into many portions and sent them to different houses. His wife was watching all that was happening. She could not hold herself and eventually spoke out: “By Allah! We too are poor and we should also receive something.” At that time only two Dinars had remained in the bag, and he gave them to her. The servant saw all this, returned to Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) ، and reported to him all that he saw. He said: “They are all brothers, and they all have the same disposition.”
Sayyidna Hudhaifah ` Adawi (رض) narrates: “During the battle of Yarmak, I went out in search of my paternal uncle’s son [ cousin ] among the martyrs, and took with me some water just in case there was the last breath of life left in him, so I would give him a sip of water. When I reached him, there was the last spark of life left in him. I asked him whether he would like to have a sip of water, and he nodded ‘yes’. Just as I was going to pour the water into his mouth, another martyr next to him heaved a sigh. My cousin indicated to give him the water. When I reached him and was about to give him the water, I heard the voice of a third martyr. The second martyr indicated to give the water to the third one. This series of events continued up to seven martyrs. When I reached the seventh martyr to give water, he had already breathed his last. From there I went back to my cousin, he had also met his end.”
These are a few events, some of which relate to the Ansar, and others to the Muhajirin. About a number of these incidents, it is said that the verse under comment was revealed regarding them. In fact, there is no contradiction in these narrations, because it is a well-known habit of narrators that if a verse was revealed under a certain circumstance, and a similar incident took place on another occasion, they mention the second incident as a cause of revelation of that verse as well. In fact, all similar incidents can be said to be the cause of revelation of the verse or, at least, included in its purport.
Disposing of a Possible Doubt
Here we need to dispose of a possible doubt that might arise from the noble Companions’ narratives of self-sacrifice that were recounted above. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has prohibited for a Muslims to give away all his wealth in charity. For instance, it is reported in a Tradition that a person came with a piece of gold, about the size of an egg, so that it may be given in charity. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) threw it towards himself and said: Some of you bring all your wealth to be given away in charity, then they become poor and go around begging.” The question is how and why did the Companions of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) give away whatever they had in the incidents cited above despite the prohibition of such an act?
Answer to this question can be inferred from these very narratives. In fact, people’s conditions are different. Accordingly, the rulings differ from condition to condition. The ruling of prohibition applies to those people who, after giving away all their wealth in charity, regret, and cannot endure their poverty but go around begging. But those people who, after giving away all their wealth in charity, do not regret or feel distressed or agitated, they in fact face the situation with calm courage and resolute endurance. For such people, it is permitted to spend all their wealth in Allah’s way. Let us take the case of Sayyidna Siddiq Akbar (رض) who donated all his belongings when fund was being collected for a jihad. The stories narrated above belong to this category. Such people trained and developed their families also to face the ordeals of life with the same calm courage and resolute endurance. Therefore, their rights were not usurped or destroyed either. If the wealth were in the control of their families, they too would have done the same thing.
Muhajirin [ The Refugees ] Reciprocate the Ansars’ Self-Sacrifice
No social activities or self-sacrifice is possible unilaterally. It has to be bilateral. Therefore, the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has urged the Muslims to exchange gifts with each other and thus enhance their mutual love. So likewise, if a Muslim has given a gift to another, he should repay the gift as a gesture of goodwill. If Allah has granted him abundant wealth, then he should use the wealth to reciprocate. Otherwise, supplication should be enough to reciprocate. It is not in keeping with the principles of ethics or good manners to owe a debt of gratitude to people.
The Ansar displayed a great deal of self-sacrifice in the matter of the Muhajirin. The former made the latter partners in their homes, their shops, their businesses, their land and their agriculture. When Allah gave the Muhajirin affluence, they did not fall short in doing a good turn in return for their favours.
Qurtubi cites a narration of the two Sahihs on the authority of Sayyidna Anas Ibn Malik (رض) that when the Muhajirin arrived in Madinah from Makkah, they were absolutely empty-handed. The Ansar, on the other hand, had properties and lands, and they shared half-and-half of all their holdings with the Muhajirin. The former gave half of their fruits to the latter annually. Umm Sulaim (رض) the mother of Sayyidna Anas (رض) ، gave a few of her palm trees to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) which he granted to Usamah Ibn Zaid’s mother, Umm ‘Aiman (رض) .
Imam Zuhri says that Sayyidna Anas Ibn Malik (رض) reports that when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) returned successfully from the expedition of Khaibar to Madinah, the Refugees – all of them – calculated all the gifts of the Ansar and returned them. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) took back the trees that were granted to ‘Umm ` Aiman and returned them to ‘Umm Sulaim (رض) and granted trees to ‘Umm ‘Aiman from his own orchard.
وَمَن يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ (… And whoever is saved from the greed of his soul, then such people are the successful….59:9) After the mention of the Ansar’s selflessness and self-sacrifice, a general rule of law or a universal principle is being laid down in the concluding part of verse [ 9]. The words shuhh [ avarice ] and bukhl [ greed, miserliness ] are near synonyms. The word shuhh, however, yields the sense of intensive greed for money and possessions. Shuhh [ avarice ] and bukhl [ greed, miserliness ] are absolutely forbidden when a person fails to fulfill obligatory rights, which might be Divine rights, such as Zakah, sadaqat-ul-fitr, ` Ushr, oblation and so on, or they might be human rights, such as the maintenance of the family, needy parents and relatives. It is repugnant and reprehensible if shuhh [ avarice ] and bukhl [ greed, miserliness ] prevent one from spending for laudable and rewardable acts. If one does not spend on customary things, it is not shuhh [ avarice ] and bukhl in terms of the sacred laws of Shari` ah.
Avarice, niggardliness and jealousy are such evil qualities as the Qur’an and Prophetic Traditions have severely denounced. There are glad tidings for those who avoid them. The Ansar have many good qualities, among which is their immunity from avarice and jealousy.Being free of Malice and Jealousy is a sign of one’s being in Paradise
Ibn Kathir, with reference to Imam Ahmad (رح) ، cites the following narration on the authority of Sayyidna Anas (رض) ، who says:
“We were sitting with the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) when he said, ‘A man is about to arrive who is from among the inmates of Paradise’. One of the Ansars arrived, from whose beard dripped fresh water of minor ablution [ wudu ] and in his left hand were his shoes. The same incident occurred the following day. The same person came in front in the same condition. The same incident happened the third day.
The same person entered in the condition described above. When the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) dissolved the assembly, Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Amr Ibn-ul-` As (رض) followed the Ansari [ so as to find out the secret of his being an inmate of Paradise ] and said to him: ‘I had a quarrel in some matter and took an oath that I would not go home for three days. If possible, please accommodate me for three days at your home.’ He agreed. Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ‘Amr (رض) spent the three nights with him. But he noticed that he did not wake up for ‘tahajjud’ (voluntary nightly prayers) at night.
However, when he lied on bed, he recited some ‘dhikr of Allah’. Then he would wake up for Fajr salah. In the course of three days, he did not hear him utter a single word but that of good. ` Abdullah says, ‘When three nights were over, and I almost thought his actions were insignificant, I gave up my secret that I had no domestic quarrel.
But I continuously heard for three days the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) saying a man is about to arrive who is from among the inmates of Paradise’. And for three days you arrived. Therefore, I was curious to stay with you and find out your secret act, on account of which you have attained this high status. But strangely enough I did not see you do any extraordinary deed.’ Then I asked him: ‘What gave you this high status?’ He said, ‘I have no deed more than what you have seen.’ I heard this and was about to return. He called me back and said: ‘0 Yes, there is something. I do not harbour in my heart any malice or evil against any Muslim, I am not jealous or envious of any Muslim, if Allah has given him anything good.’ Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Amr Ibn-ul-` As (رض) said: ‘That exactly is the quality that has taken you to the lofty status.’
Having cited this narration, Ibn Kathir says that Nasa’i has also cited this narration in his ` Amal-ul-Yawm wal-Laylah’ and its chain of narrators is authentic according to the standard of Bukhari and Muslim.
All Muslims after the Muhajirin and the Ansar are entitled to fai’
وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِن بَعْدِهِمْ “And [ fai’ is also ] for those who came after them ….59:10) This verse lays down that all Muslims until the Last Hour, after the noble Companions from amongst the Muhajirin and Ansar, are entitled to a share in the fai’ property. This was the reason why Sayyidna ` Umar Al-Faruq (رض) conquered great territories like ` Iraq, Syria, Egypt and so on, but did not distribute them among the fighters. He retained them as public endowment for next generations, so that the income might accrue to the Islamic public treasury and the Muslims till the Last Hour may benefit from it. When some of the blessed Companions enquired about the distribution of the conquered territories, he referred to this verse and said: Had it not been for the future generations of Muslims, I would have distributed all the conquered territories among the fighters as they were captured, following the example of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . When Khaibar was conquered, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) distributed all its lands. If all the lands are distributed among the present Muslim generation, nothing will be left for future generations.” [ Transmitted by Malik and Qurtubi ].
Love for the Blessed Companions (رض) is a sign that the Ummah is on Truth
On this occasion, Allah has put the Ummah of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) into three different categories: [ 1] Muhajirin; [ 2] Ansar; and [ 3] the general body of the Ummah. The special characteristics of the Muhajirin and the sterling qualities of the Ansars are described in the relevant verses above. As for the merits of the rest of the Ummah, the verse merely mentions one quality of theirs that they recognize the high status of Muhajirin and the Ansar in that they had preceded them in faith and were means of communicating it to us. Further, they pray for forgiveness of all, and also pray that their own hearts be completely cleansed of all bitterness and spite towards true and sincere Muslims.
This shows that for the validity and acceptance of faith and Islam of all the coming generations of Muslims, after the blessed Companions, it is a necessary condition that they have love and respect for the Companions of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، and pray for their brethren in Faith of earlier generations. Where this necessary condition is lacking, such people are not worthy of being called Muslims. Therefore, Sayyidna Mus’ab Ibn Sa’d (رض) says that the Muslims of this Ummah are divided into three categories, of which two categories [ those of Muhajirin and Ansar ] have already been mentioned. The third category remains. If anyone wishes to have a place in the Ummah, he should join the third category by showing love, respect and honour to the blessed Companions.
Someone approached Sayyidna Husain (رض) and inquired about Sayyidna ` Uthman (رض) [ who had by then been martyred ], the former asked the inquirer: “Are you one of the Muhajirin?” He replied: “No”. Then he asked him: “Are you one of the Ansar?” He replied: “No.” He then said: ‘There remains only the third verse وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِن بَعْدِهِمْ “And… those who came after them…[ 59:10] “: If you wish to create doubt about Sayyidna ` Uthman (رض) ، then you will have to leave this category as well.’
Qurtubi says that this verse is a proof that love of the blessed Companions is obligatory. Sayyidna Imam Malik (رح) says that any person who reviles a Companion or holds a grudge against him, will not have a share in the fai’ property of the Muslims. Then he argues, on the basis of this verse, that every Muslim has a share in the fai’ property, and anyone who has no share, his faith in Islam is doubtul.
Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has stated that Allah has commanded all Muslims to pray for the Companions of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and for their forgiveness, whereas Allah knew that there would be conflicts and civil wars between them. Therefore, it is not permissible for any Muslim to hold evil thoughts about them on account of their conflicts.
Sayyidah ` A’shah Siddiqah (رض) says, “I have heard your Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) say that this community will not perish unless the later generations curse the earlier generations.”
Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Umar (رض) says: “When you hear anyone reviling a Companion, tell him, ‘May the curse of Allah be upon the one who is the worst of you’.” Obviously, no Companion can ever be worse. The one who is cursing would be the worst one. In a word, it is a cause of curse to revile a Companion.
` Amr Ibn Haushab (رح) says: “I have found the earlier generations of this Ummah uniformly and strongly advise people to describe the merits of the noble Companions (رض) and their good qualities, so that they may develop love for them. Do not ever talk about their conflicts and disagreements, so that people may become bold and show disrespect to them.” [ All these narratives have been adapted from Qurtubi ].
كَمَثَلِ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ قَرِيبًا(…like those who were before them in near past ….59:15) This refers to the case of Banu Nadir, and Mujahid (رح) says that the phrase الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ قَرِيبًا “those who were before them in near past ” refers to the Quraish of Makkah who sustained an ignominious defeat at Badr. According to Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Abbas (رض) it refers to Banu Qainuqa’, a Jewish tribe, who were punished for their mischief and machinations after Badr. Banu Nadir were banished after the battles of Badr and ‘Uhud, and Banu Qainuqa’ had been banished after Badr. At Badr seventy thousand pagan Arabs were killed, and the survivors returned home disgracefully. Since pagans of Makkah and Banu qainuqa’, both of them faced a deterrent punishment after Badr, both can be the purport of the words, who were before them in the past, and of: ذَاقُوا وَبَالَ أَمْرِهِمْ…tasted the evil consequence of their conduct…[ 59:15] “
The Expulsion of Banu Qainuqa
As stated earlier, when the Holy Prophet migrated from Makkah and settled in Madinah, he concluded a peace treaty with the Jewish tribes of Madinah, and of its neighbourhood. One of its conditions stipulated that they would not fight the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and the Muslims, or assist their enemies. Banu Qainuqa’ was a party to this peace agreement and was the first one to break the pledged word, within a few months. On the occasion of the battle of Badr, they connived with the Quraish of Makkah, and some incidents of their connivance came out in the open. On that occasion, the following verse was revealed وَإِمَّا تَخَافَنَّ مِن قَوْمٍ خِيَانَةً فَانبِذْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَىٰ سَوَاءٍ (And if you apprehend a breach from a people, then, throw [ the treaty ] towards them being right forward…[ 8:58] “. Banu Qainuqa`, through their treachery, had already broken the treaty.
Therefore, The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) declared war against them and the banner of jihad was given in the hands of Sayyidna Hamzah (رض) and appointing Sayyidna Abu Lubabah (رض) his deputy in the city of Madinah, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) himself joined the fighting force. Having seeing the Muslim army, the Jews shut themselves up in the fortress. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) laid a siege to it for fifteen days, and the Jews had no choice but to surrender. Eventually, Allah cast terror into their hearts and they realized that fighting would not pay off. So, they opened the gate of the fortress and expressed their willingness to abide by the decision of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) .
The Holy Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) decision was to have the Jewish men executed. But ` Abdullah Ibn ‘Ubayy, the hypocrite, intervened and pleaded to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) to pardon them. In the end, it was decided that they should leave the area and go into exile and their belongings would be the spoils falling to the lot of the Muslims. Accordingly, they left Madinah and proceeded to settle in an area called Adhra` at in Syria. In compliance with the law of spoils, one-fifth was retained for Bait-ul-mal [ public treasury ] and the rest of the spoils was disbursed among the fighters. After the battle of Badr, this was the first one-fifth of the booties that was retained for the public treasury. This incident took place on Monday, 15th Shawwal, in the 2nd year of Hijrah – twenty months after the migration.
كَمَثَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِذْ قَالَ لِلْإِنسَانِ اكْفُرْ (The example [ of the hypocrites ] is like the Shaitan when he says to a human being, “Become a disbeliever” then once he disbelieves, he says, “I disown you; I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds.”….59:16) This is another example of the hypocrites who made false promises of solidarity and support to the Banu Nadir, and provoked the latter to fight against the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . But when the Muslims besieged them, not a single hypocrite came forward to assist. The Qur’an here uses a simile to illustrate the similarity between a hypocrite and the Shaitan. The Shaitan incited man to disbelieve and promised him the world, but when he was seriously involved in disbelief, he said that he has nothing to do with him. Only Allah knows how many such episodes the devil must have been involved in, textually, however, we find one such episode narrated in the Qur’an in Surah Anfal, verse [ 48]:
﴿وَإِذْ زَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ وَقَالَ لَا غَالِبَ لَكُمُ الْيَوْمَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَإِنِّي جَارٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا تَرَاءَتِ الْفِئَتَانِ نَكَصَ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ وَقَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّنكُمْ إِنِّي أَرَىٰ مَا لَا تَرَوْنَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّـهَ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ﴾
“And when the Shaitan beautified their deeds for them and said, ‘None of the people is to overpower you today, and I am a protector for you.’ But, when the two groups saw each other, he turned back on his heels and said, ‘I have nothing to do with you. I am seeing what you do not see. I am scared of Allah, and Allah is severe in punishment.’
This incident occurred on the occasion of the battle of Badr when the Shaitan misled the pagan Quraish, urged them to wage a war against Muslims, and then he withdrew, and left them in the lurch when they were in the middle of a pitched-battle. It is not clear how the Shaitan did all this, whether he cast suggestions into their minds or whether he came to them in human shape and spoke to them face to face. A full explanation is available in Volume [ 4] of Ma’ ariful Qur’ an, pages 242-247.
If the verse refers to this incident, in which the Shaitan provokes man to disbelieve and when he does that, he washes his hands of them, it does not seem that the Shaitan asked them to commit kufr, because they were already kafirs. He asked them to be firm in opposing the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . The answer is all too obvious, in that it is all the same whether he asked them to commit kufr, or bids them to remain firm in their kufr or fight the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، because it is also tantamount to kufr.
Tafsir Mazhari, Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir and others have cited several incidents where monks and devotees were deceived into kufr. For example, one of the Israeli monks devoted himself to Allah in his synagogue, and fasted consecutively and broke his fast only once in ten days. In this way, he spent seventy years of his life. The accursed Shaitan pursued him. He sent after him the most cunning devil in the shape of a monk, a devotee of God.
He went up to him and exerted himself in the worship of God and thus built up confidence in the genuine monk. Eventually, the impostor succeeded in teaching the monk a few of the prayers that are efficacious in curing the sickly people. Then the former exerted his influence on many people to fall sick, and gave them the monk’s address. When the latter recited the prayers, the devil would remove his influence and thus they would feel cured. He kept up this process for a long period of time, until one day he performed his exertion on the beautiful daughter of an Israeli leader. He sent her also to the monk. He succeeded in getting her into his synagogue and gradually he succeeded in getting him to commit fornication with the girl who, as a result, fell pregnant. He suggested that the girl be killed to save face. After the killing, the devil himself went around telling the story of the killing and put up the people against the monk. They, in their fury, demolished the synagogue and decided to kill him and crucify him.
Then the Shaitan went back to the monk and said to him that there is no way out to save his life. ‘Of course’, he said to him, ‘there is one way of saving your life, in that you prostrate to me and I will save your life.’ The monk had already committed all the sins. The way to commit kufr was paved. So, he prostrated. At that juncture, the Shaitan said to him plainly, ‘You were not falling into my trap. I adopted all these guiles for you to commit kufr. I cannot assist you in any way.’ This story is recounted fully in Tafsir Mazhari and Qurtubi. Allah, the Pure and Exalted, knows best!
The Command to Taqwa and to prepare for the Day of Resurrection
The earlier parts of Surah Al-Hashr has described different events relating to the Jews, the pagans and the hypocrites and their punishments in this world and in the next. Now the concluding part of the Surah makes the believers conscious of their duty towards Allah and advises them to perform the righteous deeds regularly.
The first verse in this set reads يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ وَلْتَنظُرْ نَفْسٌ مَّا قَدَّمَتْ لِغَدٍ those who believe, fear Allah, and everybody must consider what he [ or she ] has sent ahead for tomorrow 59:18) In an eloquent style, the verse enjoins upon the believers to take care of the Hereafter and commands them to prepare for it. Here a few points need to be considered:
First: In this verse, the Hereafter is described as ghad [ tomorrow ], which means the ‘day after today’. This points to two things. First of all, it means that the entire period of this world, compared to the Hereafter, is very short. That is, this entire world, in relation to the Hereafter, is like one day. In fact, in terms of pure calculation, this comparison too is difficult to imagine, because the Hereafter is eternal which will exist without an end. The age of human world is said to be a few thousand years old. If this is calculated with the creation of the heaven and the earth, it will extend to a few million years, which in any case will be a limited period.
This is no comparison to an unlimited or infinite period of time. Some Traditions state’ اَلدُّنیَا یَومُ وَ لَنَا فِیہِ صَومُ (The entire world is a day and on that day we fast.) Whether we calculate from human creation or from the creation of the heaven and the earth, it does not matter, because neither of these factors is important for a human individual. In fact, every individual’s world is made up of the days and years of his age. Every person should be able to realize how short a period that is in relation to the eternity of the Hereafter.
Second of all, this verse shows that the Day of Resurrection is as certain as the arrival of tomorrow after today which is a stark reality, and no one doubts it. Likewise the Hereafter is beyond any reasonable doubt.
Thirdly, the Day of Resurrection will happen very shortly. Just as tomorrow is not very far away from today, it is thought to be very near, likewise, the Day of Resurrection will happen very soon after this world. The first phase of the Hour is when an individual dies, his Hour is already established as stated in a Tradition: مَن مَّاتَ فَقَد قَامَت قِیَامَتُہ “He who dies, his Day of Judgment has been established” because the signs of the next world start from the grave and examples of reward and punishment come forward. The world of grave or the world of barzakh is like a waiting room in this world which accommodates all types of people, ranging from the first class to the third class. The waiting room of the criminals is the prison house.
A person should be able to determine his position and status in the waiting room. Therefore, every person’s Judgment Day starts with his death. Man’s death has been made such a puzzling phenomenon that not even the greatest philosopher or scientist can with any degree of certainty determine the exact time of its occurrence. In fact, every coming moment is fraught with the danger that one may not live to see it, especially in this time and age when it is moving at the pace of lightning and heart-failure is the order of the day. The second phase of the Hour is when the entire world, the heaven and earth and everything else, will perish, though this might take place after hundreds of thousands of years, it is very close in relation to the eternity of the Hereafter.
In short, this verse by describing qiyamah [ Doomsday ] as ghad [ tomorrow ] made man conscious of the fact that the Doomsday is not very far off; it is very close like tomorrow. It is also possible that it might come even before tomorrow.
The second point put by this verse for consideration is that the arrival of Doomsday being certain and also near, everyone is invited to think what he has prepared for the Day of Resurrection. This shows that his original abode is the Hereafter. His residence in this world is like a wayfarer. It is necessary to send something from here for the eternal abode. The main purpose of man’s residence is to live here, acquire and accumulate things and send them forward to the eternal abode of the Hereafter. It is quite obvious that no material wealth or property can be taken with from this world.
There is only one way of transferring wealth [ gold, silver, money and so on ] from one country to another, that is to deposit it into the bank from where the currency of another country is obtained. In exactly the same manner, wealth is spent in the way of Allah and the sacred laws of Allah are implemented and deposited in the Divinely celestial bank, where the currency of reward is recorded in the celestial Account-Book. When a believer reaches the eternal abode, it is handed over to him without claim or demand.
The phrase مَّا قَدَّمَتْ لِغَدٍ ‘what he (or she) has sent ahead’ carries the general sense of the good, as well as, the bad deeds. He who sends forth good deeds will obtain the currency of reward in the Hereafter; and he who sends forth evil deeds will be indicted in the Hereafter. The command of “…fear Allah…[ 18] ” has been repeated. It could be for emphasis, or the first of such command is for man to fulfill the obligatory and imperative duties, and the repetition of the command is to abstain from sins. The second explanation is given by Maulana Ashraf Thanawi (رح) .
Also, it is possible that the first command to fear Allah is to send forth good deeds for the Hereafter by acting upon imperatives set by Allah, and the second command to fear is to ensure that what is being sent is not fake or counterfeit. Fake or counterfeit deeds, in relation to the Hereafter, would imply the deeds done seem to be genuinely righteous deeds, but they lack sincerity of purpose and the good pleasure of Allah. What was done ostentatiously or for ulterior motive or an ostensible action that seems like an act of worship, but having no base in religion, it is tantamount to innovation (Bid’ah). Thus the second command to fear Allah implies that for the Hereafter it is not sufficient to merely accumulate ostensible actions, but to send forth genuine deeds performed with sincerity according to the rules set in religion. Spurious actions will not be acceptable there.
A Few of Allah’s Attributes of Perfection
Having urged the people to be concerned about the Hereafter and having asserted the greatness of the Qur’an, this Surah is concluded with a few of Allah’s attributes of perfection, as follows:
الِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ (…the Knower of the unseen and the seen – 22). The attribute ‘the Knower of the Unseen and the seen’ means that Allah knows all things, visible or invisible.
الْقُدُّوسُ The attribute Al-Quddus means ‘the Most Pure from all defects’, that is, Allah is the Being Who is free from all kinds of defect, deficiency and imperfection which are not in conformity to His Supreme status.
الْمُؤْمِنُ The word mu’min, when applied to a human being, means a believer, but when this attribute is applied to Allah, it means the one who provides peace and safety, as explained by Ibn ` Abbas (رض) . It means that He provides safety and perfect peace to those who believe in Allah and His Messengers.
الْمُهَيْمِنُ The attribute Al-Muhaimin, according to Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، Mujhid and Qatadah means ‘Guardian’. The Arabic lexicon Al-Qamus has explained that its route is ‘hamn’ which means to look after or take care of or watch over’. [ Mazhari ].
الْعَزِيزُ The attribute Al-` Aziz means ‘the Almighty’.
الْجَبَّارُ The attribute Al-Jabbar means the One who is dominant. It could also be derived from the word jabr, meaning to ‘join broken bones’ and thus we have the word jabirah, which refers to the bandage or plaster that is used in binding the broken bones. From this point of view, the attribute would mean that Allah is the Being Who sets aright every broken and useless things, matters or restores all losses and rectifies situations or mends every breakage.
الْمُتَكَبِّرُ The attribute Al-Mutakabbir [ the Lord of Greatness ] is derived from takabbur and that from kibriya’ meaning ‘greatness’ which is one of the peculiar characteristics of Allah. It implies that every greatness is attributable only to Allah who is not in need of anyone. Whoever is in need cannot be great. Therefore, if this word is used for a person other than Allah, it is a defect and sin, because the claim of greatness by a person who is not actually great is false and tantamount to a claim of being a partner of Allah, the Besought of all, in one of His exclusive attributes. That is why the word Al-Mutakabbir, when attributed to Allah is an attribute of perfection, but in respect of others it is no more than a false claim.
الْمُصَوِّرُ (…the Originator of all Shapes….59:24) In other words, He gives shape to everything He creates. He has given particular shapes to all creatures whereby they are distinguished from one another. Every species has a shape distinguishable from all other species. Within one species too, there are differences in shape between males and females. Then there are uncountable differences between the shapes of the individuals of even one sex. The excellence of shaping or fashioning is of such high degree that the shapes of zillions of men and women are different from one another in a way that no face is an absolute copy of some other face. Had it not been so, no one could be distinguished from the other. This excellence and perfection of creative power belongs to none but Allah. Just as takabbur (show of greatness) is not permissible for anyone other than Allah [ as kibriya’ is His exclusive attribute’], likewise no one, besides Allah, is permitted to do picture-making, because that too is the exclusive characteristic of Allah, and picture-making is an implied claim of being associate with Allah in this attribute.
لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ (… His are the Most Beautiful Names ….59:24). The Holy Qur’an has not given the exact number of these Most Beautiful Names of Allah. Authentic Prophetic ahadith have counted them ninety-nine. Tirmidhi has collected all the ninety-nine names in one Tradition. Many scholars have written full books on the subject of Asma ul-Husna or ‘Most Beautiful Names of Allah’. The present writer has also compiled a concise monograph on the subject of ‘Most Beautiful Names of Allah’ published as an annexure to Munajat-i-Maqbul (by Maulana Ashraf Thanawi (رح)).
يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ (…His purity is proclaimed by all that is in the heavens and the earth ….59:24). That all creatures in the heavens and the earth declare the purity of Allah in unuttered language is self-evident: The wonderful, marvelous and amazing things created by Allah, and the awe-inspiring and staggering shapes fashioned by Him proclaim the praises of their Creator in unuttered language. However, it is possible too that the word ‘tasbih’ is used here in its real and literal sense, because according to the authentic view everything in this universe has some kind of sense that accords to its ability. Now, the foremost and primary requirement of this sense is to recognize one’s Creator and paying gratitude to Him. Based on this premise, it is not far-fetched to conceive that everything in nature really declares the purity of Allah in articulate language, though human ears might not be able to hear it. Thus the Qur’an on one occasion says وَلَـٰكِن لَّا تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ (…but you do not understand their extolling.) (17:44)
Benefits and Blessings of the Concluding Verses of Surah Al-Hashr
It is recorded in Tirmidhi on the authority of Sayyidna Ma’qil Ibn Yasar (رض) that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has stated that Allah appoints 70, 000 angels who pray for Divine mercy for anyone who recites the following three times: اَعُوذُ بِاللہِ اَلسَّمِیعِ اَلعَلِیمِ مِنَ اَلشَّیطَانِ الرَّجِیمِ and the last three verses of Surah Al-Hashr هُوَ اللَّـهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ. If he dies the same day, he will attain the status of a martyr. If a person recites the same solemn words in the evening, he will attain the same status. [ Mazhari ].
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
Surah Hashr PDF
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