Surah Yunus Ayat 21, 30, 31 In Arabic
وَقَالَ الَّذِي اشْتَرَاهُ مِنْ مِصْرَ لِامْرَأَتِهِ أَكْرِمِي مَثْوَاهُ عَسَىٰ أَنْ يَنْفَعَنَا أَوْ نَتَّخِذَهُ وَلَدًا ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ مَكَّنَّا لِيُوسُفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلِنُعَلِّمَهُ مِنْ تَأْوِيلِ الْأَحَادِيثِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَالِبٌ عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿21﴾
وَقَالَ نِسْوَةٌ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ امْرَأَتُ الْعَزِيزِ تُرَاوِدُ فَتَاهَا عَنْ نَفْسِهِ ۖ قَدْ شَغَفَهَا حُبًّا ۖ إِنَّا لَنَرَاهَا فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ ﴿30﴾
فَلَمَّا سَمِعَتْ بِمَكْرِهِنَّ أَرْسَلَتْ إِلَيْهِنَّ وَأَعْتَدَتْ لَهُنَّ مُتَّكَأً وَآتَتْ كُلَّ وَاحِدَةٍ مِنْهُنَّ سِكِّينًا وَقَالَتِ اخْرُجْ عَلَيْهِنَّ ۖ فَلَمَّا رَأَيْنَهُ أَكْبَرْنَهُ وَقَطَّعْنَ أَيْدِيَهُنَّ وَقُلْنَ حَاشَ لِلَّهِ مَا هَٰذَا بَشَرًا إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا مَلَكٌ كَرِيمٌ ﴿31﴾
Surah Yunus Ayat 21, 30, 31 Transliteration
(21) Wa qaalal lazish taraahu mim Misra limra atiheee akrimee maswaahu ‘asaaa any-yanfa’anaaa aw nattakhizahoo waladaa; wa kazaalika mak-kannaa li-Yoosufa fil ardi wa linu’allimahoo min ta’weelil ahaadees; wallaahu ghaalibun ‘alaaa amrihee wa laakinna aksaran naasi laa ya’lamoon
(30) Wa qaala niswatun fil madeenatim ra atul’Azeezi turaawidu fataahaa ‘an nafsihee qad shaghafahaa hubbaa; innaa lana raahaa fee dalaalim mubeen
(31) Falammaa sami’at bimak rihinna arsalat ilaihinna wa a’tadat lahunna muttaka anw wa aatat kulla waahidatim min hunna sikkeenanw wa qaala tikh ruj ‘alaihinna falammaa ra aynahooo akbarnahoo wa qatta’na aydiyahunna wa qulna haasha lillaahi maa haaza basharaa; in haazaaa illaa malakun kareem
Surah Yunus Ayat 21, 30, 31 Translation
(21) And he of Egypt who purchased him said unto his wife: Receive him honourably. Perchance he may prove useful to us or we may adopt him as a son. Thus we established Joseph in the land that We might teach him the interpretation of events. And Allah was predominant in His career, but most of mankind know not.
(30) And women in the city said: The ruler’s wife is asking of her slave-boy an ill-deed. Indeed he has smitten her to the heart with love. We behold her in plain aberration.
(31) And when she heard of their sly talk, she sent to them and prepared for them a cushioned couch (to lie on at the feast) and gave to every one of them a knife and said (to Joseph): Come out unto them! And when they saw him they exalted him and cut their hands, exclaiming: Allah Blameless! This is no a human being. This is not other than some gracious angel.
Surah Yunus Ayat 21 Explanation
Described in the previous verses was an early account of Sayyidna Yusuf (علیہ السلام) as to how the people from the caravan took him out of the well, and how his brothers made him out to be their escaped slave and traded him for a few dirhams. First of all, they did not know the value and station of their great brother. Secondly, their real purpose was not to make money by selling him – they wanted to remove him away from his father. Therefore, they did not stop at simply selling him because they felt the danger that the caravan may somehow leave him behind as a result of which he may somehow reach their father and tell him all about their conspiracy. So, according to a report from Tafsir authority, Mujahid, these people waited for the caravan to leave with him for Egypt. When the caravan actually departed, they went with the caravan upto a certain distance warning them on the way that he is in the habit of running away, therefore, they should not leave him free to move around, better still, they should tie him up. Thus, the caravan, unaware of the precious ` merchandise’ they were carrying with them, took him in that condition as far as Egypt. (Tafsir Ibn Kathir)
The part of the story as taken up onwards in the present verses shows the eloquent brevity of the Qur’an when sections of the story which can be understood independently have not been necessarily de-scribed. For instance, the trip of the caravan through various stages en-route Egypt and the actual selling of Sayyidna Yusuf (علیہ السلام) there. All this has been skipped. Stated from here is:
وَقَالَ الَّذِي اشْتَرَاهُ مِن مِّصْرَ لِامْرَأَتِهِ أَكْرِمِي مَثْوَاهُ
And the one who bought him from Egypt said to his wife, ‘Make his stay graceful …’.
According to Tafsir al-Qurtubi, when the caravan reached Egypt and offered him for sale, people vied with each other with increasing bids which rose to gold, to musk and to silk equal to his weight.
But, Allah Tahad destined this human treasure to go to the most powerful authority of the time in Egypt, the Aziz of Misr. He beat all the bids and bought Sayyidna Yusuf (علیہ السلام) .
As we already know from the statement of the Holy Qur’ an, all these things happening were nothing accidental. Instead, they were parts of the formidable plan put into action by the most exalted Lord Himself. That Sayyidna Yusuf (علیہ السلام) will be bought in Egypt by the highest of the high in that country was certainly a call of destiny. According to Ibn Ka¬thir, this man who bought Sayyidna Yusuf (علیہ السلام) in Egypt was what we may call the Finance Minister of Egypt. His name has been cited as Qitfir, or ` Itfir. The King of Egypt at that time was Ruiyyan ibn Usayd, an Amalkite (who, later on, embraced Islam at the hands of Sayyidna Yusuf علیہ السلام) and died as a Muslim during the lifetime of Sayyidna Yusuf (علیہ السلام) (Mazhari). The name of the wife of the Aziz of Egypt who had bought him has been given as Ra’eel, or Zulaikha. So, the Aziz of Misr, called Qitfir (Potiphar), instructed his wife to provide good lodging for Yusuf, not to treat him like common slaves and see that good arrange¬ments are made for him.
Sayyidna Abdullah ibn Masud (رض) said: ` Three men turned out to be the best physiognomists of the world: (1) The Aziz of Misr who discov¬ered the inner excellence of Yusuf (علیہ السلام) from his outer appearance and gave those instructions to his wife; (2) the daughter of Sayyidna Shu’ayb (علیہ السلام) who told her father about Sayyidna Musa يَا أَبَتِ اسْتَأْجِرْهُ ۖ إِنَّ خَيْرَ مَنِ اسْتَأْجَرْتَ الْقَوِيُّ الْأَمِي (0 my father, retain him on wages. Surely, the best one for you to employ is the one who is strong and trustworthy – 28:26); (3) The third person is Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) عنہ who chose Sayyidna ` Umar to be the Khalifah after the Holy Prophet (صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم) . (Ibn Kathir)
The next sentence of the verse is: وَكَذَٰلِكَ مَكَّنَّا لِيُوسُفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ (And thus We established Yusuf in the land …). Given here is the good news of what would happen in the future, that is, Sayyidna Yusuf (علیہ السلام) who has entered the House of the Aziz of Misr at this time as a slave shall soon be the highest ranking man in the country of Egypt when the power of governance comes into his hands.
In the statement which follows immediately after, that is: وَلِنُعَلِّمَهُ مِن تَأْوِيلِ الْأَحَادِيثِ (so that We should teach him the interpretation of events), if the letter واؤ (waw) appearing at the beginning of the sentence is taken as: عَطَف (` atf : conjunctive), a sentence will be considered as understood which will mean that ` We established Yusuf (علیہ السلام) in the land so that he brings forth peace in the world through equity and justice, works towards the economic and social betterment of the people of the country, and so that We teach him to put things right where they belong. The general sense of the later is something which is inclusive of the comprehension of Di-vine revelation, its implementation in practice, and the acquisition of all supportive areas of knowledge, and the correct interpretation of dreams as well.
Verse 21 ends with the statement: وَاللَّـهُ غَالِبٌ عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِ (And Allah is power¬ful in (enforcing) His command … ). In other words, it means that Allah Ta` ala is powerful and fully in control over what He wills and when He does so will, all outward chains of causes in this world start falling in line with His will – as said the Holy Prophet (صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم) in a Hadith: ` When Allah Ta` ala intends to do something, He makes all worldly causes ready to act accordingly.’ But, says the last part of the sentence: وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ that is, most of the people do not understand this reality. They have their eyes on obvious causes. These they take to be everything and keep going after them all the time. That there is the Causer of all Causes and the Holder of Absolute Power over everything is a thought they would seldom pay heed to.
Surah Yunus Ayat 30 Explanation form Jalalain
And some of the women in the city, the city of Egypt, said, ‘The Court Officer’ s wife has been seducing her boy, her servant. Indeed he has smitten her heart with love, (hubban is for specification, in other words, ‘[ her ] love of him has entered her heart’ s pericardium (shaghafa qalbiha), that is, its inner casing). Lo! we see her to be in plain aberration’, that is, in error evident, in her love of him.
Surah Yunus Ayat 30 Explanation form Tafseer Ibn e Abbas
However, the news of this incident spread in the city, (And women in the city) they were four women: the wife of the king’s cupbearer, the wife of the king’s head of prisons, the wife of the king’s cook and the wife of the man in charge of the king’s stable (said: The ruler’s wife) Zelicha (is asking of her slave boy an ill deed) wants her slave boy to sleep with her. (Indeed he has smitten her to the heart with love. We behold her in plain aberration) she is plainly wrong in her love of her slave boy.
Surah Yunus Ayat 31 Explanation
Having explained the linkage of verse before the beginning of the pre-sent verses, we can now turn to the explanation of individual verses.
Said in verse 32 was: فَلَمَّا سَمِعَتْ بِمَكْرِهِنَّ أَرْسَلَتْ إِلَيْهِنَّ (So, when she heard of their crafty comments, she extended an invitation to them).
Here, Zulaikha refers to the talking of women as their ` makr’ or craftiness – though they had obviously planned no trick against her. But, since they spoke ill about her secretly, it was identified as ` makr.’ As for the expression: وَأَعْتَدَتْ لَهُنَّ مُتَّكَأً which follows immediately and has been translated as ` and arranged for them a comfortable place’ is inclusive of the comfort of special pillows for hand and back rest placed there for re¬laxation.
Then, it was said: وَآتَتْ كُلَّ وَاحِدَةٍ مِّنْهُنَّ سِكِّينًا (and gave everyone a ‘knife). It means when these women came in and sat down, different foods and fruits were served, some of which needed a knife to peel and cut, there-fore, also given to each one of them was a sharp knife. The obvious pur¬pose of this was to cut fruits. But, concealed in her heart was what comes next – that is, these women will lose their senses at the sight of Sayyidna Yusuf (علیہ السلام) and would go on to cut their hands with the knife.
After having made all these arrangements, to Sayyidna Yusuf (علیہ السلام) ، who was in some other quarter of the house, Zulaikha said: وَقَالَتِ اخْرُجْ عَلَيْهِنَّ (come in before them). Since, Sayyidna Yusuf (علیہ السلام) was not aware of her vain intention, he came out into this sitting.
That which happened then has been described in:
فَلَمَّا رَأَيْنَهُ أَكْبَرْنَهُ وَقَطَّعْنَ أَيْدِيَهُنَّ وَقُلْنَ حَاشَ لِلَّـهِ مَا هَـٰذَا بَشَرًا إِنْ هَـٰذَا إِلَّا مَلَكٌ كَرِيمٌ
So when they saw him, they found him great and [ were so bewildered that they ] cut their hands [ that is, when cutting their fruit, they saw this object of wonder, the knife uncon-sciously ran over their hand – as it occasionally happens when one’s thought is diverted to something else ] and said, ‘Oh God! He is no human being. He is but a noble angel.’ [ by which they meant that one exuding such light can only be an angel ].’
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