Surah Maryam In Arabic
كهيعص ﴿1﴾ ذِكْرُ رَحْمَتِ رَبِّكَ عَبْدَهُ زَكَرِيَّا ﴿2﴾ إِذْ نَادَىٰ رَبَّهُ نِدَاءً خَفِيًّا ﴿3﴾ قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي وَهَنَ الْعَظْمُ مِنِّي وَاشْتَعَلَ الرَّأْسُ شَيْبًا وَلَمْ أَكُنْ بِدُعَائِكَ رَبِّ شَقِيًّا ﴿4﴾ وَإِنِّي خِفْتُ الْمَوَالِيَ مِنْ وَرَائِي وَكَانَتِ امْرَأَتِي عَاقِرًا فَهَبْ لِي مِنْ لَدُنْكَ وَلِيًّا ﴿5﴾ يَرِثُنِي وَيَرِثُ مِنْ آلِ يَعْقُوبَ ۖ وَاجْعَلْهُ رَبِّ رَضِيًّا ﴿6﴾ يَا زَكَرِيَّا إِنَّا نُبَشِّرُكَ بِغُلَامٍ اسْمُهُ يَحْيَىٰ لَمْ نَجْعَلْ لَهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ سَمِيًّا ﴿7﴾ قَالَ رَبِّ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لِي غُلَامٌ وَكَانَتِ امْرَأَتِي عَاقِرًا وَقَدْ بَلَغْتُ مِنَ الْكِبَرِ عِتِيًّا ﴿8﴾ قَالَ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ رَبُّكَ هُوَ عَلَيَّ هَيِّنٌ وَقَدْ خَلَقْتُكَ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَلَمْ تَكُ شَيْئًا ﴿9﴾ قَالَ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ لِي آيَةً ۚ قَالَ آيَتُكَ أَلَّا تُكَلِّمَ النَّاسَ ثَلَاثَ لَيَالٍ سَوِيًّا ﴿10﴾ فَخَرَجَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ مِنَ الْمِحْرَابِ فَأَوْحَىٰ إِلَيْهِمْ أَنْ سَبِّحُوا بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيًّا ﴿11﴾ يَا يَحْيَىٰ خُذِ الْكِتَابَ بِقُوَّةٍ ۖ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيًّا ﴿12﴾ وَحَنَانًا مِنْ لَدُنَّا وَزَكَاةً ۖ وَكَانَ تَقِيًّا ﴿13﴾ وَبَرًّا بِوَالِدَيْهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ جَبَّارًا عَصِيًّا ﴿14﴾ وَسَلَامٌ عَلَيْهِ يَوْمَ وُلِدَ وَيَوْمَ يَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ يُبْعَثُ حَيًّا ﴿15﴾ وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ مَرْيَمَ إِذِ انْتَبَذَتْ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا مَكَانًا شَرْقِيًّا ﴿16﴾ فَاتَّخَذَتْ مِنْ دُونِهِمْ حِجَابًا فَأَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْهَا رُوحَنَا فَتَمَثَّلَ لَهَا بَشَرًا سَوِيًّا ﴿17﴾ قَالَتْ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَٰنِ مِنْكَ إِنْ كُنْتَ تَقِيًّا ﴿18﴾ قَالَ إِنَّمَا أَنَا رَسُولُ رَبِّكِ لِأَهَبَ لَكِ غُلَامًا زَكِيًّا ﴿19﴾ قَالَتْ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لِي غُلَامٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِي بَشَرٌ وَلَمْ أَكُ بَغِيًّا ﴿20﴾ قَالَ كَذَٰلِكِ قَالَ رَبُّكِ هُوَ عَلَيَّ هَيِّنٌ ۖ وَلِنَجْعَلَهُ آيَةً لِلنَّاسِ وَرَحْمَةً مِنَّا ۚ وَكَانَ أَمْرًا مَقْضِيًّا ﴿21﴾ فَحَمَلَتْهُ فَانْتَبَذَتْ بِهِ مَكَانًا قَصِيًّا ﴿22﴾ فَأَجَاءَهَا الْمَخَاضُ إِلَىٰ جِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ قَالَتْ يَا لَيْتَنِي مِتُّ قَبْلَ هَٰذَا وَكُنْتُ نَسْيًا مَنْسِيًّا ﴿23﴾ فَنَادَاهَا مِنْ تَحْتِهَا أَلَّا تَحْزَنِي قَدْ جَعَلَ رَبُّكِ تَحْتَكِ سَرِيًّا ﴿24﴾ وَهُزِّي إِلَيْكِ بِجِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ تُسَاقِطْ عَلَيْكِ رُطَبًا جَنِيًّا ﴿25﴾ فَكُلِي وَاشْرَبِي وَقَرِّي عَيْنًا ۖ فَإِمَّا تَرَيِنَّ مِنَ الْبَشَرِ أَحَدًا فَقُولِي إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ صَوْمًا فَلَنْ أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنْسِيًّا ﴿26﴾ فَأَتَتْ بِهِ قَوْمَهَا تَحْمِلُهُ ۖ قَالُوا يَا مَرْيَمُ لَقَدْ جِئْتِ شَيْئًا فَرِيًّا ﴿27﴾ يَا أُخْتَ هَارُونَ مَا كَانَ أَبُوكِ امْرَأَ سَوْءٍ وَمَا كَانَتْ أُمُّكِ بَغِيًّا ﴿28﴾ فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ ۖ قَالُوا كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَنْ كَانَ فِي الْمَهْدِ صَبِيًّا ﴿29﴾ قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا ﴿30﴾ وَجَعَلَنِي مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُ وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا ﴿31﴾ وَبَرًّا بِوَالِدَتِي وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْنِي جَبَّارًا شَقِيًّا ﴿32﴾ وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَيَّ يَوْمَ وُلِدْتُ وَيَوْمَ أَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ أُبْعَثُ حَيًّا ﴿33﴾ ذَٰلِكَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ ۚ قَوْلَ الْحَقِّ الَّذِي فِيهِ يَمْتَرُونَ ﴿34﴾ مَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَ مِنْ وَلَدٍ ۖ سُبْحَانَهُ ۚ إِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ ﴿35﴾ وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ ۚ هَٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُسْتَقِيمٌ ﴿36﴾ فَاخْتَلَفَ الْأَحْزَابُ مِنْ بَيْنِهِمْ ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ مَشْهَدِ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ ﴿37﴾ أَسْمِعْ بِهِمْ وَأَبْصِرْ يَوْمَ يَأْتُونَنَا ۖ لَٰكِنِ الظَّالِمُونَ الْيَوْمَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ ﴿38﴾ وَأَنْذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ إِذْ قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ وَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿39﴾ إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَرِثُ الْأَرْضَ وَمَنْ عَلَيْهَا وَإِلَيْنَا يُرْجَعُونَ ﴿40﴾ وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَبِيًّا ﴿41﴾ إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ يَا أَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لَا يَسْمَعُ وَلَا يُبْصِرُ وَلَا يُغْنِي عَنْكَ شَيْئًا ﴿42﴾ يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي قَدْ جَاءَنِي مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَمْ يَأْتِكَ فَاتَّبِعْنِي أَهْدِكَ صِرَاطًا سَوِيًّا ﴿43﴾ يَا أَبَتِ لَا تَعْبُدِ الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ عَصِيًّا ﴿44﴾ يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَنْ يَمَسَّكَ عَذَابٌ مِنَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ فَتَكُونَ لِلشَّيْطَانِ وَلِيًّا ﴿45﴾ قَالَ أَرَاغِبٌ أَنْتَ عَنْ آلِهَتِي يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ ۖ لَئِنْ لَمْ تَنْتَهِ لَأَرْجُمَنَّكَ ۖ وَاهْجُرْنِي مَلِيًّا ﴿46﴾ قَالَ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكَ ۖ سَأَسْتَغْفِرُ لَكَ رَبِّي ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِي حَفِيًّا ﴿47﴾ وَأَعْتَزِلُكُمْ وَمَا تَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَأَدْعُو رَبِّي عَسَىٰ أَلَّا أَكُونَ بِدُعَاءِ رَبِّي شَقِيًّا ﴿48﴾ فَلَمَّا اعْتَزَلَهُمْ وَمَا يَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۖ وَكُلًّا جَعَلْنَا نَبِيًّا ﴿49﴾ وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُمْ مِنْ رَحْمَتِنَا وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُمْ لِسَانَ صِدْقٍ عَلِيًّا ﴿50﴾ وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ مُوسَىٰ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مُخْلَصًا وَكَانَ رَسُولًا نَبِيًّا ﴿51﴾ وَنَادَيْنَاهُ مِنْ جَانِبِ الطُّورِ الْأَيْمَنِ وَقَرَّبْنَاهُ نَجِيًّا ﴿52﴾ وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ مِنْ رَحْمَتِنَا أَخَاهُ هَارُونَ نَبِيًّا ﴿53﴾ وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صَادِقَ الْوَعْدِ وَكَانَ رَسُولًا نَبِيًّا ﴿54﴾ وَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَكَانَ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ مَرْضِيًّا ﴿55﴾ وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِدْرِيسَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَبِيًّا ﴿56﴾ وَرَفَعْنَاهُ مَكَانًا عَلِيًّا ﴿57﴾ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّةِ آدَمَ وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْرَائِيلَ وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَا ۚ إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ خَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَبُكِيًّا ۩ ﴿58﴾ فَخَلَفَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا ﴿59﴾ إِلَّا مَنْ تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا ﴿60﴾ جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ الَّتِي وَعَدَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ عِبَادَهُ بِالْغَيْبِ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ وَعْدُهُ مَأْتِيًّا ﴿61﴾ لَا يَسْمَعُونَ فِيهَا لَغْوًا إِلَّا سَلَامًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ رِزْقُهُمْ فِيهَا بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيًّا ﴿62﴾ تِلْكَ الْجَنَّةُ الَّتِي نُورِثُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا مَنْ كَانَ تَقِيًّا ﴿63﴾ وَمَا نَتَنَزَّلُ إِلَّا بِأَمْرِ رَبِّكَ ۖ لَهُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِينَا وَمَا خَلْفَنَا وَمَا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ نَسِيًّا ﴿64﴾ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فَاعْبُدْهُ وَاصْطَبِرْ لِعِبَادَتِهِ ۚ هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ سَمِيًّا ﴿65﴾ وَيَقُولُ الْإِنْسَانُ أَإِذَا مَا مِتُّ لَسَوْفَ أُخْرَجُ حَيًّا ﴿66﴾ أَوَلَا يَذْكُرُ الْإِنْسَانُ أَنَّا خَلَقْنَاهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَلَمْ يَكُ شَيْئًا ﴿67﴾ فَوَرَبِّكَ لَنَحْشُرَنَّهُمْ وَالشَّيَاطِينَ ثُمَّ لَنُحْضِرَنَّهُمْ حَوْلَ جَهَنَّمَ جِثِيًّا ﴿68﴾ ثُمَّ لَنَنْزِعَنَّ مِنْ كُلِّ شِيعَةٍ أَيُّهُمْ أَشَدُّ عَلَى الرَّحْمَٰنِ عِتِيًّا ﴿69﴾ ثُمَّ لَنَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِالَّذِينَ هُمْ أَوْلَىٰ بِهَا صِلِيًّا ﴿70﴾ وَإِنْ مِنْكُمْ إِلَّا وَارِدُهَا ۚ كَانَ عَلَىٰ رَبِّكَ حَتْمًا مَقْضِيًّا ﴿71﴾ ثُمَّ نُنَجِّي الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا وَنَذَرُ الظَّالِمِينَ فِيهَا جِثِيًّا ﴿72﴾ وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ قَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَيُّ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ خَيْرٌ مَقَامًا وَأَحْسَنُ نَدِيًّا ﴿73﴾ وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُمْ مِنْ قَرْنٍ هُمْ أَحْسَنُ أَثَاثًا وَرِئْيًا ﴿74﴾ قُلْ مَنْ كَانَ فِي الضَّلَالَةِ فَلْيَمْدُدْ لَهُ الرَّحْمَٰنُ مَدًّا ۚ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا رَأَوْا مَا يُوعَدُونَ إِمَّا الْعَذَابَ وَإِمَّا السَّاعَةَ فَسَيَعْلَمُونَ مَنْ هُوَ شَرٌّ مَكَانًا وَأَضْعَفُ جُنْدًا ﴿75﴾ وَيَزِيدُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ اهْتَدَوْا هُدًى ۗ وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ مَرَدًّا ﴿76﴾ أَفَرَأَيْتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ بِآيَاتِنَا وَقَالَ لَأُوتَيَنَّ مَالًا وَوَلَدًا ﴿77﴾ أَطَّلَعَ الْغَيْبَ أَمِ اتَّخَذَ عِنْدَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَهْدًا ﴿78﴾ كَلَّا ۚ سَنَكْتُبُ مَا يَقُولُ وَنَمُدُّ لَهُ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ مَدًّا ﴿79﴾ وَنَرِثُهُ مَا يَقُولُ وَيَأْتِينَا فَرْدًا ﴿80﴾ وَاتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ آلِهَةً لِيَكُونُوا لَهُمْ عِزًّا ﴿81﴾ كَلَّا ۚ سَيَكْفُرُونَ بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ وَيَكُونُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ ضِدًّا ﴿82﴾ أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ تَؤُزُّهُمْ أَزًّا ﴿83﴾ فَلَا تَعْجَلْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ إِنَّمَا نَعُدُّ لَهُمْ عَدًّا ﴿84﴾ يَوْمَ نَحْشُرُ الْمُتَّقِينَ إِلَى الرَّحْمَٰنِ وَفْدًا ﴿85﴾ وَنَسُوقُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ إِلَىٰ جَهَنَّمَ وِرْدًا ﴿86﴾ لَا يَمْلِكُونَ الشَّفَاعَةَ إِلَّا مَنِ اتَّخَذَ عِنْدَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَهْدًا ﴿87﴾ وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وَلَدًا ﴿88﴾ لَقَدْ جِئْتُمْ شَيْئًا إِدًّا ﴿89﴾ تَكَادُ السَّمَاوَاتُ يَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِنْهُ وَتَنْشَقُّ الْأَرْضُ وَتَخِرُّ الْجِبَالُ هَدًّا ﴿90﴾ أَنْ دَعَوْا لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ وَلَدًا ﴿91﴾ وَمَا يَنْبَغِي لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا ﴿92﴾ إِنْ كُلُّ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِلَّا آتِي الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَبْدًا ﴿93﴾ لَقَدْ أَحْصَاهُمْ وَعَدَّهُمْ عَدًّا ﴿94﴾ وَكُلُّهُمْ آتِيهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَرْدًا ﴿95﴾ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَيَجْعَلُ لَهُمُ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وُدًّا ﴿96﴾ فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرْنَاهُ بِلِسَانِكَ لِتُبَشِّرَ بِهِ الْمُتَّقِينَ وَتُنْذِرَ بِهِ قَوْمًا لُدًّا ﴿97﴾ وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُمْ مِنْ قَرْنٍ هَلْ تُحِسُّ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ أَوْ تَسْمَعُ لَهُمْ رِكْزًا ﴿98﴾
Transliteration in English
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Zikru rahmati Rabbika ‘abdahoo Zakariyya
- Iz naadaa Rabbahoo nidaaa’an khafiyyaa
- Qaala Rabbi innee wahanal ‘azmu minnee washta ‘alar ra’su shaibanw wa lam akun bidu’aaa’ika Rabbi shaqiyyaa
- Wa innee khiftul mawaaliya minw waraaa’ee wa kaanat imra atee ‘aqiran fa hablee mil ladunka waliyyaa
- Yarisunee wa yarisu min aali Ya’qoob, waj’alhu Rabbi radiyya
- Yaa Zakariyyaaa innaa nubashshiruka bi ghulaamin ismuhoo Yahyaa lam naj’al lahoo min qablu samiyyaa
- Qaala Rabbi annaa yakoonu lee ghulaamunw wakaanat imra atee ‘aaqiranw wa qad balaghtu minal kibari ‘itiyyaa
- Qaala kazaalika qaala Rabbuka huwa ‘alaiya haiyinunw wa qad khalaqtuka min qablu wa lam taku shai’aa
- Qaala Rabbij ‘al leee Aayah; qaala Aayatuka allaa tukalliman naasa salaasa layaalin sawiyyaa
- Fakharaja ‘alaa qawmihee minal mihraabi fa-awhaaa ilaihim an sabbihoo bukratanw wa ‘ashiyyaa
- Yaa Yahyaa khuzil Kitaaba biquwwatinw wa aatainaahul hukma sabiyyaa
- Wa hanaanam mil ladunnaa wa zakaatanw wa kaana taqiyyaa
- Wa barram biwaalidayhi wa lam yakum jabbaaran ‘asiyyaa
- Wa salaamun ‘alaihi yawma wulida wa yawma yamootu wa yawma yub’asu haiyyaa (section 1)
- Wazkur fil Kitaabi Maryama; izin tabazat min ahlihaa makaanan sharqiyyaa
- Fattakhazat min doonihim hijaaban fa arsalnaaa ilaihaa roohanaa fatamassala lahaa basharan sawiyyaa
- Qaalat inneee a’oozu bir Rahmaani minka in kunta taqiyyaa
- Qaala innamaa ana rasoolu Rabbiki li ahaba laki ghulaaman zakiyyaa
- Qaalat anna yakoonu lee ghulaamunw wa lam yamsasnee bashrunw wa lam aku baghiyyaa
- Qaala kazaaliki qaala Rabbuki huwa ‘alaiya haiyimunw wa linaj ‘alahooo Aayatal linnaasi wa rahmatam minnaa; wa kaana amram maqdiyyaa
- Fahamalat hu fantabazat bihee makaanan qasiyyaa
- Fa ajaaa ‘ahal makhaadu ilaa jiz’in nakhlati qaalat yaa laitanee mittu qabla haazaa wa kuntu nasyam mansiyyaa
- Fanaadaahaa min tahtihaaa allaa tahzanee qad ja’ala Rabbuki tahtaki sariyyaa
- Wa huzzeee ilaiki bijiz ‘in nakhlati tusaaqit ‘alaiki rutaban janiyyaa
- Fakulee washrabee wa qarree ‘ainaa; fa immaa tarayinnna minal bashari ahadan faqooleee innee nazartu lir Rahmaani sawman falan ukallimal yawma insiyyaa
- Fa atat bihee qawmahaa tahmiluhoo qaaloo yaa Maryamoo laqad ji’ti shai’an fariyyaa
- Yaaa ukhta Haaroona maa kaana abookimra’a saw’inw wa maa kaanat ummuki baghiyyaa
- Fa ashaarat ilaih; qaaloo kaifa nukallimu man kaana fil mahdi sabiyyaa
- Qaala innee ‘abdullaahi aataaniyal Kitaaba wa ja’alanee Nabiyyaa
- Wa ja’alanee mubaarakan aina maa kuntu wa awsaanee bis Salaati waz Zakaati maa dumtu haiyaa
- Wa barram biwaalidatee wa lam yaj’alnee jabbaaran shaqiyyaa
- Wassalaamu ‘alaiya yawma wulidtu wa yawma amootu wa yawma ub’asu haiyaa
- Zaalika ‘Eesab-nu Maryama; qawlal haqqil lazee feehi yamtaroon
- Maa kaana lillaahi ai yattakhiza minw waladin Subhaanah; izaa qadaaa amran fa innamaa yaqoolu lahoo kun fa yakoon
- Wa innal laaha Rabbee wa Rabbukum fa’budooh; haazaa Siraatum Mustaqeem
- Fakhtalafal ahzaabu min bainihim fawailul lillazeena kafaroo min mashhadi Yawmin ‘azeem
- Asmi’ bihim wa absir Yawma ya’toonanaa laakiniz zaalimoonal yawma fee dalaalin mubeen
- Wa anzirhum Yawmal hasrati iz qudiyal amr; wa hum fee ghaflatinw wa hum laa yu’minoon
- Innaa nahnu narisul arda wa man ‘alaihaa wa ilainaa yurja’oon (section 2)
- Wazkur fil Kitaabi Ibraaheem; innahoo kaana siddeeqan Nabiyyaa
- Iz qaala li abeehi yaaa abati lima ta’budu maa laa yasma’u wa laa yubsiru wa laa yughnee ‘anka shai’aa
- Yaaa abati innee qad jaaa’anee minal ‘ilmi maa lam ya’tika fattabi’neee ahdika siraatan Sawiyyaa
- Yaaa abati laa ta’budish Shaitaan; innash Shaitaana kaana lir Rahmaani ‘asiyyaa
- Yaaa abati innee akhaafu ai yamassaka ‘azaabum minar Rahmaani fatakoona lish Shaitaani waliyyaa
- Qaala araaghibun anta ‘an aalihatee yaaa Ibraaheemu la ‘il lam tantahi la arjumannaka wahjurnee maliyyaa
- Qaala salaamun ‘alaika sa astaghfiru laka Rabbeee innahoo kaana bee hafiyyaa
- Wa a’tazilukum wa maa tad’oona min doonil laahi wa ad’oo Rabbee ‘asaaa allaaa akoona bidu’aaa’i Rabbee shaqiyyaa
- Fa lam ma’tazalahum wa maa ya’budoona min doonil laahi wahabnaa lahoo is-haaqa wa ya’qoob; wa kullan ja’alnaa Nabiyyaa
- Wa wahabnaa lahum mirrahmatinaa wa ja’alnaa lahum lisaana sidqin ‘aliyyaa (section 3)
- Wazkur fil Kitaabi Moosaaa; innahoo kaana mukhlasanw wa kaana Rasoolan Nabiyyaa
- Wa naadainaahu min jaanibit Tooril aimani wa qarrabnaahu najiyyaa
- Wa wahabnaa lahoo mir rahmatinaaa akhaahu Haaroona Nabiyyaa
- Wazkur fil Kitaabi ismaa’eel; innahoo kaana saadiqal wa’di wa kaana Rasoolan Nabiyyaa
- Wa kaana ya’muru ahlahoo bis Salaati waz zakaati wa kaana ‘inda Rabbihee mardiyyaa
- Wazkur fil Kitaabi Idrees; innahoo kaana siddeeqan Nabiyyaa
- Wa rafa’naahu makaanan ‘aliyyaa
- Ulaaa’ikal lazeena an’amal laahu ‘alaihim minan Nabiyyeena min zurriyyati Aadama wa mimman hamalnaa ma’a Noohinw wa min zurriyyati Ibraaheema wa Israaa’eela wa mimman hadainaa wajta bainaaa; izaa tutlaa ‘alaihim Aayaatur Rahmaani kharroo sujjadanw wa bukiyyaa (make sajda)
- Fakhalafa min ba’dihim khalfun adaa’us Salaata wattaba’ush shahawaati fasawfa yalqawna ghaiyyaa
- Illaa man taaba wa aamana wa ‘amila saalihan fa ulaaa’ika yadkhuloonal jannata wa laa yuzlamoona shai’aa
- Jannaati ‘adninil latee wa’adar Rahmaanu ibaadahoo bilghaib; innahoo kaana wa’duhoo ma’tiyyaa
- Laa yasma’oona feehaa laghwan illaa salaamaa; wa lahum rizquhum feehaa bukratanw wa ‘ashiyyaa
- Tilkal jannatul latee noorisu min ‘ibaadinaa man kaana taqiyyaa
- Wa maa natanazzalu illaa bi amri Rabbika lahoo maa baina aideenaa wa maa khalfanaa wa maa baina zaalik; wa maa kaana Rabbuka nasiyyaa
- Rabbus samaawaati wal ardi wa maa bainahumaa fa’bud hu wastabir li’ibaadatih; hal ta’lamu lahoo samiyyaa (section 4)
- Wa yaqoolul insaanu ‘a izaa maa mittu lasawfa ukhraju haiyaa
- ‘A wa laa yazkurul insaanu annaa khalaqnaahu min qablu wa lam yaku shai’aa
- Fawa Rabbika lanahshu rannahum wash shayaateena summa lanuhdirannahum hawla jahannama jisiyyaa
- Summa lanan zi’anna min kulli shee’atin aiyuhum ashaddu ‘alar Rahmaani ‘itiyyaa
- Summa lanahnu a’lamu billazeena hum awlaa bihaa siliyyaa
- Wa in minkum illaa waariduhaa; kaana ‘alaa Rabbika hatmam maqdiyyaa
- Summa nunajjil lazeenat taqaw wa nazaruz zaalimeena feehaa jisiyyaa
- Wa izaa tutlaa ‘alaihim Aayaatunaa baiyinaatin qaalal lazeena kafaroo lillazeena aamanooo aiyul fareeqaini khairum maqaamanw wa ahsanu nadiyyaa
- Wa kam ahlaknaa qablahum min qarnin hum ahsanu asaasanw wa ri’yaa
- Qul man kaana fidda laalati falyamdud lahur Rahmaanu maddaa; hattaaa izaa ra aw maa yoo’adoona immal ‘azaaba wa immas Saa’ata fasa ya’lamoona man huwa sharrum makaananw wa ad’afu jundaa
- Wa yazeedul laahul lazeenah tadaw hudaa; wal baaqiyaatus saalihaatu khairun ‘inda Rabbika sawaabanw wa khairum maraddaa
- Afara’aytal lazee kafara bi Aayaatinaa wa qaala la oota yanna maalanw wa waladaa
- ‘At tala’al ghaiba ‘amit takhaza ‘indar Rahmaani ‘ahdaa
- Kallaa; sanaktubu maa yaqoolu wa namuddu lahoo minal ‘azaabi maddaa
- Wa narisuhoo maa yaqoolu wa ya’teenaa fardaa
- Wattakhazoo min doonil laahi aalihatal liyakoonoo lahum ‘izzaa
- Kallaa; sa yakfuroona bi’ibaadatihim wa yakoonoona ‘alaihim diddaa (section 5)
- Alam tara annaaa arsalnash Shayaateena ‘alal kaafireena ta’uzzuhum azzaa
- Falaa ta’jal alaihim innamaa na ‘uddu lahum ‘addaa
- Yawma nahshurul muttaqeena ilar Rahmaani wafdaa
- Wa nasooqul mujrimeena ilaa Jahannama wirdaa
- Laa yamlikoonash shafaa’ata illaa manittakhaza ‘indar Rahmaani ‘ahdaa
- Wa qaalut takhazar Rahmaanu waladaa
- Laqad ji’tum shai’an iddaa
- Takaadus samaawaatu yatafattarna minhu wa tanshaq qul ardu wa takhirrul jibaalu haddaa
- An da’aw lir Rahmaani waladaa
- Wa maa yambaghee lir Rahmaani ai yattakhiza waladaa
- In kullu man fis samaawaati wal ardi illaaa aatir Rahmaani ‘abdaa
- Laqad ahsaahum wa addahum ‘addaa
- Wa kulluhum aateehi Yawmal Qiyaamati fardaa
- Innal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati sa yaj’alu lahumur Rahmaanu wuddaa
- Fa innamaa yassarnaahu bilisaanika litubashshira bihil muttaqeena wa tunzira bihee qawmal luddaa
- Wa kam ahlaknaa qabla hum min qarnin hal tuhissu minhum min ahadin aw tasma’u lahum rikzaa (section 6)
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
- Ha. Ya. A’in. Sad.
- A mention of the mercy of thy Lord unto His servant Zachariah.
- When he cried unto his Lord a cry in secret,
- Saying: My Lord! Lo! the bones of me wax feeble and my head is shining with grey hair, and I have never been unblest in prayer to Thee, my Lord.
- Lo! I fear my kinsfolk after me, since my wife is barren. Oh, give me from Thy presence a successor
- Who shall inherit of me and inherit (also) of the house of Jacob. And make him, my Lord, acceptable (unto Thee).
- (It was said unto him): O Zachariah! Lo! We bring thee tidings of a son whose name is John; we have given the same name to none before (him).
- He said: My Lord! How can I have a son when my wife is barren and I have reached infirm old age?
- He said: So (it will be). Thy Lord saith: It is easy for Me, even as I created thee before, when thou wast naught.
- He said: My Lord! Appoint for me some token. He said: Thy token is that thou, with no bodily defect, shalt not speak unto mankind three nights.
- Then he came forth unto his people from the sanctuary, and signified to them: Glorify your Lord at break of day and fall of night.
- (And it was said unto his son): O John! Hold fast the Scripture. And we gave him wisdom when a child,
- And compassion from Our presence, and purity; and he was devout,
- And dutiful toward his parents. And he was not arrogant, rebellious.
- Peace on him the day he was born, and the day he dieth and the day he shall be raised alive!
- And make mention of Mary in the Scripture, when she had withdrawn from her people to a chamber looking East,
- And had chosen seclusion from them. Then We sent unto her Our Spirit and it assumed for her the likeness of a perfect man.
- She said: Lo! I seek refuge in the Beneficent One from thee, if thou art Allah-fearing.
- He said: I am only a messenger of thy Lord, that I may bestow on thee a faultless son.
- She said: How can I have a son when no mortal hath touched me, neither have I been unchaste?
- He said: So (it will be). Thy Lord saith: It is easy for Me. And (it will be) that We may make of him a revelation for mankind and a mercy from Us, and it is a thing ordained.
- And she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a far place.
- And the pangs of childbirth drove her unto the trunk of the palm-tree. She said: Oh, would that I had died ere this and had become a thing of naught, forgotten!
- Then (one) cried unto her from below her, saying: Grieve not! Thy Lord hath placed a rivulet beneath thee,
- And shake the trunk of the palm-tree toward thee, thou wilt cause ripe dates to fall upon thee.
- So eat and drink and be consoled. And if thou meetest any mortal, say: Lo! I have vowed a fast unto the Beneficent, and may not speak this day to any mortal.
- Then she brought him to her own folk, carrying him. They said: O Mary! Thou hast come with an amazing thing.
- O sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a wicked man nor was thy mother a harlot.
- Then she pointed to him. They said: How can we talk to one who is in the cradle, a young boy?
- He spake: Lo! I am the slave of Allah. He hath given me the Scripture and hath appointed me a Prophet,
- And hath made me blessed wheresoever I may be, and hath enjoined upon me prayer and almsgiving so long as I remain alive,
- And (hath made me) dutiful toward her who bore me, and hath not made me arrogant, unblest.
- Peace on me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive!
- Such was Jesus, son of Mary: (this is) a statement of the truth concerning which they doubt.
- It befitteth not (the Majesty of) Allah that He should take unto Himself a son. Glory be to Him! When He decreeth a thing, He saith unto it only: Be! and it is.
- And lo! Allah is my Lord and your Lord. So serve Him. That is the right path.
- The sects among them differ: but woe unto the disbelievers from the meeting of an awful Day.
- See and hear them on the Day they come unto Us! yet the evil-doers are to-day in error manifest.
- And warn them of the Day of anguish when the case hath been decided. Now they are in a state of carelessness, and they believe not.
- Lo! We, only We, inherit the earth and all who are thereon, and unto Us they are returned.
- And make mention ( O Muhammad) in the Scripture of Abraham. Lo! he was a saint, a prophet.
- When he said unto his father: O my father! Why worshippest thou that which heareth not nor seeth, nor can in aught avail thee?
- O my father! Lo! there hath come unto me of knowledge that which came not unto thee. So follow me, and I will lead thee on a right path.
- O my father! Serve not the devil. Lo! the devil is a rebel unto the Beneficent.
- O my father! Lo! I fear lest a punishment from the Beneficent overtake thee so that thou become a comrade of the devil.
- He said: Rejectest thou my gods, O Abraham? If thou cease not, I shall surely stone thee. Depart from me a long while!
- He said: Peace be unto thee! I shall ask forgiveness of my Lord for thee. Lo! He was ever gracious unto me.
- I shall withdraw from you and that unto which ye pray beside Allah, and I shall pray unto my Lord. It may be that, in prayer unto my Lord, I shall not be unblest.
- So, when he had withdrawn from them and that which they were worshipping beside Allah, We gave him Isaac and Jacob. Each of them We made a prophet.
- And we gave them of Our mercy, and assigned to them a high and true renown.
- And make mention in the Scripture of Moses. Lo! he was chosen, and he was a messenger (of Allah), a prophet.
- We called him from the right slope of the Mount, and brought him nigh in communion.
- And We bestowed upon him of Our mercy his brother Aaron, a prophet (likewise).
- And make mention in the Scripture of Ishmael. Lo! he was a keeper of his promise, and he was a messenger (of Allah), a prophet.
- He enjoined upon his people worship and almsgiving, and was acceptable in the sight of his Lord.
- And make mention in the Scripture of Idris. Lo! he was a saint, a prophet;
- And We raised him to high station.
- These are they unto whom Allah showed favour from among the prophets, of the seed of Adam and of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Noah, and of the seed of Abraham and Israel, and from among those whom We guided and chose. When the revelations of the Beneficent were recited unto them, they fell down, adoring and weeping.
- Now there hath succeeded them a later generation whom have ruined worship and have followed lusts. But they will meet deception.
- Save him who shall repent and believe and do right. Such will enter the Garden, and they will not be wronged in aught –
- Gardens of Eden, which the Beneficent hath promised to His slaves in the unseen. Lo! His promise is ever sure of fulfilment –
- They hear therein no idle talk, but only Peace; and therein they have food for morn and evening.
- Such is the Garden which We cause the devout among Our bondmen to inherit.
- We (angels) come not down save by commandment of thy Lord. Unto Him belongeth all that is before us and all that is behind us and all that is between those two, and thy Lord was never forgetful –
- Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them! Therefor, worship thou Him and be thou steadfast in His service. Knowest thou one that can be named along with Him?
- And man saith: When I am dead, shall I forsooth be brought forth alive?
- Doth not man remember that We created him before, when he was naught?
- And, by thy Lord, verily We shall assemble them and the devils, then We shall bring them, crouching, around hell.
- Then We shall pluck out from every sect whichever of them was most stubborn in rebellion to the Beneficent.
- And surely We are Best Aware of those most worthy to be burned therein.
- There is not one of you but shall approach it. That is a fixed ordinance of thy Lord.
- Then We shall rescue those who kept from evil, and leave the evil-doers crouching there.
- And when Our clear revelations are recited unto them, those who disbelieve say unto those who believe: Which of the two parties (yours or ours) is better in position, and more imposing as an army?
- How many a generation have We destroyed before them, who were more imposing in respect of gear and outward seeming!
- Say: As for him who is in error, the Beneficent will verily prolong his span of life until, when they behold that which they were promised, whether it be punishment (in the world), or the Hour (of doom), they will know who is worse in position and who is weaker as an army.
- Allah increaseth in right guidance those who walk aright, and the good deeds which endure are better in thy Lord’s sight for reward, and better for resort.
- Hast thou seen him who disbelieveth in Our revelations and saith: Assuredly I shall be given wealth and children?
- Hath he perused the Unseen, or hath he made a pact with the Beneficent?
- Nay, but We shall record that which he saith and prolong for him a span of torment.
- And We shall inherit from him that whereof he spake, and he will come unto Us, alone (without his wealth and children).
- And they have chosen (other) gods beside Allah that they may be a power for them.
- Nay, but they will deny their worship of them, and become opponents unto them.
- Seest thou not that We have set the devils on the disbelievers to confound them with confusion?
- So make no haste against them ( O Muhammad). We do but number unto them a sum (of days).
- On the day when We shall gather the righteous unto the Beneficent, a goodly company.
- And drive the guilty unto hell, a weary herd,
- They will have no power of intercession, save him who hath made a covenant with his Lord.
- And they say: The Beneficent hath taken unto Himself a son.
- Assuredly ye utter a disastrous thing
- Whereby almost the heavens are torn, and the earth is split asunder and the mountains fall in ruins,
- That ye ascribe unto the Beneficent a son,
- When it is not meet for (the Majesty of) the Beneficent that He should choose a son.
- There is none in the heavens and the earth but cometh unto the Beneficent as a slave.
- Verily He knoweth them and numbereth them with (right) numbering.
- And each one of them will come unto Him on the Day of Resurrection, alone.
- Lo! those who believe and do good works, the Beneficent will appoint for them love.
- And We make (this Scripture) easy in thy tongue, ( O Muhammad) only that thou mayst bear good tidings therewith unto those who ward off (evil), and warn therewith the froward folk.
- And how many a generation before them have We destroyed! Canst thou (Muhammad) see a single man of them, or hear from them the slightest sound?
[From Holy Quran Translation by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall]
In the Holy Qur’an Surah Maryam has been placed immediately after Surah Al-Kahf, presumably because there appears some kind of similarity between the two Surahs. While the former deals with some unusual anecdotes, the latter also covers a number of extraordinary events.
كهيعص are letters known in Arabic as; حُرُوفِ مُقَطَّعَۃ whose meanings, like are known only to Allah Ta` ala and people should not even attempt to probe their meanings.
نِدَاءً خَفِيًّا (a low voice – 19:3) tells us that it is better to beseech Allah in supplication in undertone. Sayyidna Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas has narrated that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) once said.
إن خیر الذکر الخفي ، وخیر الرزق ما یکفي
“Surely the best way to make supplication to Allah is in
undertone and the best sustenance is that which is sufficient for one’s needs (i.e. neither more nor less than required) ” (Qurtubi)
إِنِّي وَهَنَ الْعَظْمُ مِنِّي وَاشْتَعَلَ الرَّأْسُ شَيْبًا
“Here I am that bones within me have turned feeble, and the head has flared up grey with old age.” – 19:4
Human body becomes weak with the aging of bones, because it is the bones which keep the body firm and upright. When bones lose their strength, the whole body turns weak.
The literal meaning of اشْتَعَالَ is a sudden burst of fire. Here the word is used as a simile for grey hair covering the head like a glow of fire.
Mention of one’s needs in supplication is desirable
Here Sayyidna Zakariyya (عليه السلام) before making his supplication, mentioned about his weakness and old age by referring to his bones. One of the reasons for this was, as pointed out in the translation, that in his peculiar circumstances i.e. his old age and physical weakness, it was not appropriate for him to ask for a child. Another reason given by Imam Qurtubi in his commentary is, that for possible acceptance of supplication it is better to mention one’s weakness, destitution and inadequacy. For this reason religious scholars have emphasized that one should recount Allah Ta` ala’s blessings and his own exigency before making his supplication.
The Legacy of Prophets cannot be inherited
يَرِثُنِي وَيَرِثُ مِنْ آلِ يَعْقُوبَ
“Who inherits me and inherits the house of Ya` qub.” – 19:6.
The religious scholars are all agreed that here the inheritance does not mean wealth, because in the first place, it has not been established that Sayyidna Zakariyya (عليه السلام) had much wealth. Hence, the question as to who would inherit the same, does not arise. Secondly, it is inconsistent with the exalted position of a prophet to concern himself with such matters. And thirdly, a saying of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، which has been unanimously accepted by all religious scholars, says:
وَإِنَّ الْعُلَمَاءَ وَرَثَةُ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ، وَإِنَّ الْأَنْبِيَاءَ لَمْ يُوَرِّثُوا دِينَارًا، وَلَا دِرْهَمًا وَرَّثُوا الْعِلْمَ، فَمَنْ أَخَذَهُ أَخَذَ بِحَظٍّ وَافِرٍ. (سنن أبي داود: 3641، سنن الترمذي: 2682)
“Indeed the knowledgeable scholars are the inheritors of the prophets, because the prophets do not leave any material wealth. Their legacy is knowledge. One who has acquired knowledge has received great fortune.”
The above saying of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is also recorded in Al-Kafi, by Al-Kulaini, the well-known book of the Shiite school. It is narrated in Sahih Al-Bukhari through Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said:
لا نورث، ما ترکنا صدقة
“No one inherits our (i.e. prophets’ ) wealth, because whatever wealth we leave behind is Sadaqah (Charity) (صدقة).”
In the verse itself after يَرِثُنِي the addition of the words يَرِثُ مِنْ آلِ يَعْقُوبَ (19:6) confirms the view that here the material inheritance is not implied, because the son, Yahya عليه السلام ، could not have inherited the material wealth of the family of Sayyidna Ya` qub (عليه السلام) ، which could only be inherited by their near relations and not by Sayyidna Yahya (عليه السلام) . It is against the law of inheritance for distant relations to receive any part of inheritance in the presence of close relatives.
Ruh ul-Ma` ani quotes the following from Al-Kafi, by Al-Kulaini, the well-known Shi’ah scholar:
عن أبي عبد الله رضي الله تعالى عنه قال: إن سليمان ورث داود وإن محمدا صلّى الله عليه وسلّم ورث سليمان عليه السّلام. تفسير الألوسي = روح المعاني (8/ 384)
Sulayman Ali was the heir of Dawud (عليه السلام) and Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was the heir of Sulayman
It is quite obvious that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) did not inherit any material wealth from Sulayman (عليه السلام) ، nor did Sulayman (عليه السلام) receive any such inheritance from Dawud (عليه السلام) . Clearly the reference here is to the wisdom and the knowledge which all prophets of Allah possess.
لم نجعَل لَّه مِن قَبلُ سَمِیاً
“We did not create any one before him of the same name.” – 19:7.
The word سَمِی means “person having the same name.” It also means “similar.” If the first meaning is adopted here then it would suggest that no one else had the name Yahya before him. This fact also suggests that he possessed certain special attributes which were not granted to anyone else before him. And if we take the second meaning of the word سَمِی then it will mean that some of his attributes and situations were such that they were peculiar to him and were not shared by any other prophet, and that he was unique in the possession of those special attributes, for instance his self abnegation and denial of worldly comforts (حصُور). However, it does not necessarily follow that he was superior to all the prophets who preceded him, for the superiority of Sayyidna Ibrahim Khalilullah (عليه السلام) and Sayyidna Musa Kalimullah (عليه السلام) over him is established and well known. (Mazhari)
وَاذْكُرْ فِى الْكِتٰبِ مَرْيَمَ ۘاِذِ انْتَبَذَتْ مِنْ اَهْلِهَا مَكَانًا شَرْقِيًّا
The word انتَبَذَتْ is derived from نَبَذ which means to throw away or to cast away. Hence, the meaning of انتَباَذَ is to withdraw from the crowd. مَكَانًا شَرْقِيًّا denotes that she retired to a secluded corner of the house facing east. The purpose of her shifting to a secluded corner of the house has been differently explained. Some say she had moved there to take a bath, while others say that she had moved as usual to a secluded corner on the eastern side of her place of worship for offering her prayers. Qurtubi has given preference to the second explanation. According to Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، this is the reason why the Christians face east when offering their prayers, and revere the eastern direction.
فَاَرسَلنَا اِلیھَا رُوحَنَا
“Then, We sent to her Our Spirit.” – 19:17.
A majority of scholars hold the view that رُوح (Spirit) refers to Sayyidna Jibra’il (عليه السلام) but some say that it refers to Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) himself. Allah Ta` ala had placed before Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) the likeness of the son to be born to her. But the former version is more appropriate and is confirmed by the statement that follows.
فَتَمَثَّلَ لَھَا بَشَراً سَوِیَّا
“He took before her the form of a perfect human.” – 19:17.
It is not given to a human being to see an angel in its real form, because he will be overwhelmed by fright at such an experience. This, indeed is, that happened to The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) in the cave of Hira’ on his first encounter with Sayyidna Jibra’il (عليه السلام) and again later on.
Sayyidna Jibra’il (عليه السلام) appeared before Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) in the form of a man, so as not to frighten her. When Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) saw a man near her she became apprehensive of his intentions and said
قَالَتْ اِنِّىْٓ اَعُوْذُ بِالرَّحْمٰنِ مِنْكَ اِنْ كُنْتَ تَقِيًّا
إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَـٰنِ مِنكَ seek refuge of the Rahman (All-Merciful), against you.” (19:18) Some reports have it that when Sayyidna Jibra’il (عليه السلام) heard these words he retreated a little in reverence of Allah’s name.
إِن كُنتَ تَقِيًّا
“If you are God-fearing.” – 19:18.
These are the words which a helpless person would utter to a cruel oppressor begging him that if he is a believer then he should desist from tormenting him. The intention is that Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) entreated Sayyidna Jibra’il (عليه السلام) who stood before her in the guise of a man, that he should fear Allah and abstain from evil deeds. In short, the expressionإِن كُنتَ تَقِيًّا (if you are God-fearing – 19:18) is not a precondition for seeking the protection of Allah but a condition to make her prayer more effective and inducing. Some other commentators have said that this expression is used for emphasis, meaning that even if you fear Allah I seek His protection; and if the position is otherwise then I shall seek Allah’s refuge with added vehemence. (Mazhari)
فَاَجَاۗءَهَا الْمَخَاضُ اِلٰى جِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ ۚ قَالَتْ يٰلَيْتَنِيْ مِتُّ قَبْلَ ھٰذَا وَكُنْتُ نَسْيًا مَّنْسِيًّا
Injunction in respect of desire for death
If her desire for death was due to worldly problems then she may be excused on the ground that she was overpowered by the surrounding circumstances and had reached a state of mind usually called by the mystics as غلبۃ الحال “Ghalabah-tul-Hal.” But if the desire for death was due to religious consideration, it was justifiable in its own right, because she feared that people would talk ill of her and she would not be able to endure it with patience. This could be tantamount to committing a sin of showing impatience and only death could save her from such a predicament.
The vow of silence has been prohibited under the Islamic Law
Before the advent of Islam silence was also a form of worship, and those who observed this fast were not supposed to speak from dawn to dusk. Islam cancelled this fast and made it mandatory to refrain from idle talk, lying and back-biting. Refraining from normal conversation is not a form of worship in Islam anymore and, hence to take a vow of silence is also not permissible. Abu Dawud (رح) has reported the following Hadith from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) .
لا یتم بعد احتلام ، ولا صمات یوم الی اللیل
It means that a child who has lost his father may not be regarded as an orphan after attaining puberty, and the rules pertaining to an orphan cease to apply on him. And that remaining silent from dawn to dusk is not a form of worship in Islam (This Hadith has been rated by As-Suyuti and Al-` Azizi as Hasan).
She has been directed to eat the dates because it has been established medically that the use of water and dates gives relief in labour pains.
Conceiving a child without copulation with a man is not totally impossible
That Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) conceived and gave birth to a child was a miracle. And miracles, however improbable they may be in appearance, are not beyond Allah’s power, rather, the more improbable they are, the more pronounced their miraculous nature. However, it cannot be taken as totally impossible, because according to some books of medical science, the lubricants found inside the female genitals are not merely a passive agent for conceiving a child; they also have a capacity of being active and a potential to make fetus by themselves without an external semen joining them. Ibn Sina (Avicenna), the famous medical scientist, has mentioned in his book ‘Al-Qanun’ that in a special disease, named by him as ‘Raja’ an imperfect form of even the organs of a fetus is shaped in the uterus of a woman without the intermediation of a male semen. So long as this potential is there, it cannot be taken as totally impossible, because some abnormal factor may increase this potential.
In verse 25 Allah Ta` ala commanded Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) to shake the date tree, although it was within His power to drop the dates in her lap. But here the suggestion is that one should strive to earn one’s living, and that the struggle for sustenance does not conflict with one’s trust in Allah (Ruh ul-Ma’ ani).
فَأَتَتْ بِهِ قَوْمَهَا تَحْمِلُهُ
“Then she came to her people carrying him.” – 19:27
These words suggest that when Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) was comforted by the super-natural indications that Allah Ta` ala will protect her from disgrace, she took the newborn baby with her to her house. As to the time when she returned home after giving birth to the child, Ibn ` Asa’ akir has narrated through Ibn ` Abbas (رض) that she returned home to her people forty days after the birth of the child i.e. after the completion of the period of Nifas (the bleeding period after the birth of a child). (Ruh ul-Ma` ani)
شَيْئًا فَرِيًّا (Something grave indeed – 19:27). The word فَرِی in Arabic language means to cut or to split, and is used to describe a task where a great deal of cutting and chopping is involved. However, Abu Hayyan has said that the word فَرِی means anything having preposterous and extraordinary significance, and may be used both in good and in bad sense. In the present context it is used to describe something monstrous, hence translated in the text as ‘something grave’. Generally this word is used for things which are known to be bad and corrupt in the extreme.
يٰٓاُخْتَ هٰرُوْنَ مَا كَانَ اَبُوْكِ امْرَاَ سَوْءٍ وَّمَا كَانَتْ اُمُّكِ بَغِيًّا
يَا أُخْتَ هَارُونَ (0 sister of Harun – 19:28). Sayyidna Harun (عليه السلام) ، who was the brother and companion of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) had died centuries before Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) time. It is obvious, therefore, that in verse 28 where Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) is addressed as the sister of Sayyidna Harun (عليه السلام) cannot be in its literal sense. This is also corroborated by the incident that when The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) sent Sayyidna Mughirah Ibn Shu’bah (رض) as his ambassador to the people of Najran they questioned him that in the Qur’ an Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) has been referred to as the sister of Sayyidna Harun (عليه السلام) whereas he had died long before her. Sayyidna Mughirah (رض) did not know the answer to this question. So, when he returned from the mission, he narrated the whole incident to The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . On this The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said why did you not tell them that it has been a common practice with the believers to adopt the names of the prophets in expectation of receiving their Barakah (blessings), and to claim relationship with them. (Ahmad, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i)
This saying of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) may be interpreted in two ways. One, that Sayyidah Maryam’s (علیہا السلام) relationship with Sayyidna Harun (عليه السلام) was mentioned because she was of his lineage, and it was customary with the Arabs to associate a person with their ancestors, for instance a man belonging to the tribe of Tamim would be called as Akha Tamim or Tamini’s brother, or an Arab would be addressed as Akha Arab. The other meaning is that the name Harun does not refer to Sayyidna Harun (عليه السلام) the companion / brother of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) but to the brother of Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) herself who was also named after Sayyidna Harun (عليه السلام) out of reverence for the Prophet. In the second case the term Harun اُختَ ھَارُون (Sister of Harun) fits in very well with the literal meaning of the word اُخت (Sister).
مَا كَانَ أَبُوكِ امْرَأَ سَوْءٍ
“Neither your father was a man of evil.” – 19:28.
These words suggest that when someone who is descended from’ righteous and pious ancestors commits a sin, then the sin is of greater magnitude compared to a sin committed by an ordinary person, because the sin brings bad name to the pious elders. It is for this reason that descendants of pious persons should make extra effort in the performance of righteous deeds, and fear Allah at all times.
قَالَ اِنِّىْ عَبْدُ اللّٰهِ ڜ اٰتٰىنِيَ الْكِتٰبَ وَجَعَلَنِيْ نَبِيًّا
إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّـهِ (“I am the servant of Allah” – 19:30) There is a report that when her family members started berating and censuring Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) ، Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) was sucking milk. When he heard their accusations he stopped sucking milk and moved over to his left side facing them, and raising his index finger he said:إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّـهِ i.e. I am the servant of Allah. In this way in his very first words Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) made it clear that although his birth was a miracle, he himself was not God, but only a servant of God. This was to eliminate forever the possibility of people worshipping him as God due to his miraculous birth.
آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا
“He has given me the Book and made me a prophet.” – 19:30.
In these words, Sayyidna ` Isa I even in his infancy announced his future prophethood and the revelation to him of a sacred book from Allah Ta` ala. Since no prophet has been granted prophethood and a sacred book before the age of forty years, therefore this pre-announcement of his prophethood by Sayyidna ` Isa (علیہا السلام) here means to convey in advance that he would be bestowed prophethood and the Book at the proper time. In a similar manner The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said that he was bestowed prophethood even before Adam (عليه السلام) was yet in the process of his creation. This shows that the promise for granting prophethood to Sayyidna Muhammad Al-Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was firm and final. Here too, because of the certainty of occurrence, the grant of prophethood is referred to in the past tense. By announcing his future prophethood he (Sayyidna ` Isa عليه السلام) dispelled peoples’ doubts and exonerated his mother from the charge of fornication, because his being a Prophet was proof enough that his birth was free from any blemish.
وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ
“And has enjoined Sa1ah and Zakah upon me.” – 19:31.
The word أَوْصَانِي is derived from the word وَصِیِّۃ (Wasiyyah) which normally means ‘to bequeath’, but when used in the context of issuing an order, it implies an emphatic command, and here it is used to put emphasis on a command of Allah. For this reason it is translated in the text as ‘enjoined’. Here Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) has said that Allah Ta’ ala had commanded him to offer Prayers and give the obligatory charity (Zakah), the intention being that he was commanded to observe both these duties with great diligence. Prayers and Zakah are two forms of worship which have been enjoined as obligatory in the Shar` iah (Laws) of all the prophets from Adam (عليه السلام) to the last of the Prophets, Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . However, their details vary in different codes. In the Shar` iah of Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) prayers and Zakah were also made compulsory. It is true that ` Isa (عليه السلام) was never wealthy; neither did he build a house for himself nor did he accumulate any material riches, then why was he enjoined to pay Zakah? The answer is that this injunction is of general application in that whosoever possesses a certain level of wealth (نصاب) is liable to pay Zakah. This injunction applied to ` Isa I as well i.e. whenever he acquired wealth upto the level of Nisab (نَصاب) he was required to pay Zakah, but if his wealth remains below Nisab throughout his life, he would never be liable to pay Zakah. This situation, therefore, is not in conflict with the general rules governing Zakah.
مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا
“As long as I am alive.” – 19:31.
It means that the injunction of prayers and Zakah is forever i.e. as long as I live. It is obvious that the reference here is to the life in this world, because these duties can be performed only here in this world.
“and (He has made me) good to my mother.” – 19:32.
Here only the mother is mentioned and not both the parents. Hence it is implied that his birth was a miracle, being without a father. Such a
discourse coming from an infant was a miracle by itself to prove his miraculous birth.
ذَٰلِكَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ
“This is ` Isa, the son of Maryam.” – 19:34.
The beliefs of the Jews and the Christians about Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) were on such opposite extremes that the Christians exalted him to such a level of reverence that they regarded him as the son of Allah. The Jews on the other hand, denigrated him maliciously and called him (God forbid) the illegitimate son of Yusuf (Joseph) the carpenter. Allah Ta` ala has pointed out the error of both the views in these verses and clarified the correct position.
The phrase قَوْلَ الْحَقِّ (translated in the text as ‘the word of truth’ in the normal reading is with fathah on the letter Lam (لَ ). In this case the sentence along with its understood words will run like اَقُولُ قَولَ الحَقِّ that is, ‘I say the word of truth’. However, in some readings the letter ‘Lam’ in ‘Qawl’ is rendered with Dammah i.e. قَوْلُ الْحَقِّ. In this case the sentence will mean that Sayyidna ‘Isa (علیہا السلام) himself was a word of truth. It is, then, analogous to the title of کَلِمَۃُ اللہِ (the word of Allah) which is given to him to denote that he was born directly by the word of Allah, having no connection with an apparent cause in this world. (Qurtubi)
وَاَنْذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ اِذْ قُضِيَ الْاَمْرُ ۘ وَهُمْ فِيْ غَفْلَةٍ وَّهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُوْنَ
يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ (the Day of Remorse) in verse 39 refers to the Day of Judgment and has been called the Day of Remorse because on that day persons consigned to Hell as punishment for their evil deeds will regret their disregard of the righteous way of life, and wish that if they had lived the life of true believers, they too would have been in Paradise instead of being punished in Hell. Even those who have been rewarded with Paradise will feel a different kind of remorse. Al-Tabarani and Abu Ya` la have quoted the following saying of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) on the authority of Sayyidna Mu’adh (رض) .
“The people of Paradise will regret only one thing, namely those moments which were spent without the remembrance of Allah.”
And Al-Baghawi (رح) has narrated quoting Abu Hurairah (رض) that The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said:
“Everyone will experience remorse and regret after death.”
The companions of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) asked him what would be that remorse and regret about? Then The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) explained that those who acted righteously will regret not having performed more righteous deeds which would have helped them attain a higher position in Paradise. On the other hand, the evil doers will repent their evil actions and sins. (Mazhari)
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتٰبِ اِبْرٰهِيْمَ ڛ اِنَّهٗ كَانَ صِدِّيْقًا نَّبِيًّا
Meaning of Siddiq
صِدِّيقًا نَّبِيًّا (Siddiq (a man of truth), a prophet – 19:41) The word صِدِّيقً (Siddiq) is a Qur’anic term which has been defined differently by different scholars. Some say it is applied to one who has never told a lie in his life. Others describe Siddiq (صِدِّيقً ) as one who is truthful in his beliefs, words and deeds. In other words his utterances truly reflect his beliefs, and his actions in turn match with his beliefs and words. Ruh ul-Ma` ani and Mazhari have adopted the latter meaning of the word. Then there are different degrees of صِدِّیقِیَت (Truthfulness) i.e. those who fall within this definition are placed at different pedestals. Only a prophet (نَبِی یَا رَسُول ) can be a true صِدِّيقً. While every prophet is gifted with this attribute, not everyone who has it is a prophet. A believer who follows in the footsteps of his prophet and attains this exalted position of صِدِّيقً (truthfulness) can also be called Siddiq. The Holy Qur’an itself has given the title of صِدِّيقًہ to Sayyidah Maryam (علیہا السلام) ، despite the view of the overwhelming, majority that she was not a prophet, and that a woman cannot be a prophet.
اِذْ قَالَ لِاَبِيْهِ يٰٓاَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لَا يَسْمَعُ وَلَا يُبْصِرُ وَلَا يُغْنِيْ عَنْكَ شَـيْــــــًٔــا
How to give counsel to elders.
يَا أَبَتِ (My dear father – 19:42) In Arabic language this word conveys deep respect and intense love for one’s father. Allah Ta` ala had combined in the person of Sayyidna Khalilullah (عليه السلام) the noble qualities and attributes, and his address to his father is a perfect example of moderation and restraint on the one hand, and the balancing of the opposites on the other. He finds his father living a life of unbelief and polytheism, and also calling upon other people to follow him in a life of sin – the very things which he was sent to eradicate. At the same time there is the filial love and respect which he feels towards his father. Now, the thing to note is, how well he combines the two conflicting feelings together. In the first place he uses the word يَا أَبَتِ , which is the mark of love and respect for his father, in the beginning of each sentence of the address.
Then there is not a single derogatory word in his address which could hurt the feelings of his father, and words such as infidel or sinner have been carefully avoided. Instead, guided by prophetic wisdom he merely invited his father’s attention to the helplessness and insensitivity of his idols, so that he might himself realize the fallacy of his beliefs. In the second sentence he made a mention of the prophetic knowledge that was granted to him by Allah Ta’ ala. Then in the third and fourth sentences he warned him against the Divine wrath, which would surely fall on him as a punishment for infidelity and idolatry. Even to these respectful entreaties his father did not pay any heed and, instead of giving any thought to what was said to him and adopting a gentle attitude, he addressed him ina very harsh language. Whereas Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) had addressed him with the loving words of يَا أَبَتِ , which should have called for a soft and tender response, such as یَا بُنَیَّ (My dear son) he chose to call him by his name and said يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ , and not only threatened to stone him to death but also asked him to leave his house. How Sayyidna Khalilullah’ (علیہا السلام) responded to this threat is worthy of deep reflection.
قَالَ سَلٰمٌ عَلَيْكَ ۚ سَاَسْتَغْفِرُ لَكَ رَبِّيْ ۭاِنَّهٗ كَانَ بِيْ حَفِيًّا
سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكَ (Peace on you) Here the word (Peace) may carry two meanings. One, that the word سَلَام is used to signify severance of relations in a polite manner so as not to cause hurt to his father. This practice has been described in the Holy Qur’an as an attribute of good and pious people. An example in point are the words.
وَإِذَا خَاطَبَهُمُ الْجَاهِلُونَ قَالُوا سَلَامًا
“When ignorant people speak to them, they reply peacefully.” (25:63)
It means that when the ignorant people say foolish things to them they simply say ‘Salami (peace) instead of getting involved into an argument with them. This is a way of conveying to them that though I do not agree with your views I will not harm you. The second explanation is that the word سَلَام has been used in the conventional sense. But here the problem is that The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has forbidden the believers to be the first to greet an infidel with the word سَلَام on meeting him. The following saying of The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has been reported in Sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض) .
لَا تَبدأ والیھود و النصاریٰ بالسَّلَام
“Do not be the first to greet Jews and Christians with the word سَلَام
On the other hand Sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim have also reported through Sayyidna Usamah (رض) ‘ that The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had greeted first a group of people with the word in which infidels, polytheists and Muslims were all present.
This explains the differences which have developed among jurists on the question of propriety or otherwise of this practice. By their words and actions eminent companions (of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)), their followers and leaders of religious thought have expressed different views on this issue. Qurtubi has treated this subject in great detail while explaining this verse in his book Ahkam ul-Qur’ an. Imam An-Nakha` i has ruled that when one meets an infidel, a Jew or a Christian on a religious or a worldly need, then there is no harm in taking lead in greeting him with the word سَلَام ، but one should avoid greeting first when there is no need to meet him. Thus both the sayings of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) (حَدِیث) have been reconciled.
سَأَسْتَغْفِرُ لَكَ رَبِّي (I shall seek forgiveness for you from my Lord – 19:47). Here again the problem is that to ask for forgiveness for the sins of an infidel is prohibited and unlawful by Islamic laws, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had said to his uncle Abu Talib واللہ لاستغفرنّ لک مالم انہ عنہ ، that is;
“By God I shall keep on praying to Allah for your forgiveness until I am forbidden to do so by Him.”
On this the following verse was revealed:
مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَن يَسْتَغْفِرُوا لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ
“It is not for the Prophet and the believers to seek forgiveness for the Mushriks.” (9:113)
After the revelation of this verse he stopped seeking forgiveness for his uncle.
The answer to this confusion is that Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) had promised his father to seek Divine Mercy for him before such a prayer was forbidden. The prohibition was imposed after this event. Allah Ta` ala has mentioned this event in Surah Mumtahinna where this exception is clearly indicated.
إِلَّا قَوْلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ لَأَسْتَغْفِرَنَّ لَكَ
Except that Ibrahim said to his father “Certainly I shall ask pardon for you”. – 60:4.
This is more clear in Surah Taubah in the verse following the verse.
مَا كَانَ لِلنَّبِيِّ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَن يَسْتَغْفِرُوا لِلْمُشْرِكِينَ
“It is not for the Prophet and the believers to seek forgiveness for the Mushriks.” – 9:114.
وَمَا كَانَ اسْتِغْفَارُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ إِلَّا عَن مَّوْعِدَةٍ وَعَدَهَا إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ أَنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ لِّلَّـهِ تَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُ
“And the prayer of Ibrahim for the forgiveness of his father was not but due to a promise he had made to him. Later, when it became clear to him that he was an enemy of Allah, he withdrew himself from him.” – 9:114.
This shows that Sayyidna Ibrahim’s (عليه السلام) promise to his father to invoke Allah’s Mercy for him was made before the latter’s firm adherence to infidelity, and his hostility to Allah became clearly evident. When the position was no longer in doubt Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) announced his dissociation from his father.
وَأَعْتَزِلُكُمْ وَمَا تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ وَأَدْعُو رَبِّي
And go away from you and what you invoke besides Allah. And I shall invoke my Lord.” – 19:48.
On the one hand Sayyidna Khalilullah (عليه السلام) went to the extreme to show his respect and love for his father, which has been described above, and on the other hand he did not allow the slightest doubt to be cast on his expression of the universal truth (حق) or on his total belief in it. He accepted willingly his father’s orders to leave the house and also made it known that he had totally dissociated himself from his (father’s) idols and addressed his prayers only to Allah.
فَلَمَّا اعْتَزَلَهُمْ وَمَا يَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ وَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ
“So, when he went away from them and what they worshipped besides Allah, We blessed him with Ishaq and Ya` qub.” – 19:49.
In the sentence preceding this sentence Hadhrat Ibrahim (عليه السلام) had expressed the hope that on account of his prayers and devotion Allah Ta` ala would not abandon him. This hope, in fact, was a prayer to Allah to protect him from the pain of loneliness after he left his house and family. The sentence reproduced above describes the manner in which his prayer was granted. When Ibrahim (عليه السلام) left his home and family and their idols, Allah Ta` ala rewarded him with a son, Ishaq (عليه السلام) to compensate him for his loss. It was further revealed to him that this son would have long life and also beget a son by the name of Ya` qub. Granting of a son is proof that he (Ibrahim) was married by then. In brief it means that he was granted a better family, which consisted of prophets and pious people after he had left his father’s family.
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتٰبِ مُوْسٰٓى ۡ اِنَّهٗ كَانَ مُخْلَصًا وَّكَانَ رَسُوْلًا نَّبِيًّا
كَانَ مُخْلَصًا (Indeed he was a chosen one – 19:51) مُخْلَصً : means a person whom Allah Ta` ala has chosen for himself i.e. someone who will not devote himself to anyone but Allah, and whose only desire is to win Allah’s benevolence. This special position is enjoyed by the prophets only as mentioned in the Qur’ an at another place.
إِنَّا أَخْلَصْنَاهُم بِخَالِصَةٍ ذِكْرَى الدَّارِ
“We purified them with a quality most pure, the remembrance of the Abode.” – 38:46.
Those among the followers of prophets who attain perfection are also granted a place of distinction, which makes them immune to committing sins and evil deeds through Divine dispensation. They remain in Allah’s protection all the time.
وَنَادَيْنٰهُ مِنْ جَانِبِ الطُّوْرِ الْاَيْمَنِ وَقَرَّبْنٰهُ نَجِيًّا
مِن جَانِبِ الطُّورِ الْأَيْمَنِ (The right side of the mount Tur – 19:52). This famous mountain (Tur or Sinai) rises in Syria between Madyan and Egypt, and is still known by the same name. Allah Ta’ ala has given it a distinct and special position in many ways.
الْأَيْمَنِ The position of Mr is given to .the right side in relation to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) who had commenced his journey from Madyan and when he approached Tur, it was on his right side. نَجِيًّا is for whisper, مُنَاجَات is for confidential talk and نَجِی means a confidant.
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ
“And mention in the Book (the story of) Isma` il.” – 19:54.
The reference here is clearly to Sayyidna Ismail (عليه السلام) the son of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) ، who has not been mentioned earlier along with his father Ibrahim (عليه السلام) and brother Ishaq (عليه السلام) but mention has been made of him after a brief interlude in which an account of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) is given. It is possible that by making a reference to Sayyidna Ismail (عليه السلام) apart from others, instead of treating him along with them, the intention was to give him prominent status. In this verse the prophets have not been mentioned in the order in which they were granted missions of prophethood, because Idris (عليه السلام) who has been mentioned last was, in fact, the earliest of them all.
كَانَ صَادِقَ الْوَعْدِ
“He was indeed true to his promise.” – 19:54.
Fulfillment of promise .is regarded as an important part of the moral code by all decent men, just as a breach of it is considered worthy of contempt. A saying of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has described the breaking of promise as a sign of hypocrisy. Thus, none of the prophets and messengers of Allah have been accused of bad faith / a breach of promise.
Here certain attributes have been assigned to some of the prophets, but this does not mean that the other prophets did not possess them. It only suggests that these special attributes distinguish them from all the other prophets, just as Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) has been described as مُخلَص . All the other prophets possessed this quality, but it has been specifically applied to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) . Hence a special mention of him with the attribute.
Sayyidna Ismail (عليه السلام) occupies a place of honour where keeping a promise is concerned and he stood by his promise whether made to Allah or to humans. He fulfilled his promise to Allah that he would offer himself for sacrifice and will not be found wanting in courage. When the time came he stood by his promise. Once, he promised to meet a man at an appointed place and time. The man did not turn up at the appointed time, but Sayyidna Ismail عليه السلام waited for him at the place for three days, and according to another tradition for full one year. (Mazhari) A similar incident is reported about The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) by Tirmidhi on the authority of Abdullah Ibn Ari Al-Khamsa that he waited for three days for someone who had promised to meet him at a particular place. (Qurtubi)
Importance of keeping one’s promise
Fulfillment of promise is a distinctive trait of the character of the prophets and the pious, and a normal code of conduct with all decent persons. Breaking of a promise, on the other hand, is a habit of the wicked, mean and liars. A saying of The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is اَلعدۃ دَین “A promise is like a debt.” i.e. it is as obligatory to honour a promise as it is to repay a debt. There is another saying of The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) which says وای المؤمن واجب . It means that “promise is an obligation for a believer.”
Jurists are all agreed that a promise is a debt and its fulfillment obligatory, but only in the sense that its violation without a religious (شرعِی) excuse is a sin though no remedy can be sought for its breach in a court of law. In the language of the Jurists a debt is an obligation which is enforceable, while a promise is not.
A reformer must begin his mission with his own family
كَانَ يَأْمُرُ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ
“And he used to bid Salah and Zakah to his family.” – 19:55.
A special attribute of Sayyidna Ismail (عليه السلام) is that he used to direct his family members to offer prayers and pay obligatory charity (الزَّكَاةِ ). Here the question arises that all Muslims are required to advise their family members to perform good deeds as the Qur’an addresses the believers
قُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَهْلِيكُمْ نَارًا
“Save yourself and your family members from the Fire (of Hell).” – 66:6.
Then why has a special mention been made of Sayyidna Ismail (عليه السلام) in this matter? The fact is, that although this injunction applies to all Muslims, Sayyidna Ismail (عليه السلام) used to make special efforts in following this directive. Likewise, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) also received special directive to warn his family members and close relations against Allah’s wrath وَأَنذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ (and warn the nearest people of your clan – 26:214). As a consequence he assembled them all and conveyed to them Allah’s command. The other point to consider here is that prophets are sent by Allah for the guidance of entire people. They convey Allah’s message to everyone and bind them to obey His command.
Then what is the point in making special mention of the members of family? The thing is that there are certain principles which the prophets observe when calling upon people to follow the path of righteousness, and one of them is to give the call first to one’s own family members before calling upon the general public. It is a lot easier to prevail upon one’s own family members and to monitor their actions. Once the family members have accepted a certain way of life and have started acting on it routinely then it becomes much easier to spread the same message among others at large. When people see for themselves others following a righteous path it becomes much easier to convert them. The most effective means for bringing about an improvement in the character of the people is by creating a religious environment. Experience shows that virtue and vice both proliferate faster and wider in a receptive environment than through teaching and preaching.
وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِدْرِيسَ
“And mention in the Book (the story of) Idris.” – 19:56.
Sayyidna Idris (عليه السلام) lived one thousand years before Sayyidna Nuh (عليه السلام) and was among his ancestors. (Ruh ul-Ma` ani with reference to Mustadrak al-Hakim). He was the first Prophet after Sayyidna Adam (عليه السلام) and Allah Ta’ ala bestowed upon him thirty books. (Abi zar- Zamkhashari). Sayyidna Idris (عليه السلام) was the first man who was given the knowledge of astrology and mathematics through a miracle, (Bahr ul-Muhit). He was also the first man who learnt how to write with a pen, and also the first who invented stitching of cloth, people used to wear animal skins instead of clothes before his time. He also invented measurement tools for the first time. Making of weapons also started in his time and he used them in his wars – the Holy wars : جھاد)Jihad) against the descendents of Qabil (بنو قابیل) (Bahr ul-Muhit, Qurtubi, Mazhari, Ruh ul-Ma ani)
وَرَفَعْنَاهُ مَكَانًا عَلِيًّا
“And We raised him to a high place.” – 19:57.
It means that he was granted a special position among prophets and was close to Allah Ta` ala. There are also other versions about his ascent to the sky, about which Ibn-e-Kathir has said
ھٰذا من أخبار کعب الأحبار الإسرایٔلیات وفي بعضه نکارۃ
“This is taken from the traditions of the Israelites as reported by Ka’ab Al-Ahbar, some of which are disputed, and unfamiliar.”
The Qur’anic words are not specific on the subject whether he was given a sublime position or was physically lifted to the sky. Therefore, his physical ascent to the sky is not definite. In any case commentary of the Holy Qur’an is not dependent on this issue. (Bayan ul-Qur’ an)
From Bayan ul-Qur’an – The difference between the definition of ‘Rasul’ and ‘Nabi’ and their inter-relationship.
“The words Rasul and Nabi have been variously explained. Having considered all possibilities I have come to the conclusion that the relationship between the two is on being specific or general on the basis of their application.
Rasul is one who delivers a new code to those among whom he is sent, even though the code may be new to himself as well, like Torah to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) or the code be new only to his people, as was the case with Sayyidna Ismail (عليه السلام) . The code that he was preaching was in fact given to his father, Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) ، but it was new for the tribe of Jurhum who did not know about it beforehand, and learnt its details from Sayyidna Ismail (عليه السلام) only, who was sent to them for this purpose. It, therefore, follows that it is not necessary for a Rasul to be Nabi just as the angels who are Rasul but not Nabi or the messengers sent to Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) who are referred in Qur’an as Rasul, although they were not Nabi. إِذْ جَاءَهَا الْمُرْسَلُونَ (36:13).
On the other hand Nabi is the one who is the bearer of Wahy (Allah’s message) regardless of whether he preaches an old or a new religious code. Many a prophets from Bani Isra’il fall under this category, as they preached the religious code given to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) ، therefore, follows that the word Rasul is more general compared to Nabi. But in certain other ways converse is the case. Where the two words are used together, as in the case of this verse where they appear as رَسُولًا نَّبِيًّا ، there is no problem in that they can be taken both in specific or in general term, and there will not be any contradiction. But in such situations where the two words appear separately one against the other, then having regard to the relative position of the two words in the verse the term Nabi will denote someone who is following the religious code brought by someone else.
أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِن ذُرِّيَّةِ آدَمَ
“Those are the people whom Allah has blessed with bounties, the prophets from the progeny of Adam.” – 19.58.
This relates only to Sayyidna Idris (عليه السلام) .
وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ
“And from those whom We boarded (the Ark) along with Nuh.” – 19:58.
This relates to Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) only,
وَمِن ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ
“and from the progeny of Ibrahim” – 19:58.
This relates to Ismail, Ishaq and Ya` qub (عليه السلام) .
“and Isra’il” – 19:58.
This points out to Sayyidna Musa, Haran, Zakariyya and Yahya and ` Isa (علیہم السلام) .
إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ خَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَبُكِيًّا
“When the verses of The Rahman (All-Merciful) are recited before them they fall down in Sajdah (prostration), weeping.” -19:58.
Some very prominent prophets have been mentioned in the preceding verses as also their exalted status. Thus, there was a real danger that people might raise them to an exaggerated and high position as was the case with Jews who treated Sayyidna ` Uzair (عليه السلام) as God, or the Christians who elevated Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) to a level where they called him the son of God. Therefore, after the mention of all those prophets it was made very clear in the very next verse that they were all very God-fearing and used to prostrate (سَجدَہ) themselves before Allah in extreme reverence. It is to avoid any possibility of crossing the limits of reverence for them (Bayan ul-Qur’an).
Weeping during the recitation of Qur’an / Divine Book was the Practice of the Prophets (عليه السلام)
Weeping while reciting Qur’an is a commendable act and was also an attribute of the prophets. It has been reported that The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، his companions, their followers and the God-fearing people followed this practice.
Qurtubi has reported that religious scholars consider it desirable that when going into Sajdah after reciting a verse of Sajdah (آیَت سجدہ) one should recite a prayer which is appropriate to the verse of Sajdah (آیَتِ سجدہ). For instance in Surah Sajdah (surah # 32) the following prayer be recited.
اللَّھُم اجعَلنِی مِنَ السَّاجِدِینَ لِوَجھِکَ المُسَبِّحِینَ بِحَمدِکَ وَاَعُوذُ بِک اَن اَکُونَ مِنَ المُستَکبِرِینَ عَن اَمرِکَ
(0 Allah, make me of those who prostrate to You alone, and who glorify You along with proclaiming Your praise. And I seek refuge with You from being of those who turn their faces, in arrogance, against Your command.)
While in the case of Sajdah at verse # 109 of (Surah Bani Isra’il) one should recite.
اللَّھُمَّ اَجعَلنِی مِنَ البَاکِینَ اِلَیکَ الخَاشِعِینَ لَکَ
(0 Allah, make me of those who weep before You and who are humble in heart before You.)
And for the verse of Sajdah under reference the following should be recited.
اللَّھُمَّ اجعَلنِی مِن عِبَادِکَ المُنعِمِ عَلَیھِمُ المَھدِیِّینَ السَّاجِدِینَ لِکِ البَاکِینَ عِندَ تِلَاوَۃِ آیَاتِکَ
( O Allah make me of those among Your slaves upon whom You bestowed Your bounties, who prostrate before You, who weep while reciting Your verses.) (Qurtubi)
فَخَــلَفَ مِنْۢ بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ اَضَاعُوا الصَّلٰوةَ وَاتَّـبَعُوا الشَّهَوٰتِ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا
فَخَلَفَ (Khalf) means bad successors, while فَخَلَفَ (Khalaf) means good successors. (Mazhari) Mujahid (رح) has reported that when the Day of Judgment would be near and the pious people would all be dead and gone, people will lose interest in prayers and indulge in all sort of vices and evil deeds.
Offering prayers outside fixed time or not with congregation (جَمَاعَت) is a default and of no avail, and is a great sin.
Most exegetes / commentators are of the view that offering prayers after its time has lapsed is a default of prayers (اضَاعُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ ). Among them are Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn Masud, Nakhai, Qasim, Mujahid, Ibrahim and ` Umar Ibn ` Abdul ` Aziz. While others consider that any lapse in the form and conditions of prayers is اِضَاعتِ صلٰوۃ and includes the lapse of time as well. Still others believe that offering of prayers at home and not with the congregation (جَمَاعَت) is اِضَاعتِ صلٰوۃ (Qurtubi, Bahr ul-Muhit).
Sayyidna ` Umar al-Faruq (رض) ، had sent out a circular to all his governors saying:
إِنَّ أَهَمَّ أَمْرِكُمْ عِنْدِي الصَّلَاةُ. فَمَنْ حَفِظَهَا وَحَافَظَ عَلَيْهَا، حَفِظَ دِينَهُ. وَمَنْ ضَيَّعَهَا فَهُوَ لِمَا سِوَاهَا أَضْيَعُ. موطأ مالك ت عبد الباقي (1/ 6)
“In my view the most important among your tasks is prayer. So, whoever defaults in this, will default in discharging his other obligations all the more.”
Once Sayyidna Hudaifah (رض) saw someone offering his prayers without observing the prescribed rules, and was going through the rituals rather hurriedly without pausing. He asked the man how long he had been offering his prayers like that. The man replied for the last forty years. ‘Then Sayyidna Hudaifah (رض) said:
“You have not offered a single of your prayers correctly.”
He further remarked:
“If you die offering your prayers like this then remember you will die without following the course given by The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) .
Sayyidna Abu Mas’ ud (رض) has been quoted in Tirmidhi that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had said that the prayer of a person is lost who does not observe اِقَامَت i.e. does not stand upright in his prayers. It means that if one does not pause while bowing down (رُکُوع) and prostrating (سَجدَہ) in his prayers or who does not stand straight up after bowing down ( رُکُوع) or does not sit up in between two prostrations (سَجدُوں) his prayers would be considered as not performed. Similarly, if one is not careful about ablution (وُضُو) and his cleanliness (طَھَارَت) his prayers will also be lost.
Sayyidna Hasan-al-Basri (رح) has observed that leaving the mosques unattended and being over involved in business and enjoyments of life is included in the meaning of this verse.
Imam Qurtubi’ (رح) after reproducing these sayings had said that even knowledgeable people ignore the prescribed rules of prayers and merely go through its motions. He made this observation in the 6th century Hijrah when such people were few. Presently the position is worse, and there are many more people who disregard the rules of prayers. نَعُوذُ بِاللہِ مِن شُرُورِ انفُسِنَا وَ اَعمَالِنا (and pursued desires – 19:59) (شَھَوَات ) refers to all such wordly pleasures which make people negligent of their duty to Allah making them lose interest in Prayers. Sayyidna Ali (رض) has said that palatial houses and luxurious carriages which attract people’s eye, and wearing dresses which distinguish a person from the common man all fall within the category of worldly pleasures. (Qurtubi)
فَسَوفَ یَلقَونَ غَیِّاً (So they will soon face[ the outcome of their ] perversion – 19:59) The word غَیّ in Arabic language is the opposite of رشاد . All virtues and good things are رشاد and all vices and evils are غَیّ. Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn Mas’ ud (رض) has reported that there is a cave in Hell by the name غَیّ which houses various types of severe punishments, more numerous than all the punishments of Hell.
Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has remarked that even Hell seeks protection from غَیّ , which is the name of a cave in the Hell. Allah Ta` ala has prepared it for habitual adulterers who persist in adultery, and for the drunkards who do not give up drinking, and for the usurers who do not stop taking interest and for those who disobey their parents, and those who give false witness and for the woman who declares someone else’s child as her husband’s. (Qurtubi)
لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ فِيهَا لَغْوًا إِلَّا سَلَامًا
“They will not hear anything absurd therein but a word of peace.” – 19:62.
(لَغو) means idle, absurd, frivolous and abusive talk, which will not reach the ears of good people who have been admitted to Paradise.
إِلَّا سَلَامًا means that whatever one will hear in Paradise will add to his happiness, peace and tranquility. It includes the customary greetings (سَلَام), which the dwellers of Paradise will exchange among themselves and the angels of God will offer them all. (Qurtubi)
وَلَهُمْ رِزْقُهُمْ فِيهَا بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيًّا
“And there they will have their provisions at morn and eve.” – 19:62.
There will be no solar system in the Paradise and hence no rising or setting of the sun, but there will be a perpetual radiance. There will also be some way of telling day from night and morning from evening. Within this distinction between morning and evening the Paradise dwellers will receive their meals. It goes without saying that the wishes of the Paradise dwellers will be fulfilled forthwith وَلَهُم مَّا يَشْتَهُونَ – and for themselves, there is what they desire – 16:57). This is a general announcement. Hence, mention of morning and evening is because of people’s habit to eat and drink in the morning and in the evening. According to an Arab saying, anyone who gets a full meal morning and evening is comfortable and at peace.
Sayyidna Anas Ibn Malik (رض) ، said after reciting this verse that it shows that the believers have their meals twice a day, one in the morning and the other in the evening.
Some scholars have explained that mention of morning and the evening is a general expression, like day and night or east and west, which does not specify any particular time or place. Therefore, it means that they (Paradise dwellers) will get their provisions according to their choice at any time they like. (Only God knows best) (Qurtubi)
رَبُّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فَاعْبُدْهُ وَاصْطَبِرْ لِعِبَادَتِهٖ ۭ هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهٗ سَمِيًّا
وَاصْطَبِرْ لِعِبَادَتِهِ (“and-persevere in His worship.” – 19:65) The word اِصطِبَار ‘ means perseverance in the face of acute distress and hardship. The point here is that anyone who wishes to be constant and steadfast in. his prayers must be prepared to undergo pain and suffering.
هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ سَمِيًّا (“Do you know any one worthy of His name?” – 19:65). In the generally accepted sense the word applies to persons bearing the same name. The polytheists and idolaters had included many humans, angels, stones and idols along with Allah Ta` ala in their worship and designated all of them as سَمِیُّ i.e. as objects of worship but it is a strange and extraordinary coincidence that none of their false gods was ever named as Allah. This matter was preordained, and no idol or deity bore the name Allah. Thus, the literal meaning of the word would adequately explain the meaning of this verse which is that there is no object in the world bearing Allah’s name.
Many commentators, among them Mujahid, Ibn Zubair, Qatadah, and Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، are of the view that in the present context the word means “a like” or “comparable” and the sense of the verse is that in the entire pantheon of false gods none is equal or comparable to Allah Ta` ala in so far as divine attributes are concerned.
لَنَحْشُرَنَّهُمْ وَالشَّيَاطِينَ ثُمَّ لَنُحْضِرَنَّهُمْ
“We will definitely gather them together with the devils, then We will definitely make them present.” – 19:68.
This verse may be interpreted in two ways. First, that on the Day of Judgment every infidel will be brought before God along with his own devil, and this suggests that this is a reference to the gathering of infidels and their devils. But if it is interpreted in a general sense to include all believers and infidels then the meaning of the devils being gathered with all of them would be that while the infidels will be gathered with their devils, the believers would also be gathered at the same time and place. Thus the devils will be gathered along with the infidels as well as with the believers.
حَوْلَ جَهَنَّمَ جِثِيًّا
“Around the Jahannam fallen on their knees.” – 19:68.
On the Day of Resurrection every one – believers, infidels, the blessed and the wretched – will be assembled around Hell. Everyone will be seized with awe and terror, and they will all be on their knees, then the believers and the blessed will be taken across Hell and admitted into Paradise, so that having viewed the extreme suffering of Hell they may all the better enjoy their own state of felicity, and at the same time rejoice at the punishment which has been inflicted upon the infidels.
ثُمَّ لَنَنزِعَنَّ مِن كُلِّ شِيعَةٍ
“Then We will certainly draw out from every group.” – 19:69.
The word is applied to a particular person or the followers of a particular faith, and it also means a sect. The meaning of the verse is that the most rebellious from amongst the different sects of the infidels will be picked out. Some commentators say that the sinners will be committed to Hell in the order of the intensity of their sins, i.e. those sinners will be driven in first whose sins are most intense and those with less intense sins, will follow them, and so on.
وَإِن مِّنكُمْ إِلَّا وَارِدُهَا وَإِن مِّنكُمْ إِلَّا وَارِدُهَا
“And there is none among you who is not to arrive at it.” – 19:71.
This means that everybody – be he a believer or an infidel – will go across Hell. However, this does not mean that they would go to stay in it; they would only go across it. But even if the word means “entry”, then the pious believers on entry into Hell will feel no discomfort because its fires will cool down and will do no harm to them. Sayyidna Abu Sumayya (رض) has related that The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) once said that:
“Everybody whether he is a pious man or a sinner will initially enter Hell, but for the pious believers the fire will cool down just as the fire of Namrud cooled down when Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) was cast into it. Thereafter, the believers will be taken to Paradise.”
This view is confirmed by the next sentence ثُمَّ نُنَجِّي الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا which mens then We will save those who feared Allah – 19:72. A similar view has also been expressed by Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، thus even if the word وُرُود occurring in the Qur’an is taken to mean دُخُول (entry), then the word دُخُول will be interpreted as synonymous with the word عُبُور (going across). Thus there is no contradiction in the meaning of the word.
خَيْرٌ مَّقَامًا وَأَحْسَنُ نَدِيًّا
“Superior in respect of its place and better in respect of its assembly” – 19:73.
The infidels never relaxed their efforts to confuse and perplex the believers. They were very rich and possessed material wealth in great abundance. They had their retinues, their followers, friends and supporters. In contrast, the believers were poor and lacking in worldly assets. However, it is a common experience that material wealth turns people’s heads and makes them unduly proud and arrogant, so that even the sensible and wise among them are led to believe that their prosperity and affluence is the reward of their personal merit and effort, and will last forever. History is replete with instances where prosperous communities and rich nations crumbled to dust and vanished without leaving a trace. But these instances of Divine wrath hold no lesson for them and fail to turn them from their erroneous ways.
On the other hand there are good people who, following the teachings of Qur’an, do not regard wealth and worldly honors as the result of their own effort and merit, but as Allah Ta` ala’s bounty to be held as a trust from Him and to be expended according to His command. They are well aware that these gifts from Allah Ta` ala will not last forever, and the prospect of their abatement or even their total loss does not cause them any concern. These are the people who are safe from the mischief resulting from wealth and material abundance to which the infidels are exposed. Prophets like Sayyidna Sulayman and Dawud (علیہما السلام) ، many a followers of The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and multitude among the pious believers fall in this category.
Allah Ta` ala has dispelled the mistaken notions of the infidels by saying that the transient material prosperity cannot be regarded as a token of His goodwill nor as a symbol of their own merit, because it often happens that foolish and undeserving people are loaded with wealth while wise and learned persons spend their lives in poverty.
وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِندَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ مَّرَدًّا
”And the everlasting virtues are better with your Lord in respect of reward and better in their return”. – 19:76
These words have been interpreted differently by different scholars as has been explained at some length in the commentary of Sarah Al-Kahf (سورۃ کھف). The more plausible interpretation, however, is that the words refer to submission to the commands of Allah and to good deeds, the benefits of which are everlasting.
مَّرَدًّا by means consequences, and the sense of this verse is that good deeds alone are the real wealth whose reward is great and whose result is eternal peace.
اَفَرَءَيْتَ الَّذِيْ كَفَرَ بِاٰيٰتِنَا وَقَالَ لَاُوْتَيَنَّ مَالًا وَّوَلَدًا
لَأُوتَيَنَّ مَالًا وَوَلَدًا (“I shall certainly be given wealth and children”. – 19:77) Bukhari and Muslim relate the story of Sayyidna Khabab Ibn Al-‘Aratt (رض) who had lent some money to ` As Ibn Wa’ il. When pressed to return the loan, ` As Ibn Wa’ il said that he would not make the payment until he (Sayyidna Khabab (رض) dissociated himself from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . Sayyidna Khabab (رض) replied that he would never do that – not until ` As was dead and rose to life again. At this ` As Ibn Wa’ il said, “What? Will I be brought to life again after I am dead? If so I will repay the loan only after I am brought back to life again because even then I will have my wealth and my children.” (Qurtubi)
اَطَّلَعَ الْغَيْبَ اَمِ اتَّخَذَ عِنْدَ الرَّحْمٰنِ عَهْدًا
This verse is an answer to ` As Ibn Wa’ ils boastful claim. How does he know that when he is brought back to life he will still have his wealth and children?
أَطَّلَعَ الْغَيْبَ (Has he peeped in the unseen – 19:78) It is obvious that nothing of this kind has happened. Then why has he considered it as a surety?
أَمِ اتَّخَذَ عِندَ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ عَهْدًا
“ Or taken a covenant with The Rahman (All-Mercifull)”
Or has he entered into a covenant with Allah Ta` ala and obtained a promise from Him for his wealth and his children?
وَنَرِثُهُ مَا يَقُولُ
“And We will inherit from him what he is talking about” – 19:80.
It is foolish of him to talk about retaining his wealth and children in the Hereafter because he will have to leave behind even these things which he possesses in this world, and his wealth and children will all revert to Allah Ta’ ala.
“And he.will come to Us all alone” – 19:80.
And on the Day of Judgment he will appear in God’s presence one without his wealth and his children.
وَيَكُونُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ ضِدًّا
“And they will be just the opposite for them” – 19:82.
The idols and the false gods whom the infidels worshipped in the hope of winning their help will turn against them on the Day of Judgment. God will grant speech to them and they will say, “0 God! Finish these sinners because they turned away from you and made us the objects of their worship.”
“Inciting them with all their incitements” – 19:83.
In Arabic language the words حَضّ – فَزّ – اَزّ – ھَزّ are synonymous, differing only in shade or degree, and mean to urge, incite, instigate. The word اَزّ means to apply strong pressure, to persuade somebody to do something. The sense of this verse is that the Devils instigate the unbelievers to persist in their evil ways by presenting before their eyes the benefits and hiding from them the wickedness of their evil deeds.
إِنَّمَا نَعُدُّ لَهُمْ عَدًّا
“We are but counting for them a count down.” – 19:84
This verse means: “Do not be impatient about their punishment because it is going to befall upon them in any case – and very soon. We have allowed them a fixed term in this world and that term is about to end. Then will come their retribution.” نَعُدُّ لَهُمْ means: “We are counting for them, i.e. they do not have control on anything. Their days are numbered and We keep a count of every moment of their life and everything they do.”
Once Ma’mun Rashid read Surah Maryam. Upon reading this particular verse, he desired that Ibn Simak, one of the Islamic scholars sitting in that meeting with him, to say something on it. Thereupon Ibn Simak submitted that when our breaths are numbered and their number cannot be enhanced, they will soon come to an end. The same notion is reflected in the following poetic verse:
حیاتک أنفاس تعد فکلّمَا مضی نفس منک انتقصت به جزء اً
That is, the breaths of your lifer are counted. With every passing breath, your life gets reduced to that extent.
It is said that during one span of twenty-four hours, one breathes twenty-four thousand times. (Qurtubi)
The following stanza explores the same context:
و کیف یفرح بالدّنیا ولذّتھا فتی یُعَدّ علیہ اللفظ و النّفس
That is, how can one be so engrossed and relaxed with the worldly pleasures, while his words and breaths are being counted. (Ruh)
يَوْمَ نَحْشُرُ الْمُتَّقِينَ إِلَى الرَّحْمَـٰنِ وَفْدًا
“The day We will assemble the God-fearing before the Rahman (All-Merciful) as guests.” – 19:85.
The word وفد applies to those who are received by rulers and princes with respect and honour. According to some sayings of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) he said, “These men will ride on their mounts which they used in their worldly life.” Some say that their own virtuous deeds will take the shape of their mounts.
إِلَىٰ جَهَنَّمَ وِرْدًا
Towards the Jahannam as herds towards water” – 19:86.
وِرد means to go towards water and since only a thirsty man or animal goes towards water, this word has been translated to denote a thirsty person.
مَنِ اتَّخَذَ عِندَ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ عَهْدًا
“Except the one who has taken a covenant with the Rahman (All-Merciful) ” – 19:87.
Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has said that عَھد means a declaration of firm belief in the Unity of Allah Ta’ ala, while others say that عِھد means committing the Qur’ an to memory. In brief only those people will have the permission to intercede with Allah who stand firm by their covenant to adhere to the true faith. (Ruh)
وَتَخِرُّ الْجِبَالُ هَدًّا
“And the mountains to fall down crumbling” – 19:90.
These verses suggest that the earth, the mountains and everything that grows thereon possess a certain degree of knowledge and intelligence though in their case these perceptions are not of the same extent as that bestowed on human beings. This explains the fact that everything in the world glorifies Allah Ta’ ala as will be evident from the verse.
وَإِن مِّن شَيْءٍ إِلَّا يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِهِ
“Arid there is not a single thing that does not extol His purity and praise.” – 17:44.
These verses refer to this very perception of these things that to associate anything or being with Allah Ta` ala, specially to assert that He has children is a sin which makes the earth and the mountains quake with fear. Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has said that except humans every created thing is terrified of any suggestion of association with Allah (Ruh, -ul-Ma` ani).
سَيَجْعَلُ لَهُمُ الرَّحْمَـٰنُ وُدًّا
“For them the Rahman (All-Merciful) will create love.” – 19:96.
It means that for those who are steadfast in their faith in Him, Allah creates an environment of friendship and love for each other, which consequently promotes mutual amity and goodwill among the true Muslims. Furthermore, by their conduct and behavior they command the admiration and respect of all those with whom they come into contact. Bukhari, Tirmidhi and others have related on the authority of Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) once said that when Allah Ta’ ala is pleased with someone He says to Jibra’il (عليه السلام) ، “I am pleased with so and so and I desire that you too should show favour to him.” Jibra’l (عليه السلام) makes an announcement to this effect in all the skies so that their residents begin to harbor a liking for that person. Then this love descends upon the earth and the people of the earth also begin to love him. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) then quoted this verse. (Ruh ul-Ma’ ani).
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَيَجْعَلُ لَهُمُ الرَّحْمَـٰنُ وُدًّا
“Surely those who believe and do the righteous deeds, for them the Rahman (All-Merciful) will create love.” – 19:96.
Haram bin Hayyan has said that when a person devotes himself wholly towards Allah He fills the hearts of all believers with love for him. (Qurtubi)
When Sayyidna Ibrahim Khalilullah (عليه السلام) ، planned to go back to Syria, after leaving behind his wife Hajira and his baby son Sayyidna Isma` i1 (عليه السلام) in the desert enclosed by the barren hills of Makkah in accordance with the command of Allah, he also prayed for both of them with the following words
فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مِّنَ النَّاسِ تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِمْ
“So make hearts of a number of people yearn toward them.” – 14:37.
The prayer was granted so that even after the lapse of many millennia people all over the world entertain great love for Makkah and its inhabitants. They visit the place in large numbers, and not only incur heavy expenditure but also endure great hardships while making the journey.
أَوْ تَسْمَعُ لَهُمْ رِكْزًا
“Or hear from them even a whisper” – 19:98.
The word means a faint, unintelligible sound such as a death-rattle. The meaning of the verse is that there have been many kings who ruled vast empires, exercised unlimited authority and lived in great splendor, but when the wrath of Allah caught upon them for their sinful acts, they were annihilated in such a manner that not even a whisper or a feeble motion is now being heard of them.
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
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