Surah Sajdah In Arabic
الم ﴿1﴾ تَنْزِيلُ الْكِتَابِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ مِنْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿2﴾ أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَاهُ ۚ بَلْ هُوَ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكَ لِتُنْذِرَ قَوْمًا مَا أَتَاهُمْ مِنْ نَذِيرٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ ﴿3﴾ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۖ مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ وَلِيٍّ وَلَا شَفِيعٍ ۚ أَفَلَا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ ﴿4﴾ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ ثُمَّ يَعْرُجُ إِلَيْهِ فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِمَّا تَعُدُّونَ ﴿5﴾ ذَٰلِكَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿6﴾ الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ ۖ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنْسَانِ مِنْ طِينٍ ﴿7﴾ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِنْ سُلَالَةٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ مَهِينٍ ﴿8﴾ ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِنْ رُوحِهِ ۖ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ ۚ قَلِيلًا مَا تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿9﴾ وَقَالُوا أَإِذَا ضَلَلْنَا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَإِنَّا لَفِي خَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ ۚ بَلْ هُمْ بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّهِمْ كَافِرُونَ ﴿10﴾ قُلْ يَتَوَفَّاكُمْ مَلَكُ الْمَوْتِ الَّذِي وُكِّلَ بِكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ ﴿11﴾ وَلَوْ تَرَىٰ إِذِ الْمُجْرِمُونَ نَاكِسُو رُءُوسِهِمْ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ رَبَّنَا أَبْصَرْنَا وَسَمِعْنَا فَارْجِعْنَا نَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا إِنَّا مُوقِنُونَ ﴿12﴾ وَلَوْ شِئْنَا لَآتَيْنَا كُلَّ نَفْسٍ هُدَاهَا وَلَٰكِنْ حَقَّ الْقَوْلُ مِنِّي لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنَ الْجِنَّةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ ﴿13﴾ فَذُوقُوا بِمَا نَسِيتُمْ لِقَاءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَٰذَا إِنَّا نَسِينَاكُمْ ۖ وَذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْخُلْدِ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿14﴾ إِنَّمَا يُؤْمِنُ بِآيَاتِنَا الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِّرُوا بِهَا خَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَسَبَّحُوا بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَهُمْ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ ۩ ﴿15﴾ تَتَجَافَىٰ جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُمْ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنْفِقُونَ ﴿16﴾ فَلَا تَعْلَمُ نَفْسٌ مَا أُخْفِيَ لَهُمْ مِنْ قُرَّةِ أَعْيُنٍ جَزَاءً بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿17﴾ أَفَمَنْ كَانَ مُؤْمِنًا كَمَنْ كَانَ فَاسِقًا ۚ لَا يَسْتَوُونَ ﴿18﴾ أَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَلَهُمْ جَنَّاتُ الْمَأْوَىٰ نُزُلًا بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿19﴾ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فَسَقُوا فَمَأْوَاهُمُ النَّارُ ۖ كُلَّمَا أَرَادُوا أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا أُعِيدُوا فِيهَا وَقِيلَ لَهُمْ ذُوقُوا عَذَابَ النَّارِ الَّذِي كُنْتُمْ بِهِ تُكَذِّبُونَ ﴿20﴾ وَلَنُذِيقَنَّهُمْ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ الْأَدْنَىٰ دُونَ الْعَذَابِ الْأَكْبَرِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ ﴿21﴾ وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ ذُكِّرَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِ ثُمَّ أَعْرَضَ عَنْهَا ۚ إِنَّا مِنَ الْمُجْرِمِينَ مُنْتَقِمُونَ ﴿22﴾ وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ فَلَا تَكُنْ فِي مِرْيَةٍ مِنْ لِقَائِهِ ۖ وَجَعَلْنَاهُ هُدًى لِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ ﴿23﴾ وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُوا ۖ وَكَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يُوقِنُونَ ﴿24﴾ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ﴿25﴾ أَوَلَمْ يَهْدِ لَهُمْ كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ مِنَ الْقُرُونِ يَمْشُونَ فِي مَسَاكِنِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ ۖ أَفَلَا يَسْمَعُونَ ﴿26﴾ أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّا نَسُوقُ الْمَاءَ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ الْجُرُزِ فَنُخْرِجُ بِهِ زَرْعًا تَأْكُلُ مِنْهُ أَنْعَامُهُمْ وَأَنْفُسُهُمْ ۖ أَفَلَا يُبْصِرُونَ ﴿27﴾ وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هَٰذَا الْفَتْحُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿28﴾ قُلْ يَوْمَ الْفَتْحِ لَا يَنْفَعُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِيمَانُهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْظَرُونَ ﴿29﴾ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَانْتَظِرْ إِنَّهُمْ مُنْتَظِرُونَ ﴿30﴾
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Tanzeelul Kitaabi laa raiba feehi mir rabbil ‘aalameen
- Am yaqooloonaf taraahu bal huwal haqqu mir rabbika litunzira qawma maaa ataahum min nazeerim min qablika la’allahum yahtadoon
- Allaahul lazee khalaqas samaawaati wal arda wa maa bainahumaa fee sittati ayyaamin thummas tawaa ‘alal ‘arsh; maa lakum min doonihee minw-waliyyinw-wala shafee’; afalaa tatazakkaroon
- Yudabbirul amra minas samaaa’i ilal ardi thumma ya’ruju ilaihi fee yawmin kaana miqdaaruhooo alfa sanatim mimmaa ta’uddoon
- Zaalika ‘aalimul ghaybi wa shahaadatil ‘azeezur raheem
- Allazee ahsana kulla shai in khalaqa; wa bada a khalqal insaani min teen
- Thumma ja’ala naslahoo min sulaalatim mim maaa’immaheen
- Thumma sawwaahu wa nafakha feehi mir roohihih; wa ja’ala lakumus sam’a wal-absaara wal-af’idah; qaleelam maa tashkuroon
- Wa qaalooo ‘a-izaa dalalnaa fil ardi ‘a-innaa lafee khalqin jadeed; bal hum biliqaaa’i rabbihim kaafiroon
- Qul yatawaffaakum malakul mawtil lazee wukkila bikum Thumma ilaa rabbikum turja’oon (section 1)
- Wa law taraaa izil mujrimoona naakisoo ru’oosihim ‘inda rabbihim rabbanaaa absarnaa wa sami’naa farji’naa na’mal saalihan innaa mooqinoon
- Wa law shi’naa la-aatainaa kulla nafsin hudaahaa wa laakin haqqal qawlu minnee la amla’anna jahannama minal jinnati wannaasi ajma’een
- Fazooqoo bimaa naseetum liqaaa’a yawmikum haaza innaa naseenaakum wa zooqoo ‘azaabal khuldi bimaa kuntum ta’maloon
- Innamaa yu’minu bi aayaatinal lazeena izaa zukkiroo bihaa kharroo sujjadanw wa sabbahoo bihamdi rabbihim wa hum laa yastakbiroon (make sajda)
- Tatajaafaa junoobuhum ‘anil madaaji’i yad’oona rabbahum khawfanw wa tama’anw wa mimmaa razaqnaahum yunfiqoon
- Falaa ta’lamu nafsum maaa ukhfiya lahum min qurrati a’yunin jazaaa’am bimaa kaanoo ya’maloon
- Afaman kaana mu’minan kaman kaana faasiqaa; laa yasta woon
- Ammal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati falahum jannaatul ma’waa nuzulam bimaa kaanoo ya’maloon
- Wa ammal lazeena fasaqoo fama’waahumun Naaru kullamaaa araadooo any yakhrujoo minhaaa u’eedoo feehaa wa qeela lahum zooqoo ‘azaaaban Naaril lazee kuntum bihee tukazziboon
- Wa lanuzeeqan nahum minal ‘azaabil adnaa doonal ‘azaabil akbari la’allahum yarji’oon
- Wa man azlamu mimman zukkira bi aayaati rabbihee summa a’rada ‘anhaa; innaa minal mujrimeena muntaqimoon(section 2)
- Wa laqad aatainaa Moosal Kitaaba falaa takun fee miryatim mil liqaaa’ihee wa ja’alnaahu hudal li Baneee Israaa’eel
- Wa ja’alnaa minhum a’immatany yahdoona bi amrinaa lammaa sabaroo wa kaanoo bi aayaatinaa yooqinoon
- Inna rabbaka huwa yafsilu bainahum yawmal qiyaamati feemaa kaanoo feehi yakhtalifoon
- Awalam yahdi lahum kam ahlaknaa min qablihim minal qurooni yamshoona fee masaakinihim; inna fee zaalika la aayaatin afalaa yasma’oon
- Awalam yaraw annaa nasooqul maaa’a ilal ardil juruzi fanukhriju bihee zar’an ta’kulu minhu an’aamuhum wa anfusuhum afalaa yubsiroon
- Wa yaqooloona mataa haazal fath hu in kuntum saadiqeen
- Qul yawmal fath hi laa yanfa’ul lazeena kafarooo eemaanuhum wa laa hum yunzaroon
- Fa a’rid ‘anhum wantazir innahum muntaziroon (section 3)
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
- Lam. Mim
- The revelation of the Scripture whereof there is no doubt is from the Lord of the Worlds.
- Or say they: He hath invented it? Nay, but it is the Truth from thy Lord, that thou mayst warn a folk to whom no warner came before thee, that haply they may walk aright.
- Allah it is Who created the heavens and the earth, and that which is between them, in six Days. Then He mounted the Throne. Ye have not, beside Him, a protecting friend or mediator. Will ye not then remember?
- He directeth the ordinance from the heaven unto the earth; then it ascendeth unto Him in a Day, whereof the measure is a thousand years of that ye reckon.
- Such is the Knower of the Invisible and the Visible, the Mighty, the Merciful,
- Who made all things good which He created, and He began the creation of man from clay;
- Then He made his seed from a draught of despised fluid;
- Then He fashioned him and breathed into him of His Spirit; and appointed for you hearing and sight and hearts. Small thanks give ye!
- And they say: When we are lost in the earth, how can we then be re-created? Nay but they are disbelievers in the meeting with their Lord.
- Say: The angel of death, who hath charge concerning you, will gather you, and afterward unto your Lord ye will be returned.
- Couldst thou but see when the guilty hang their heads before their Lord, (and say): Our Lord! We have now seen and heard, so send us back; we will do right, now we are sure.
- And if We had so willed, We could have given every soul its guidance, but the word from Me concerning evildoers took effect: that I will fill hell with the jinn and mankind together.
- So taste (the evil of your deeds). Forasmuch as ye forgot the meeting of this your day, lo! We forget you. Taste the doom of immortality because of what ye used to do.
- Only those believe in Our revelations who, when they are reminded of them, fall down prostrate and hymn the praise of their Lord, and they are not scornful,
- Who forsake their beds to cry unto their Lord in fear and hope, and spend of that We have bestowed on them.
- No soul knoweth what is kept hid for them of joy, as a reward for what they used to do.
- Is he who is a believer like unto him who is an evil-liver? They are not alike.
- But as for those who believe and do good works, for them are the Gardens of Retreat – a welcome (in reward) for what they used to do.
- And as for those who do evil, their retreat is the Fire. Whenever they desire to issue forth from thence, they are brought back thither. Unto them it is said: Taste the torment of the Fire which ye used to deny.
- And verily We make them taste the lower punishment before the greater, that haply they may return.
- And who doth greater wrong than he who is reminded of the revelations of his Lord, then turneth from them. Lo! We shall requite the guilty.
- We verily gave Moses the Scripture; so be not ye in doubt of his receiving it; and We appointed it a guidance for the Children of Israel.
- And when they became steadfast and believed firmly in Our revelations, We appointed from among them leaders who guided by Our command.
- Lo! thy Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that wherein they used to differ.
- Is it not a guidance for them (to observe) how many generations We destroyed before them, amid whose dwelling places they do walk? Lo! therein verily are portents! Will they not then heed?
- Have they not seen how We lead the water to the barren land and therewith bring forth crops whereof their cattle eat, and they themselves? Will they not then see?
- And they say: When cometh this victory (of yours) if ye are truthful?
- Say (unto them): On the day of the victory the faith of those who disbelieve (and who then will believe) will not avail them, neither will they be reprieved.
- So withdraw from them ( O Muhammad), and await (the event). Lo! they (also) are awaiting (it).
[From Holy Quran Translation by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall]
اَمْ يَقُوْلُوْنَ افْتَرٰىهُ ۚ بَلْ هُوَ الْحَـقُّ مِنْ رَّبِّكَ لِتُنْذِرَ قَوْمًا مَّآ اَتٰىهُمْ مِّنْ نَّذِيْرٍ مِّنْ قَبْلِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُوْنَ
At this place, the word: نَّذِيرٍ (nadhir: warner) in: مَّا أَتَاهُم مِّن نَّذِيرٍ (to whom no warner has come.. -3)means a rasul or messenger.The sense is that no messenger had appeared amidst the Quraish of Makkah before the Holy Prophet t. This does not mean that the call of the messengers had just not reached them until that time, because it was clearly said in another verse of the Qur’an: وَإِن مِّنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خَلَا فِيهَا نَذِيرٌ (And there was no community without a warner having passed among them – 35:24). In this verse, (i.e. the verse 35:24) the word: نَّذِيرٍ (warner) appears in its general lexical sense, that is, one who calls people towards Allah, whether a messenger or prophet or one of their deputies, khali’fah or the ` alim of din. So, from this verse, it seems that the call of pure monotheism (tauhid) had reached all communities and groups. That is correct in its place and certainly the dictate of universal Divine mercy.
Commentator Abu Hayyan says that the call to tauhid and ‘iman has never ceased in any time or place or people. And wherever a long time passed after the appearance of a prophet, it resulted in the dearth of those having the knowledge of the legacy of prophethood. Thereupon, some new prophet or messenger was sent. This requires that the call to tauhid should have reached the Arab peoples definitely, and much earlier. But, for this it is not necessary that the call should have been brought in by some prophet or messenger in person. It is possible that it may have reached through the learned serving as deputies to the prophetic mission. Therefore, the verses of this Surah, Surah Ya Sin and others which prove that no nadhir (warner) had appeared amidst the Quraish of Arabia before the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) must be approached with the necessary consideration that the word: نَّذِيرٍ (nadhir) used there should mean a prophet and messenger in the technical sense denoting that no prophet and messenger had come amidst those people before the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) – even though, the call to tauhid and ‘iman may have reached there too through other means.
Before the period of فَترَۃ fatrah, that is, before the appearance of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، it stands proved about some blessed souls who firmly adhered to the faith of Sayyidna Ibrahim and Ismail (علیہما السلام) . They believed in the Oneness of Allah and were averse to the worship of and sacrifices for idols.
Ruh-ul-Ma’ ani reports from the Maghazi of Musa Ibn ‘Uqbah about one such person whose name was Zayd Ibn ` Amr Ibn Nufayl. He had also met the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، before he was ordained as a prophet. But, it was still before his prophethood that he died in the year the Quraish had built the edifice of the Baytullah – and this happened five years prior to his prophethood. About him, Musa Ibn ‘Uqbah says, ` He used to stop the Quraish from indulging in the worship of idols. He opposed the offering of sacrifices in the name of idols as an evil practice and would not eat the meat from animals slaughtered by the Mushriks.’
Abu Dawud Tayalisi has reported from Sayyidna Said Ibn Zayd Ibn Amr (رض) ، the son of Zayd Ibn ` Amr Ibn Nufayl, one of the celebrated ten (عَشرۃ مُبَشّرّۃ) among the noble Sahabah, that he had submitted before the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) saying: “You already know about my father that he adhered to pure monotheism and rejected idolatry. Can I, then, pray for his forgiveness?” The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, “Yes, for him the prayer of forgiveness is permissible. He will, on the day of Qiyamah, rise as a community of his own.” (Ruh-ul-Ma’ ani)
Similarly, Warqah Ibn Nawfal (رض) who was present during the initial period of the prophethood and the revelation of the Qur’an was an adherent of pure monotheism (tauhid). He had expressed his resolve to help the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) but he died soon after. These examples prove that the people of Arabia were though not totally deprived of the Divine call to faith and monotheism, but that no prophet had appeared amidst them as such. Allah knows best.
All three verses cited above carry an affirmation of the veracity of the Qur’an and the Prophet of Islam.
ذٰلِكَ عٰلِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ الْعَزِيْزُ الرَّحِيْمُ
The length of the day of Qiyamah
The text in verse 5 cited above says: فِي يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ مِّمَّا تَعُدُّونَ (in a day the measure of which is a thousand years according to the way you count – 5). And it appears in a verse of Surah Al-Ma` arij:… (in a day the extent of which is fifty thousand years – 70:4).
A simple explanation of this is what appears in Bayan-ul-Qur’an – since this day will be horrendous, people would find it very long. Then, this length will be felt in terms of one’s measure of faith and deeds. Big criminals will find the day longer while the small ones will find it comparatively shorter, so much so that the day some would feel to be of a thousand years, to others, it would appear as of fifty thousand years.
Tafsir Ruh-ul-Ma’ ani reports several other explanations from the ` Ulama’ and Sufiya’. But, all these are nothing but conjectures. Something which can be traced back to a proved meaning of the Qur’an or something which can be believed in is just not there. Therefore, the most sound approach in this matter is the same as was taken by the early elders of Islam, the Sahabah and the Tabi` in: They had left the knowledge of this difference of one and fifty to Allah without explaining it on the basis of human whims and, on their part, they had found it sufficient to say, ` we do not know.’
About it, Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Abbas (رض) said:
قَالَ ابن عباس: هما يومان ذكرهما الله فِي كِتَابِهِ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِهِمَا، فَكَرِهَ أَنْ يَقُولَ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَعْلَمُ. تفسير ابن كثير ط العلمية (1/ 13)
They are two days mentioned by Allah Ta’ ala in His Book. Allah Ta’ ala knows best about them and I dislike to say in the matter of the Book of Allah that which I do not know.
الَّذِيْٓ اَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهٗ وَبَدَاَ خَلْقَ الْاِنْسَانِ مِنْ طِيْنٍ
Everything is good in this world. Evil comes through its wrong use.
In verse 7, it was said: الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ “Who made well whatever He created good”. The reason is that Allah Ta’ ala has made whatever He has created in this world under the dictate of His wisdom, and under the essential consideration of what is beneficial for the whole system. Therefore, everything has a beauty of its own. And the most beautiful and better than all is the making of man as it was said: لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ فِي أَحْسَنِ تَقْوِيمٍ (Surely, We did create man in the best of symmetry – 95:4).
Then there are creations other than man that may outwardly be taken as bad. In fact, dogs, pigs, snakes, scorpions and wolfs are commonly considered bad because they are either poisonous or beastly. But, in terms of the expedient benefits of the world as a whole, none of these is really bad. A proverbial poetic observation in Urdu puts it as:
نہیں ہے چیز نکمّی کوئی زمانے میں کوئی بُرا نہیں قدرت کے کارخانے میں
There is nothing useless in the world
There is no one bad in the workshop of nature.
The author of Bayan ul-Qur’an has said, ‘the text’s كُلَّ شَيْءٍ (whatever) includes all substances and accidents, that is, also things which have corporeal substance, such as, animals, plants and minerals etc. as well as incorporeal things which include even morals and deeds. So much so that morals which are identified as bad – anger, greed, desire and their likes – are not bad in themselves. The bad about them emerges when they are used out of place. If they stay in their proper place, there is nothing bad in them. But, the sense being driven home here relates to the objective of their creation ( takwin )and introduction of these things – for that is nothing but good according to divine wisdom. However, the qualities of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ are attached to them in relation to the human acts and their effects on individuals. We can call it one’s right or choice employed in doing something. Then, in those terms, everything is not good, in fact, it is circumscribed by a little detail, that is, whatever has not been allowed by Allah Ta` Hla is not good, but is, rather bad.’ Allah knows best.
The sentence that follows next reads: وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنسَانِ مِن طِينٍ (and started the creation of man from clay – 7). Earlier, it was said that Allah Ta’ ala has made everything ‘good’ in this world. Mentioned thereafter was man, the most beautiful of all. Then, to give expression to His most perfect power alongside, it was also said that the making of man as the most superior form of creation was not because the essential ingredient of his creation was most noble, elegant and superior, which may have made it so. In fact, as for the essential ingredient that went into his making, it was something as mean and lowly as the semen. Thereafter, the rest was a masterpiece of His perfect power and profound wisdom. It was this great combination that took something so low to such a height that man was rated as the most noble Divine creation.
قُلْ يَتَوَفّٰىكُمْ مَّلَكُ الْمَوْتِ الَّذِيْ وُكِّلَ بِكُمْ ثُمَّ اِلٰى رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُوْنَ
In verse 11, it was said: قُلْ يَتَوَفَّاكُم مَّلَكُ الْمَوْتِ الَّذِي وُكِّلَ بِكُمْ (Say, “The angel of death who has been assigned for you will take you in full” -11). In the verse previous to it, the deniers of the Qiyamah were warned and an answer was given to their wondering as to how would they be brought back to life once again after they had died and become dust. In the verse cited above, such people are being reminded, ‘Think of your death which is, in itself, a great manifestation of the perfect power of Allah Ta’ ala. Your heedlessness and ignorance make you think that one’s death comes all by itself, just like that. This is not how it is. In fact, fixed for your death there is a time with Allah and for this there is a standing system run through angels. Sayyidna ` Izra’il (عليه السلام) is the foremost among them, the one who is the master-manager of death throughout the world. Whenever and wherever a person is destined to die, it is precisely at that time that he draws out his soul from his body.’ This is what has been stated in the cited verse. It should be noted that مَلَکُ المَوت (malakul maut: angel of death) has been mentioned in the singular form. It means Sayyidna ` Izra’il (عليه السلام) . Please compare it with another verse where it is said: الَّذِينَ تَتَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ (the ones to whom the angels brought death – 16:28).
Here, the word: مَلَائِكَةُ (mala’ikah: angels) has been used in the plural form. This releases the hint that Sayyidna ` Izra’il ill does not do this alone. Many angels under him take part in accomplishing this duty.
Some details about the Exacting of Soul and the Angel of Death
Tafsir authority, Mujahid has said, ‘before the angel of death, the whole world is very much like an open tray before a human being sprinkled in which there are grains and he picks up whichever he wants.’ The same subject has also appeared in a mar’ hadith, that is, traceable to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . (As mentioned by al-Qurtubi in At-tadhkirah)
According to a hadith, once the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) saw the angel of death standing behind the head of an Ansari sahabi on his death bed. He said, ‘make it easy on my sahabi.’ The angel of death said, ‘Rest assured. I make it easy on every believer,’ then, he added, ` just imagine the number of people living in towns or villages and in forests, mountains or waters, I see every one of them five times a day, therefore, I am directly acquainted with everyone of them, young or old.’ Then, he concluded by saying, ‘0 Muhammad t, all this I am telling you about is nothing but what happens with the will and command of Allah. Otherwise, if I wanted to take the life of even a mosquito, I do not have the power to do so – unless there comes the very command of Allah Ta’ ala that I have to do it.’
The soul of animals: Does the angel of death exact that too?
From the hadith report mentioned above, it seems that it is the angel of death who, subject to Divine permission, exacts the soul of a mosquito too. Imam Malik (رح) has also said this while answering a question. But, some other reports show that this exacting of the soul is particular to human beings – because of their nobility and distinction. As for the animals, they will die under Divine will without the medium of the angel. (Mentioned by Ibn ` Atiyyah from al-Qurtubi)
The same subject has been reported by Abu ash-Shaikh, ` Uqaili, Dailami and others on the authority of Sayyidna Anas i narrating it from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . According to this report, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, “All animals and insects keep glorifying Allah (for this is their life). When this glorification stops, Allah Ta’ ala takes their soul. The death of animals has not been entrusted with the angel of death”. Another related hadith has been reported from Sayyidna Ibn ` Umar (رض) . (Mazhari)
It appears in yet another hadith, ‘when Allah Ta’ ala handed over to Sayyidna ` Izra’il (عليه السلام) the charge of managing the death of everyone in the world, he pleaded, “0 my Lord, You have put such a service in my charge that the entire race of the children of ‘Adam living in the world is going to give me a bad name to the extent that every time I am remembered, I shall be dubbed as evil.” Allah Ta’ ala would say, “We have taken care of that by placing some obvious diseases and causes of death in the world due to which everyone will attribute death to these diseases and causes and you will remain safe from their adverse comments.” (Al-Qurtubi in his Tafsir and A1-tadhkirah)
And Imam al-Baghawi reports on the authority of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, “All diseases, and things like pain and wound, are the universal message-bearers of death. They remind every human being of his or her death. After that, when comes the time of death, the angel of death turns towards the dying person and says, ‘0 servant of God, how many notices have I served on you and how many message-bearers have I sent to you one after the other! All these diseases and accidents delivered at your doors were simply to warn you that you should get ready for death. Now, here I am after whom no bearer of some message will come to you anymore. Now you have got to say yes to the order of your Lord necessarily, whether willingly or unwillingly.” (Mazhari)
The angel of death does not know the time of anyone’s death in advance – until he is ordered to exact the soul of a certain person. (Deduced by Ahmad and Ibn Abi ad-Dunya from Ma’mar, Mazhari)
تَـتَجَافٰى جُنُوْبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ يَدْعُوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ خَوْفًا وَّطَمَعًا ۡ وَّمِـمَّا رَزَقْنٰهُمْ يُنْفِقُوْنَ
Before approaching verse 16: تَـتَجَافٰى جُنُوْبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ يَدْعُوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ خَوْفًا وَّطَمَعًا (Their sides remain apart from their beds. They call their Lord with fear and hope – 16), it should be borne in mind that disbelievers, Mushriks and the deniers of the day of Qiyamah were warned in the verses previous to it. After that, starting from: اِنَّمَا يُؤْمِنُ بِاٰيٰتِنَا ! (Only those people believe in Our verses – 15) mentioned there are special attributes of sincere believers and the high ranks reserved for them. Pointed to in the cited verse is one such attribute of these believers: They leave the comfort of their beds, rise and get busy with the remembrance of Allah in submission and supplication – because, they are apprehensive of His displeasure and punishment while remaining hopeful of His mercy and reward. This very combination of fear and hope keeps them returning to Dhikr and Du’a’ repeatedly, anxiously and animated at the same time.
The Salah of Tahajjud
The majority of commentators takes the expression denoting the leaving of beds and getting busy with Dhikr and Du’a’ to mean the Salah of Tahajjud and Nawafil that are offered after rising from sleep (which is the saying of al-Hasan, Mujahid, Malik and al-Awza’i رحمۃ اللہ علیہم). And it is supported by narrations of Hadith as well.
According to a report in the Musnad of Ahmad, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa’i and others, Sayyidna Mu` adh Ibn Jabal v narrates: ‘Once I was in the company of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) on a journey. One morning during the course of the journey when I was near him, I requested: “Y Rasulallah, tell me to do something which helps me enter Paradise and keeps me away from Hell.” He said, “You asked for something very difficult. But, for whomsoever Allah Ta’ ala makes it easy, for him it becomes easy.” Then he said, “This is what you should do: Worship Allah and associate no one with Him, and establish Salah, and pay Zakah, and keep the fasts of Ramadan, and perform the Hajj of Baytullah.” And then he said, “Here, now let me tell you about the gateways of righteousness: Fasting is a shield (that saves you from punishment). Sadaqah puts off the fire of one’s sins – so does one’s Salah in the middle of the night.” And after having said that, he recited the cited verse of the Holy Qur’an: تَتَجَافَىٰ جُنُوبُهُمْ عَنِ الْمَضَاجِعِ (Their sides remain apart from their beds – 16).
Sayyidna Abu ad-Darda’, Qatadah and Dahhak (رض) have said that this attribute of sides remaining apart from beds also applies to those who make their Salah of ` Isha’ with Jama` ah and then go on to make their Salah of Fajr with Jama` ah. And according to a narration of Sayyidna Anas (رض) appearing in Tirmidhi with sound chains of authority, this verse: تَتَجَافَىٰ جُنُوبُهُمْ (Their sides remain apart) was revealed about people who do not sleep before the Salah of ‘Isha’ and keep waiting for the Jama’ ah of ` Isha’.
And according to some other reports, this verse is about people who offer nawafil between Maghrib and ` Isha’ (reported by Muhammad Ibn Nasr). And about this verse, Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) said: People who would, on waking up, remember Allah – lying, sitting and on sides – are also included therein.
Ibn Kathir and other Tafsir authorities have said that there is no contradiction in all these sayings. It is correct to say that this verse is inclusive of all – while the late night Salah remains the superior most. Bayan ul-Qur’an has also opted for this approach.
And Sayyidah Asma’ bint Yazid (رض) narrates: The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, ‘when Allah Ta’ ala will gather everyone from the first to the last, a proclaimer whose call will be heard by the entire creation will call: ‘This day everyone on the plains of Resurrection will find out as to who is really deserving of honor and compliment.’ Then, the proclaiming angel will proclaim: ‘0 people assembled on the plains of Resurrection, let those rise from among you, those whose attribute was: تَتَجَافَىٰ جُنُوبُهُمْ (Their sides remain apart from their beds – 16) ‘. At this call, these people will stand up, though their number will be small. (Ibn Kathir) And some words of the same narration say that these people will be sent to Paradise without reckoning. After that, all others will stand and face reckoning. (Mazhari)
وَلَنُذِيْـقَنَّهُمْ مِّنَ الْعَذَابِ الْاَدْنٰى دُوْنَ الْعَذَابِ الْاَكْبَرِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُوْنَ
In this verse 21:
(And We will certainly make them taste the nearer punishment before the greater punishment, so that they may return),
the word: أَدْنَىٰ (adna) has been used in the sense of ‘nearer’ and الْعَذَابِ الْأَدْنَىٰ (al adhab-ul-adna) denotes diseases, sufferings and calamities of the world that are made to befall a lot of people by Allah Ta’ala in order to warn them against their sins. The purpose is to chasten and alert them enough so that they leave off their sins and thus earn their deliverance from the Great Punishment of the Hereafter.
Hence, this verse seems to tell us that all these sufferings, accidents, diseases and pains that inflict sinners in the world are nothing but a sort of mercy for them in as much as they help them get out of their heedlessness and save themselves from the punishment of the ‘Akhirah. However, for people who take no lesson even from such unwelcome happenings and fail to turn to Allah, for them, this punishment becomes twofold – first, the cash punishment right here in this world and then, the other being the Great Punishment of the Hereafter. As for the hardships of many kinds that come upon prophets and men of Allah, that is a separate matter. These hardships are a trial for them and trials are the source through which their ranks are raised. At is the hallmark of this trial? How do you recognize the quality of their response? If one were to observe such people even under the stress of calamities and hardships, it will be noticed that they have a kind of peace and tranquility emanating from their trust in Allah Ta’ ala. And it is Allah who knows best.
وَمَنْ اَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ ذُكِّرَ بِاٰيٰتِ رَبِّهٖ ثُمَّ اَعْرَضَ عَنْهَا ۭ اِنَّا مِنَ الْمُجْرِمِيْنَ مُنْتَقِمُوْنَ
There are some crimes the punishment of which comes even within the mortal world much before the Hereafter.
The last sentence of the set of verses cited above reads:إِنَّا مِنَ الْمُجْرِمِينَ مُنتَقِمُونَ (We have to take vengeance upon the sinners – 22). Obviously, the word: الْمُجْرِمِينَ (al-mujrimin: the criminals) includes all kinds of criminals. Then, the word: اِنتِقَام (intiqam: revenge, retribution, return) is also general. It may be in the mortal world or in the Hereafter or in both. But, from some Hadith accounts it appears that there are three sins the punishment of which is experienced – before the Hereafter – right here in this world too. They are: (1) To strive against what is Right and True publicly with flags and slogans; (2) To disobey parents; (3) To help someone unjust or oppressive. (Reported by Ibn Jarir from Sayyidna Mu’dh Ibn Jabal (رض) .
وَلَقَدْ اٰتَيْنَا مُوْسَى الْكِتٰبَ فَلَا تَكُنْ فِيْ مِرْيَةٍ مِّنْ لِّــقَاۗىِٕهٖ وَجَعَلْنٰهُ هُدًى لِّبَنِيْٓ اِسْرَاۗءِيْلَ
The word: لِقَاء (liqa’ ) in the first verse (23) cited above: فَلَا تَكُن فِي مِرْيَةٍ مِّن لِّقَائِهِ (so do not be in doubt about receiving it) means meeting. Whose meeting with whom? In determining it precisely in the verse, the sayings of commentators differ. According to one of these, the pronoun in: لِّقَائِهِ (liga’ihi) has been taken to be reverting to: اَلکِتَاب (al-hitab: the Book), that is, the Qur’an, which releases the sense that ‘the way Allah Ta’ ala gave the Book to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) ، you too should entertain no doubt about receiving your Book.’ This is supported by similar words used about the Qur’an in another verse: وَإِنَّكَ لَتُلَقَّى الْقُرْآنَ (And indeed you [ 0 Muhammad ] do receive the Qur’an – An-Naml, 27:6) (Bayan ul-Qur’an, Khulasah Tafsir)
On the other hand, its tafsir from Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas and Qatadah (رض) has been reported as follows: The pronoun in: لِّقَائِهِ (liqa’ihi: read as ‘meeting him’ ) reverts to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) and given in this verse is the news that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) will be meeting Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) and it has been said that he should have no doubt in the eventuality of his meeting with Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) . Accordingly, a meeting in the night of al-Mi` raj (the ascent to the heavens) stands proved on the authority of Sahih Ahadith. Then, also proved is the meeting on the day of Qiyamah.
And Hasan al-Basri (رح) explains it by saying: The way Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) was given a Book, then people belied and harassed him, the prophet of Islam too should anticipate that he will have to face similar treatment at the hands of his people. Therefore, he should not grieve over the pains inflicted by disbelievers. In fact, he should take that as the blessed practice of prophets, and endure.
وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ اَىِٕمَّةً يَّهْدُوْنَ بِاَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُوْا ڜ وَكَانُوْا بِاٰيٰتِنَا يُوْقِنُوْنَ
Two conditions for the leader of any people
In the next verse (24), it was said: وَجَعَلْنَا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا لَمَّا صَبَرُوا ۖ وَكَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا يُوقِنُونَ
(And We appointed leaders from among them who guided (people) under Our command, when they observed patience, and kept firm belief in Our verses).
In this verse, two reasons have been given as to why religious leadership was bestowed on some of the sages of Bani Isra’il: (1) Observance of patience and (2) the certitude of Divine words. In terms of the Arabic usage, the sense of doing sabr or patience is very wide and general. Literally, it means to tie or to be firm. At this place, sabr means to stay firm on the implementation of Divine injunctions and to hold one’s desiring self in check against the infringement of what Allah Ta’ala has declared to be Karam (unlawful) or makruh (reprehensible). This covers one’s obedience to all injunctions of the Sharl’ah which is pragmatic perfection at its best. The second reason lies in their certitude – they are certain of the Divine words. This includes the initial understanding of the sense of the verses as well as the resulting certitude which emerges from such comprehension – both. This is intellectual perfection at its best.
In short, in the sight of Allah Ta’ ala, only those who are perfect both in ‘ilm (knowledge) and ‘amal (practice) are worthy of religious leadership. It is interesting here that perfection in practice has been made to precede perfection in knowledge while, usually ‘ilm (knowledge) precedes ` amal (practice). This arrangement releases a strong hint, that is, a knowledge which has no corresponding practice with it is just not credible in the sight of Allah.
Ibn Kathir has reported the following saying of some ` Ulama’ in his tafsir of this verse:
قَالَ بَعْضُ الْعُلَمَاءِ: بِالصَّبْرِ وَالْيَقِينِ تَنَالُ الْإِمَامَةَ فِي الدِّينِ. تفسير ابن كثير ط العلمية (6/ 331)
One can arrive at the station of leadership in religion only through sabr (patience) and yagin (certitude).
اَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا اَنَّا نَسُوْقُ الْمَاۗءَ اِلَى الْاَرْضِ الْجُرُزِ فَنُخْرِجُ بِهٖ زَرْعًا تَاْكُلُ مِنْهُ اَنْعَامُهُمْ وَاَنْفُسُهُمْ ۭ اَفَلَا يُبْصِرُوْنَ
The word: جُرُز (al-juruz) in verse 27: أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّا نَسُوقُ الْمَاءَ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ الْجُرُزِ فَنُخْرِجُ (Have they not seen that We drive water to the dry land, then We bring forth crops thereby – 27) means barren land where trees do not grow.
A wise system of irrigation
Usually the Qur’an mentions the irrigating of dry lands and the growing of crops therein by saying that the land receives rain, and becomes moist and growth-worthy. But, there is no mention of rain in this verse. Instead of that, it has been said that water itself is directed to move aground towards the dry land and thereby bring forth the growth of trees. In other words, the rain is made to fall on some other land and it is from there that water is directed to move in the form of carrier channels on the ground all the way to the dry land that receives no rain.
There is a hint embedded here. Some lands are so soft that they cannot withstand rains. If regular rains were made to fall there, buildings may collapse or trees may be uprooted. Therefore, nature has made its own arrangements for such lands. As for the rain itself, it is sent on a land which is capable of holding it. After that, water is made to flow from here all the way to such lands which cannot withstand rains – like the land of Egypt. And there are commentators who have pointed out to some lands of Yaman and Syria as being referred to in this verse. (as reported from Ibn ` Abbas and Al-Hasan)
And as for the correct position, this subject includes all such lands, with the inclusion of the land of Egypt known for scanty rains particularly. But, water from the rains in the Abyssinian territory of Africa comes into Egypt through the Nile bringing with it particles of the indigenous red soil which is good for the growth of crops. Therefore, the people of Egypt, despite that they have no rains in their country, do benefit by a supply of new water and soil every year. فَتَبَارَكَ اللَّـهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ (So, glorious is Allah, the Best of creators – 23:14).
Verse 28 carries a question posed by disbelievers: وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هَـٰذَا الْفَتْحُ (And they say, “When will this decision take place?) Here, they are referring to the victory of believers against disbelievers as promised by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and are wondering about it since they see no traces of this likelihood anywhere around. Instead, they see Muslims as a group of people, scared, hiding,
قُلْ يَوْمَ الْفَتْحِ لَا يَنْفَعُ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْٓا اِيْمَانُهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْظَرُوْنَ
To answer that, Allah Ta’ala said: قُلْ يَوْمَ الْفَتْحِ لَا يَنفَعُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِيمَانُهُمْ (Say, ‘On the day of decision their belief will not be of any use to disbelievers,’-29) This amounts to saying: Why are you asking us about the day of our victory while that day is going to be a day of trouble for you? When victory comes to us, you would have already been overtaken by punishment. May be, right here in this world – as it happened in the battle of Badr – or, in the Hereafter. And when the punishment of Allah seizes someone, then, no profession of faith at that time, no declaration of ‘Iman at that stage is accepted. (as mentioned by Ibn Kathir)
There are some others who have interpreted the ‘day’ in: مَتٰی ھٰذا الفَتح (“When will this decision take place?” ) as the day of Qiyamah. The summarized explanation of this verse in Bayan-ul-Qur’an appearing in the original edition of Ma` ariful-Qur’an is based on this tafsir. ( The translation of al-lath as ‘decision’ as given in the text admits both probablities)
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
Surah Sajda PDF 69 KB
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