Surah Al Ma Arij In Arabic
سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ بِعَذَابٍ وَاقِعٍ ﴿1﴾ لِلْكَافِرِينَ لَيْسَ لَهُ دَافِعٌ ﴿2﴾ مِنَ اللَّهِ ذِي الْمَعَارِجِ ﴿3﴾ تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ ﴿4﴾ فَاصْبِرْ صَبْرًا جَمِيلًا ﴿5﴾ إِنَّهُمْ يَرَوْنَهُ بَعِيدًا ﴿6﴾ وَنَرَاهُ قَرِيبًا ﴿7﴾ يَوْمَ تَكُونُ السَّمَاءُ كَالْمُهْلِ ﴿8﴾ وَتَكُونُ الْجِبَالُ كَالْعِهْنِ ﴿9﴾ وَلَا يَسْأَلُ حَمِيمٌ حَمِيمًا ﴿10﴾ يُبَصَّرُونَهُمْ ۚ يَوَدُّ الْمُجْرِمُ لَوْ يَفْتَدِي مِنْ عَذَابِ يَوْمِئِذٍ بِبَنِيهِ ﴿11﴾ وَصَاحِبَتِهِ وَأَخِيهِ ﴿12﴾ وَفَصِيلَتِهِ الَّتِي تُؤْوِيهِ ﴿13﴾ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ يُنْجِيهِ ﴿14﴾ كَلَّا ۖ إِنَّهَا لَظَىٰ ﴿15﴾ نَزَّاعَةً لِلشَّوَىٰ ﴿16﴾ تَدْعُو مَنْ أَدْبَرَ وَتَوَلَّىٰ ﴿17﴾ وَجَمَعَ فَأَوْعَىٰ ﴿18﴾ إِنَّ الْإِنْسَانَ خُلِقَ هَلُوعًا ﴿19﴾ إِذَا مَسَّهُ الشَّرُّ جَزُوعًا ﴿20﴾ وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ الْخَيْرُ مَنُوعًا ﴿21﴾ إِلَّا الْمُصَلِّينَ ﴿22﴾ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِهِمْ دَائِمُونَ ﴿23﴾ وَالَّذِينَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ مَعْلُومٌ ﴿24﴾ لِلسَّائِلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ ﴿25﴾ وَالَّذِينَ يُصَدِّقُونَ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ ﴿26﴾ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ مِنْ عَذَابِ رَبِّهِمْ مُشْفِقُونَ ﴿27﴾ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّهِمْ غَيْرُ مَأْمُونٍ ﴿28﴾ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِفُرُوجِهِمْ حَافِظُونَ ﴿29﴾ إِلَّا عَلَىٰ أَزْوَاجِهِمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ غَيْرُ مَلُومِينَ ﴿30﴾ فَمَنِ ابْتَغَىٰ وَرَاءَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْعَادُونَ ﴿31﴾ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَاعُونَ ﴿32﴾ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ بِشَهَادَاتِهِمْ قَائِمُونَ ﴿33﴾ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ ﴿34﴾ أُولَٰئِكَ فِي جَنَّاتٍ مُكْرَمُونَ ﴿35﴾ فَمَالِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا قِبَلَكَ مُهْطِعِينَ ﴿36﴾ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ عِزِينَ ﴿37﴾ أَيَطْمَعُ كُلُّ امْرِئٍ مِنْهُمْ أَنْ يُدْخَلَ جَنَّةَ نَعِيمٍ ﴿38﴾ كَلَّا ۖ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاهُمْ مِمَّا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿39﴾ فَلَا أُقْسِمُ بِرَبِّ الْمَشَارِقِ وَالْمَغَارِبِ إِنَّا لَقَادِرُونَ ﴿40﴾ عَلَىٰ أَنْ نُبَدِّلَ خَيْرًا مِنْهُمْ وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمَسْبُوقِينَ ﴿41﴾ فَذَرْهُمْ يَخُوضُوا وَيَلْعَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يُلَاقُوا يَوْمَهُمُ الَّذِي يُوعَدُونَ ﴿42﴾ يَوْمَ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ سِرَاعًا كَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَىٰ نُصُبٍ يُوفِضُونَ ﴿43﴾ خَاشِعَةً أَبْصَارُهُمْ تَرْهَقُهُمْ ذِلَّةٌ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمُ الَّذِي كَانُوا يُوعَدُونَ ﴿44﴾
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Sa’ala saaa’ilun bi ‘azaabinw waaqi’
- Lil kaafireena laisa lahoo daafi’
- Minal laahi zil ma’aarij
- Ta’rujul malaaa’ikatu war Roohu ilaihi fee yawmin kaana miqdaaruhoo khamseena alfa sanah
- Fasbir sabran jameelaa
- Inaahum yarawnahoo ba’eedaa
- Wa naraahu qareebaa
- Yawma takoonus samaaa’u kalmuhl
- Wa takoonul jibaalu kal’ihn
- Wa laa yas’alu hameemun hameemaa
- Yubassaroonahum; ya waddul mujrimu law yaftadee min ‘azaabi yawma’izim bibaneeh
- Wa saahibatihee wa akheeh
- Wa faseelathil latee tu’weeh
- Wa man fil ardi jamee’an summa yunjeeh
- Kallaa innahaa lazaa
- Nazzaa’atal lishshawaa
- Tad’oo man adbara wa tawallaa
- Wa jama’a fa aw’aa
- Innal insaana khuliqa haloo’aa
- Izaa massahush sharru jazoo’aa
- Wa izaa massahul khairu manoo’aa
- Illal musalleen
- Allazeena hum ‘alaa Salaatihim daaa’imoon
- Wallazeena feee amwaalihim haqqun ma’loom
- Lissaaa ‘ili walmahroom
- Wallazeena yusaddiqoona bi yawmid Deen
- Wallazeena hum min ‘azaabi Rabbihim mushfiqoon
- Inna ‘azaaba Rabbihim ghairu ma’ moon
- Wallazeena hum li furoojihim haafizoon
- Illaa ‘alaaa azwaajihim aw maa malakat aymaanuhum fa innahum ghairu maloomeen
- Famanib taghaa waraaa’a zaalika fa ulaaa’ika humul ‘aadoon
- Wallazeena hum li amaanaatihim wa ‘ahdihim raa’oon
- Wallazeena hum bi shahaadaatihim qaaa’imoon
- Wallazeena hum ‘alaa salaatihim yuhaafizoon
- Ulaaa’ika fee jannaatim mukramoon
- Famaa lil lazeena kafaroo qibalaka muhti’een
- ‘Anil yameeni wa ‘anish shimaali ‘izeen
- Ayatma’u kullum ri’im minhum anyyudkhala jannata Na’eem
- Kallaaa innaa khalaq nahum mimmaa ya’lamoon
- Falaaa uqsimu bi Rabbil mashaariqi wal maghaaribi innaa laqaadiroon
- ‘Alaaa an nubaddila khairan minhum wa maa nahnu bi masbooqeen
- Fazarhum yakhoodoo wa yal’aboo hattaa yulaaqoo yawma humul lazee yoo’adoon
- Yawma yakhrujoona minal ajdaasi siraa’an ka anna hum ilaa nusubiny yoofidoon
- Khaashi’atan absaaruhum tarhaquhum zillah; zaalikal yawmul lazee kaanoo yoo’adoon
In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
- A demanding person has asked for the punishment that is going to befall
- the disbelievers; there is no one to avert it,
- (and it will come) from Allah, the Lord of the stairways,
- to whom ascend the angels and the Spirit in a day the length of which is fifty thousand years.
- So, observe patience, a good patience.
- They see it far off,
- and We see it near.
- (This punishment will befall) on the Day when the sky will be like dregs of oil,
- and the mountains will be like dyed wool,
- and no friend will ask about any friend,
- (though) they will be made to see each other. A guilty person will desire that he may be able to ransom himself from the torment of that day even by his sons,
- and his wife and his brother,
- and his kindred that sheltered him,
- and all those on earth, then he may redeem himself.
- By no means! It is the flaming fire
- that will pull out the skin of the scalp.
- It will call him who had turned his back and fled away (from the truth)
- and accumulated (wealth) and hoarded (it) .
- Indeed man is created weak in courage,
- very upset when touched by evil,
- and very niggard when visited by good (fortune) ,
- except the performers of Salah,
- who are regular in their Salah,
- and those in whose riches there is a specified right
- for the one who asks and the one who is deprived,
- and those who believe in the Day of Judgment as true,
- and those who are fearful of the torment of their Lord__
- __Indeed the torment of their Lord is not something to be fearless from.__
- and those who guard their private parts,
- except from their wives and those (slave-girls) owned by their hands,__ because they are not to be blamed,
- but the one who seeks (sexual gratification) beyond that, then such people are the transgressors,__
- and those who are careful about their trusts and covenants,
- and those who are upright in their testimonies,
- and those who take due care of their Salah .
- Those will be honoured in gardens (of Jannah ) .
- So what has happened to those who disbelieve that they are rushing towards you
- from the right and from the left, in groups?
- Does every one of them aspire to be admitted to the garden of bliss?
- By no means! We have created them from what they know.
- So, I swear by the Lord of the points of sunrise and those of sunset, We are powerful
- to bring those better than them in their place, and We are not to be frustrated.
- So, leave them involved in pastime and play until they encounter their Day, which they are promised,
- the Day they will come out of the graves quickly, as if they were rushing toward idols,
- with their eyes downcast, enveloped by ignominy. That is the Day, which they were being promised.
سَأَلَ سَائِلٌ (A demanding person has asked for the punishment that is going to befall….70:1). The Arabic word suwal/su’al means to ‘ask a question’. The word is used in more than one sense: [ 1] It could mean to inquire about something. In this sense, the Arabic word is followed by the preposition ‘an’ [ about ]; and [ 2] It is used in the sense of ‘request’. In this sense, the word is followed by the preposition ‘bi’ [ for ] as in this instance.
Nasa’i transmits a narration from Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) that this demanding person was Nadr Ibn Harith. In rejecting the Qur’an and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، he daringly demanded:
﴿اللَّـهُمَّ إِن كَانَ هَـٰذَا هُوَ الْحَقَّ مِنْ عِندِكَ فَأَمْطِرْ عَلَيْنَا حِجَارَةً مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ أَوِ ائْتِنَا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ﴾
‘0 Allah, if this be indeed the truth [ revealed ] from You, then, rain down upon us stones from the heavens, or bring upon us a painful punishment. [ 8:32]
The result of this demand was that Nadr Ibn Harith was killed by Muslims in the Battle of Badr. (Mazhari, citing the narration of Ibn Abi Hatim). The Qur’an, further setting down the factual position of the demanded punishment, says that the punishment is inevitable and will most certainly occur in this world or in the Hereafter or in both the worlds. It cannot be averted. The impending punishment is from Allah, the Lord of the stairways. The last statement is also the proof of the preceding statement, in that the punishment is from the Lord of the Ascending Steps. It is not possible for anyone to avert it.
The word ma’ arij is the plural of mi` raj or mi’raj. It means a ‘ladder or a staircase, having steps for reaching high places. The Divine attribute given in this verse as ‘dhil-ma’ arij’ [ Lord of the stairways ] means that He is the Lord of high degrees. This is the interpretation given by Said Ibn Jubair. Sayyidna Ibn Masud (رض) says that these stairways or higher rungs are seven heavens one above another, and ‘dhil-ma’ arij’ means ‘dhis-samawat’, that is to say, malik-us-samawat [ Lord of the heavens ].
تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ (to whom ascend the angels and the Spirit …70:4). In other words, the angels and Jibra’il (عليه السلام) ascend these levels which are one on top of the other. Although the word ‘angels’ include ‘Jibra’il (عليه السلام) ، his name is singled out specifically on account of his special honour.
فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ ( in a day the length of which is fifty thousand years…70:4).This statement, grammatically, is connected to an understood verb, which is yaqa’u [ will occur ]. The sense is that the inevitable punishment mentioned earlier will occur on a day the measure of which is fifty thousand years. Sayyidna Abu Said Khudri (رض) narrates that the blessed Companions asked the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) about the length of the day that measures fifty thousand years. He replied: “I swear by the Being in Whose control is my life! The day for the believers will be lighter and less than the time during which they would perform an obligatory salah.” (Transmitted by Ahmad, Abu Yala, Ibn Hibban, Baihagi through a ‘an’ chain of narrators – Mazhari)
And the following Hadith is reported from Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض)
يکون علی المؤمنين کمقدار ما بين الظهر والعصر أخرجه الحاکم و البيهقي مرفوعاً و موقوفاً. (مظهري)
“The time on this day for the believers will be like that between ` asr and maghrib”. (This Hadith is reported both in marfu’ and mauquf ways, that is, in some versions, this is the statement of Abu Hurairah (رض) himself, while in others it is attributed by him to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) .)
These ahadith indicate that the length of fifty thousand years is a ‘relative term’. In relation to unbelievers the day would be as long as five thousand years, and in relation to the believers it would be as short as the time between ` asr and maghrib or even shorter.
The Length of the Day of Judgment – A thousand years or Fifty Thousand Years? An Analysis
According to the above verse, the measure of the Day of Judgment is fifty thousand years but, according to the following verse of Surah As-Sajdah, the length of the day is mentioned as one thousand years:
﴿يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِّمَّا تَعُدُّونَ﴾
He manages (every) matter from the sky to the earth, then it (every matter) will ascend to Him in a day the measure of which is a thousand years according to the way you count. [ 32:5]
Apparently, there seems to be a discrepancy between the two verses. The narratives cited earlier resolve this apparent contradiction. Length and shortness of time are relative concepts. It will be different according to different groups and their varying conditions. Relative to the entire body of die-hard unbelievers, it will measure fifty thousand years, and relative to the entire body of righteous believers, the day will be made so easy that it will seem easier than a person performing salah in this world.
In between the two bodies of believers and unbelievers are there may be some groups of unbelievers for whom the day will seem to be one thousand years. It is also relative to varying psychological conditions that a person might be experiencing. If a person is feeling upset or is experiencing excruciating pain, time will hardly seem to move for him. An hour sometimes seems like more than a day or even more than a week. When a person, on the other hand, is in comfort and peace, the longest time will seem the shortest.
Mazhari has interpreted verse [ 5] of Surah As-Sajdah differently. He says that the day of a thousand years mentioned here refers to one of the days of the phenomenal world. Jibra’il (علیہ السلام) and other angels with him descend from the heavens to the earth and then ascend from the earth to the heavens. This is such a long journey that if man were to undertake it, it would take him a thousand years.
Authentic ahadith report that the journey from heavens to earth takes five hundred years and the journey back from earth to the heaven takes another five hundred years, totalling a thousand years according to human travelling. Assuming man were to conquer this distance, a return journey would take him a thousand years between heavens and earth and back, although the angels cover this distance in a very short time. In short, verse [ 5] of Surah As-Sajdah refers to a day of the phenomenal world while the verse of Surah Al-Ma` arij refers to the Day of Judgment which will be very much longer than the days of this world, the length and shortness of which will be experienced differently by different people according to their conditions. And Allah, the Pure and Exalted, knows best!
إِنَّهُمْ يَرَوْنَهُ بَعِيدًا وَنَرَاهُ قَرِيبًا (They see it far off, and We see it near….70:6-7). In this context, the expressions ‘far off and ‘near’ do not refer to time or space, but ‘far off in terms of possibility and occurrence. The verse purports to describe that the pagans see the occurrence of Resurrection as impossible, and Allah sees its occurrence not only possible, but a certain reality.
وَلَا يَسْأَلُ حَمِيمٌ حَمِيمًا يُبَصَّرُونَهُمْ (and no friend will ask about any friend, (though) they will be made to see each other….70:10, 11). The word hamim means a ‘sincere friend’. The context describes the horrors of the Day of Resurrection. On that Day, no bosom friend will inquire about his friend – let alone helping him. This is not because they will not be able to see each other. The Divine power, in fact, will make them see each other. Every person will be in a state of ‘each for himself. No person will be able to pay heed to the comfort or discomfort, pleasure or pain of others.
كَلَّا ۖ إِنَّهَا لَظَىٰ نَزَّاعَةً لِّلشَّوَىٰ (By no means! It is the flaming fire, that will pull out the skin of the scalp…70:15, 16). The pronoun of innaha (it) refers to ‘Fire’ and the word laza means ‘the flaming fire’. The word shawa is the plural of shawah and it refers to ‘the scalp or the skin of the human head, and also the skin of the hands and the legs’. The verse describes that the Fire of Hell would be a raging blaze that will pull out the skin of the scalp.
إِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ خُلِقَ هَلُوعًا (Indeed man is created weak in courage…70:19). The halu`, literally, means ‘one who is greedy, impatient, lacking courage’. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) says that the word halu’ in the verse refers to a ‘person who is greedy about unlawful wealth’. Sayyidna Said Ibn Jubair (رض) says that the word refers to a ‘miserly person’. Muqatil says that it refers to a ‘person who is impatient and miserly’.
All meanings attached assigned to this word are near-synonyms. The word halu’ comprehends all these meanings. The verses that follow elaborate on the meaning of this word. In the meantime a doubt might arise here which needs to be disposed of. If it is objected that, according to this verse of the Holy Qur’an, man is created weak in courage, in other words, it is man’s nature or his natural weakness, to be impatient, greedy and miserly – then it is not his fault, and why is he declared ‘guilty’? This doubt may be allayed thus: Allah has created human nature such that it has the innate capacity to do good as well as evil.
He has endowed him with intellect and intelligence. He has raised His Prophets with His Message and sent down His Books clearly stating the consequences of every action chosen by his free will. He has the right to choose between good and bad. Man, in this sense, will be declared ‘guilty’, and consequently punished on account of freely choosing to do the wrong deed, not on account of his inborn capacity. This interpretation is confirmed by the following verses that speak only of actions of choice.
إِذَا مَسَّهُ الشَّرُّ جَزُوعًا وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ الْخَيْرُ مَنُوعًا (very upset when touched by evil, and very niggard when visited by good (fortune)… 70:20-21). This verse describes the fickle nature of man. When bad things happen to him he becomes desperate and upset, and loses patience. When good things come to him, such as wealth and comfort, he becomes begrudging and miserly in spending his wealth for good causes. ‘Impatience’, in this context, signifies ‘that which is outside the limits of Shari` ah’. ‘Niggard’, in this context, signifies ‘failing to fulfill pecuniary obligations imposed by the Shari’ah’ as explained previously. The verses that follow make an exception of the righteous believers to the characteristics of the general body of human beings. This exception starts from إِلَّا الْمُصَلِّينَ (except the performers of salah…70:22) and ends at عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِهِمْ دَائِمُونَ (regular in their salah…. 70:23)
The first exception is expressed with the words ‘the performers of salah’ [ 22]. Obviously, it means the believers, but referring to them as ‘performers of salah’ indicates that ‘salah’ is the greatest sign and the essential characteristic of a believer. In fact, the only people worthy of the name ‘believers’ are ‘the performers of salah’. The following verses describe the qualities of the performers of salah.
الَّذِينَ هُمْ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِهِمْ دَائِمُونَ (who are regular in their salah…70:23). This means that the entire salah needs to be performed with due concentration. Imam Baghawi, on the basis of his own chain of narrators, transmits a narration on the authority of Abul-Khair that they asked Sayyidna ‘Uqbah Ibn ` Amir (رض) about the meaning of this verse (23) whether it implies that they perform their salah constantly and always without any break or non-stop, he replied that is not its meaning. It means they, from the outset to the end, perform it with due concentration – without an intentional deviation This is similar to the verse 2 of Surah Mu’minun:
﴿الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلَاتِهِمْ خَاشِعُونَ﴾
‘who are concentrative in their salah [ 23:2] ‘
Thus Verse 23 describes the quality of Khushu’ (‘humbleness) while Verse 34 وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَلَىٰ صَلَاتِهِمْ يُحَافِظُونَ (and those who take due care of their salah) speaks of those who regularly offer it on its due time and take care of its general etiquette. Thus it may not be surmised that the subject-matter has been repeated. The qualities of the righteous believers given in forthcoming verses are almost the same as those given in Surah Al- Mu’minun.
Rates of Zakah are Specified by Allah
وَالَّذِينَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ مَّعْلُومٌ (and those in whose riches there is a specified right…70:24). This verse shows that the quantifications of Zakah have been fixed by Allah. The details are recorded in authentic ahadith. These quantifications, whether relating to the nisab (the minimum limit on which Zakah is payable) or to the rate of payment, being fixed by Allah Ta` ala cannot be changed by anyone at any time.
فَمَنِ ابْتَغَىٰ وَرَاءَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْعَادُونَ (but the one who seeks [ sexual gratification ] beyond that, then such people are the transgressors…70:31). The preceding verse permitted to have sex with their wives and with slave-girls who are lawfully in their possession. The current verse prohibits sexual gratification beyond this limit. This verse also excludes women who, according to Shari’ah, fall within the prohibited degree. Similarly, Mut’ah (hiring a woman for a temporary period for the purpose of enjoying sex with her) is not a marriage according to Shari’ah, therefore, it is also included in the meaning of this verse.
Masturbation is Forbidden
According to most jurists, masturbation falls under the generality of verse [ 31], hence forbidden. Ibn Juraij says that he asked Sayyidna ` Ata’ (رض) about it and the latter replied that it is makruh (reprehensible), adding that he heard that on the Plain of Hashr some people will come whose hands will be pregnant. He feels these will be the people who used to satisfy their sexual lust with their hands. Sayyidna Said Ibn Jubair (رض) says that Allah punished a nation who used to fondle with their private parts with their hands. A Hadith reports that the Messenger of Allah (صلی الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said:
مَلعون من نکح یدہ
“Cursed is he who marries his hand.”
The chain of authorities of this Hadith is weak. [ Mazhari ].
Rights of Allah and Rights of Human beings both are included in Trust Obligations
وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِأَمَانَاتِهِمْ وَعَهْدِهِمْ رَاعُونَ (and those who are careful about their trusts and covenants…70:32). The word amanat is the plural of amanah ‘trust and covenant’ as in:
﴿إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤَدُّوا الْأَمَانَاتِ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا﴾
‘Surely, Allah commands you to fulfill trust obligations towards those entitled to them. [ 4:58] ‘
The use of plural number indicates that amanah does not only refer to ‘that which people might deposit with a trustee for safe-keeping’ but it also refers to ‘all obligatory rights that are necessary to fulfill’. Breach of trusts and covenants is dishonesty. Trust obligations include all Divine rights, such as salah, siyam, hajj and zakah, as well as all human rights, such as rights that Allah has imposed between human beings, or human beings themselves might have entered into binding contracts and covenants. Fulfillment of them is obligatory. Failure to comply with their terms and conditions would amount to breach, or dishonesty. [ Mazhari، condensed ].
وَالَّذِينَ هُم بِشَهَادَاتِهِمْ قَائِمُونَ (…and those who are upright in their testimonies, [ 70:33] ‘. The word shahadat is the plural of shahadah. The use of plural number in this verse too indicates that there are many types and categories of ‘testimony’, and it is necessary to stand firm by one’s testimony of any type. This includes testifying to the faith of Islam, Divine existence and His Oneness, and testifying that Sayyidna Muhammad (صلی اللہ علیہ وآلہ وسلم) is His Final Messenger. It is obligatory to testify to the crescent of Ramadan, if one has seen it. Giving a true and accurate account of Shari’ah matters as expert witness, and in all judicial hearings is also implied. Everyone is duty-bound to offer the testimony when summoned. It is prohibited to add or omit any part thereof. According to this verse, it is obligatory to bear testimony, to be upright in it and stand firm by it.
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
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