Surah Namal In Arabic
طس ۚ تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْقُرْآنِ وَكِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ ﴿1﴾ هُدًى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿2﴾ الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ ﴿3﴾ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ زَيَّنَّا لَهُمْ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُمْ يَعْمَهُونَ ﴿4﴾ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَهُمْ سُوءُ الْعَذَابِ وَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ هُمُ الْأَخْسَرُونَ ﴿5﴾ وَإِنَّكَ لَتُلَقَّى الْقُرْآنَ مِنْ لَدُنْ حَكِيمٍ عَلِيمٍ ﴿6﴾ إِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِأَهْلِهِ إِنِّي آنَسْتُ نَارًا سَآتِيكُمْ مِنْهَا بِخَبَرٍ أَوْ آتِيكُمْ بِشِهَابٍ قَبَسٍ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَصْطَلُونَ ﴿7﴾ فَلَمَّا جَاءَهَا نُودِيَ أَنْ بُورِكَ مَنْ فِي النَّارِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿8﴾ يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنَّهُ أَنَا اللَّهُ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴿9﴾ وَأَلْقِ عَصَاكَ ۚ فَلَمَّا رَآهَا تَهْتَزُّ كَأَنَّهَا جَانٌّ وَلَّىٰ مُدْبِرًا وَلَمْ يُعَقِّبْ ۚ يَا مُوسَىٰ لَا تَخَفْ إِنِّي لَا يَخَافُ لَدَيَّ الْمُرْسَلُونَ ﴿10﴾ إِلَّا مَنْ ظَلَمَ ثُمَّ بَدَّلَ حُسْنًا بَعْدَ سُوءٍ فَإِنِّي غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ ﴿11﴾ وَأَدْخِلْ يَدَكَ فِي جَيْبِكَ تَخْرُجْ بَيْضَاءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ سُوءٍ ۖ فِي تِسْعِ آيَاتٍ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَقَوْمِهِ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمًا فَاسِقِينَ ﴿12﴾ فَلَمَّا جَاءَتْهُمْ آيَاتُنَا مُبْصِرَةً قَالُوا هَٰذَا سِحْرٌ مُبِينٌ ﴿13﴾ وَجَحَدُوا بِهَا وَاسْتَيْقَنَتْهَا أَنْفُسُهُمْ ظُلْمًا وَعُلُوًّا ۚ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُفْسِدِينَ ﴿14﴾ وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ عِلْمًا ۖ وَقَالَا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي فَضَّلَنَا عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٍ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿15﴾ وَوَرِثَ سُلَيْمَانُ دَاوُودَ ۖ وَقَالَ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ عُلِّمْنَا مَنْطِقَ الطَّيْرِ وَأُوتِينَا مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَهُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْمُبِينُ ﴿16﴾ وَحُشِرَ لِسُلَيْمَانَ جُنُودُهُ مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنْسِ وَالطَّيْرِ فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ ﴿17﴾ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَتَوْا عَلَىٰ وَادِ النَّمْلِ قَالَتْ نَمْلَةٌ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّمْلُ ادْخُلُوا مَسَاكِنَكُمْ لَا يَحْطِمَنَّكُمْ سُلَيْمَانُ وَجُنُودُهُ وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ ﴿18﴾ فَتَبَسَّمَ ضَاحِكًا مِنْ قَوْلِهَا وَقَالَ رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِي أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَالِدَيَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ وَأَدْخِلْنِي بِرَحْمَتِكَ فِي عِبَادِكَ الصَّالِحِينَ ﴿19﴾ وَتَفَقَّدَ الطَّيْرَ فَقَالَ مَا لِيَ لَا أَرَى الْهُدْهُدَ أَمْ كَانَ مِنَ الْغَائِبِينَ ﴿20﴾ لَأُعَذِّبَنَّهُ عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا أَوْ لَأَذْبَحَنَّهُ أَوْ لَيَأْتِيَنِّي بِسُلْطَانٍ مُبِينٍ ﴿21﴾ فَمَكَثَ غَيْرَ بَعِيدٍ فَقَالَ أَحَطْتُ بِمَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ وَجِئْتُكَ مِنْ سَبَإٍ بِنَبَإٍ يَقِينٍ ﴿22﴾ إِنِّي وَجَدْتُ امْرَأَةً تَمْلِكُهُمْ وَأُوتِيَتْ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَلَهَا عَرْشٌ عَظِيمٌ ﴿23﴾ وَجَدْتُهَا وَقَوْمَهَا يَسْجُدُونَ لِلشَّمْسِ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَصَدَّهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ فَهُمْ لَا يَهْتَدُونَ ﴿24﴾ أَلَّا يَسْجُدُوا لِلَّهِ الَّذِي يُخْرِجُ الْخَبْءَ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تُخْفُونَ وَمَا تُعْلِنُونَ ﴿25﴾ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ ۩ ﴿26﴾ قَالَ سَنَنْظُرُ أَصَدَقْتَ أَمْ كُنْتَ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ ﴿27﴾ اذْهَبْ بِكِتَابِي هَٰذَا فَأَلْقِهْ إِلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ فَانْظُرْ مَاذَا يَرْجِعُونَ ﴿28﴾ قَالَتْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْمَلَأُ إِنِّي أُلْقِيَ إِلَيَّ كِتَابٌ كَرِيمٌ ﴿29﴾ إِنَّهُ مِنْ سُلَيْمَانَ وَإِنَّهُ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ ﴿30﴾ أَلَّا تَعْلُوا عَلَيَّ وَأْتُونِي مُسْلِمِينَ ﴿31﴾ قَالَتْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْمَلَأُ أَفْتُونِي فِي أَمْرِي مَا كُنْتُ قَاطِعَةً أَمْرًا حَتَّىٰ تَشْهَدُونِ ﴿32﴾ قَالُوا نَحْنُ أُولُو قُوَّةٍ وَأُولُو بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ وَالْأَمْرُ إِلَيْكِ فَانْظُرِي مَاذَا تَأْمُرِينَ ﴿33﴾ قَالَتْ إِنَّ الْمُلُوكَ إِذَا دَخَلُوا قَرْيَةً أَفْسَدُوهَا وَجَعَلُوا أَعِزَّةَ أَهْلِهَا أَذِلَّةً ۖ وَكَذَٰلِكَ يَفْعَلُونَ ﴿34﴾ وَإِنِّي مُرْسِلَةٌ إِلَيْهِمْ بِهَدِيَّةٍ فَنَاظِرَةٌ بِمَ يَرْجِعُ الْمُرْسَلُونَ ﴿35﴾ فَلَمَّا جَاءَ سُلَيْمَانَ قَالَ أَتُمِدُّونَنِ بِمَالٍ فَمَا آتَانِيَ اللَّهُ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا آتَاكُمْ بَلْ أَنْتُمْ بِهَدِيَّتِكُمْ تَفْرَحُونَ ﴿36﴾ ارْجِعْ إِلَيْهِمْ فَلَنَأْتِيَنَّهُمْ بِجُنُودٍ لَا قِبَلَ لَهُمْ بِهَا وَلَنُخْرِجَنَّهُمْ مِنْهَا أَذِلَّةً وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ ﴿37﴾ قَالَ يَا أَيُّهَا الْمَلَأُ أَيُّكُمْ يَأْتِينِي بِعَرْشِهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَأْتُونِي مُسْلِمِينَ ﴿38﴾ قَالَ عِفْرِيتٌ مِنَ الْجِنِّ أَنَا آتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ تَقُومَ مِنْ مَقَامِكَ ۖ وَإِنِّي عَلَيْهِ لَقَوِيٌّ أَمِينٌ ﴿39﴾ قَالَ الَّذِي عِنْدَهُ عِلْمٌ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ أَنَا آتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَرْتَدَّ إِلَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ ۚ فَلَمَّا رَآهُ مُسْتَقِرًّا عِنْدَهُ قَالَ هَٰذَا مِنْ فَضْلِ رَبِّي لِيَبْلُوَنِي أَأَشْكُرُ أَمْ أَكْفُرُ ۖ وَمَنْ شَكَرَ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ رَبِّي غَنِيٌّ كَرِيمٌ ﴿40﴾ قَالَ نَكِّرُوا لَهَا عَرْشَهَا نَنْظُرْ أَتَهْتَدِي أَمْ تَكُونُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَهْتَدُونَ ﴿41﴾ فَلَمَّا جَاءَتْ قِيلَ أَهَٰكَذَا عَرْشُكِ ۖ قَالَتْ كَأَنَّهُ هُوَ ۚ وَأُوتِينَا الْعِلْمَ مِنْ قَبْلِهَا وَكُنَّا مُسْلِمِينَ ﴿42﴾ وَصَدَّهَا مَا كَانَتْ تَعْبُدُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّهَا كَانَتْ مِنْ قَوْمٍ كَافِرِينَ ﴿43﴾ قِيلَ لَهَا ادْخُلِي الصَّرْحَ ۖ فَلَمَّا رَأَتْهُ حَسِبَتْهُ لُجَّةً وَكَشَفَتْ عَنْ سَاقَيْهَا ۚ قَالَ إِنَّهُ صَرْحٌ مُمَرَّدٌ مِنْ قَوَارِيرَ ۗ قَالَتْ رَبِّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي وَأَسْلَمْتُ مَعَ سُلَيْمَانَ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿44﴾ وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ ثَمُودَ أَخَاهُمْ صَالِحًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ فَإِذَا هُمْ فَرِيقَانِ يَخْتَصِمُونَ ﴿45﴾ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لِمَ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ قَبْلَ الْحَسَنَةِ ۖ لَوْلَا تَسْتَغْفِرُونَ اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ ﴿46﴾ قَالُوا اطَّيَّرْنَا بِكَ وَبِمَنْ مَعَكَ ۚ قَالَ طَائِرُكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ۖ بَلْ أَنْتُمْ قَوْمٌ تُفْتَنُونَ ﴿47﴾ وَكَانَ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ تِسْعَةُ رَهْطٍ يُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا يُصْلِحُونَ ﴿48﴾ قَالُوا تَقَاسَمُوا بِاللَّهِ لَنُبَيِّتَنَّهُ وَأَهْلَهُ ثُمَّ لَنَقُولَنَّ لِوَلِيِّهِ مَا شَهِدْنَا مَهْلِكَ أَهْلِهِ وَإِنَّا لَصَادِقُونَ ﴿49﴾ وَمَكَرُوا مَكْرًا وَمَكَرْنَا مَكْرًا وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ ﴿50﴾ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ مَكْرِهِمْ أَنَّا دَمَّرْنَاهُمْ وَقَوْمَهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ ﴿51﴾ فَتِلْكَ بُيُوتُهُمْ خَاوِيَةً بِمَا ظَلَمُوا ۗ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿52﴾ وَأَنْجَيْنَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ ﴿53﴾ وَلُوطًا إِذْ قَالَ لِقَوْمِهِ أَتَأْتُونَ الْفَاحِشَةَ وَأَنْتُمْ تُبْصِرُونَ ﴿54﴾ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَأْتُونَ الرِّجَالَ شَهْوَةً مِنْ دُونِ النِّسَاءِ ۚ بَلْ أَنْتُمْ قَوْمٌ تَجْهَلُونَ ﴿55﴾
الجزء ﴿ 20 ﴾
فَمَا كَانَ جَوَابَ قَوْمِهِ إِلَّا أَنْ قَالُوا أَخْرِجُوا آلَ لُوطٍ مِنْ قَرْيَتِكُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ أُنَاسٌ يَتَطَهَّرُونَ ﴿56﴾ فَأَنْجَيْنَاهُ وَأَهْلَهُ إِلَّا امْرَأَتَهُ قَدَّرْنَاهَا مِنَ الْغَابِرِينَ ﴿57﴾ وَأَمْطَرْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ مَطَرًا ۖ فَسَاءَ مَطَرُ الْمُنْذَرِينَ ﴿58﴾ قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ وَسَلَامٌ عَلَىٰ عِبَادِهِ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَىٰ ۗ آللَّهُ خَيْرٌ أَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿59﴾ أَمَّنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَأَنْزَلَ لَكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَنْبَتْنَا بِهِ حَدَائِقَ ذَاتَ بَهْجَةٍ مَا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَنْ تُنْبِتُوا شَجَرَهَا ۗ أَإِلَٰهٌ مَعَ اللَّهِ ۚ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ يَعْدِلُونَ ﴿60﴾ أَمَّنْ جَعَلَ الْأَرْضَ قَرَارًا وَجَعَلَ خِلَالَهَا أَنْهَارًا وَجَعَلَ لَهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ حَاجِزًا ۗ أَإِلَٰهٌ مَعَ اللَّهِ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿61﴾ أَمَّنْ يُجِيبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ إِذَا دَعَاهُ وَيَكْشِفُ السُّوءَ وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ الْأَرْضِ ۗ أَإِلَٰهٌ مَعَ اللَّهِ ۚ قَلِيلًا مَا تَذَكَّرُونَ ﴿62﴾ أَمَّنْ يَهْدِيكُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتِ الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَمَنْ يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ بُشْرًا بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَحْمَتِهِ ۗ أَإِلَٰهٌ مَعَ اللَّهِ ۚ تَعَالَى اللَّهُ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿63﴾ أَمَّنْ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَمَنْ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ أَإِلَٰهٌ مَعَ اللَّهِ ۚ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿64﴾ قُلْ لَا يَعْلَمُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الْغَيْبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۚ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ أَيَّانَ يُبْعَثُونَ ﴿65﴾ بَلِ ادَّارَكَ عِلْمُهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ ۚ بَلْ هُمْ فِي شَكٍّ مِنْهَا ۖ بَلْ هُمْ مِنْهَا عَمُونَ ﴿66﴾ وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَإِذَا كُنَّا تُرَابًا وَآبَاؤُنَا أَئِنَّا لَمُخْرَجُونَ ﴿67﴾ لَقَدْ وُعِدْنَا هَٰذَا نَحْنُ وَآبَاؤُنَا مِنْ قَبْلُ إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ ﴿68﴾ قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ ﴿69﴾ وَلَا تَحْزَنْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا تَكُنْ فِي ضَيْقٍ مِمَّا يَمْكُرُونَ ﴿70﴾ وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هَٰذَا الْوَعْدُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿71﴾ قُلْ عَسَىٰ أَنْ يَكُونَ رَدِفَ لَكُمْ بَعْضُ الَّذِي تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ ﴿72﴾ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ ﴿73﴾ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَيَعْلَمُ مَا تُكِنُّ صُدُورُهُمْ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ ﴿74﴾ وَمَا مِنْ غَائِبَةٍ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ ﴿75﴾ إِنَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَقُصُّ عَلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَكْثَرَ الَّذِي هُمْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ﴿76﴾ وَإِنَّهُ لَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿77﴾ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَقْضِي بَيْنَهُمْ بِحُكْمِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْعَلِيمُ ﴿78﴾ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَى الْحَقِّ الْمُبِينِ ﴿79﴾ إِنَّكَ لَا تُسْمِعُ الْمَوْتَىٰ وَلَا تُسْمِعُ الصُّمَّ الدُّعَاءَ إِذَا وَلَّوْا مُدْبِرِينَ ﴿80﴾ وَمَا أَنْتَ بِهَادِي الْعُمْيِ عَنْ ضَلَالَتِهِمْ ۖ إِنْ تُسْمِعُ إِلَّا مَنْ يُؤْمِنُ بِآيَاتِنَا فَهُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ ﴿81﴾ وَإِذَا وَقَعَ الْقَوْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَخْرَجْنَا لَهُمْ دَابَّةً مِنَ الْأَرْضِ تُكَلِّمُهُمْ أَنَّ النَّاسَ كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا لَا يُوقِنُونَ ﴿82﴾ وَيَوْمَ نَحْشُرُ مِنْ كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ فَوْجًا مِمَّنْ يُكَذِّبُ بِآيَاتِنَا فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ ﴿83﴾ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءُوا قَالَ أَكَذَّبْتُمْ بِآيَاتِي وَلَمْ تُحِيطُوا بِهَا عِلْمًا أَمَّاذَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿84﴾ وَوَقَعَ الْقَوْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ بِمَا ظَلَمُوا فَهُمْ لَا يَنْطِقُونَ ﴿85﴾ أَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّا جَعَلْنَا اللَّيْلَ لِيَسْكُنُوا فِيهِ وَالنَّهَارَ مُبْصِرًا ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿86﴾ وَيَوْمَ يُنْفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ فَفَزِعَ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا مَنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَكُلٌّ أَتَوْهُ دَاخِرِينَ ﴿87﴾ وَتَرَى الْجِبَالَ تَحْسَبُهَا جَامِدَةً وَهِيَ تَمُرُّ مَرَّ السَّحَابِ ۚ صُنْعَ اللَّهِ الَّذِي أَتْقَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۚ إِنَّهُ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَفْعَلُونَ ﴿88﴾ مَنْ جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ خَيْرٌ مِنْهَا وَهُمْ مِنْ فَزَعٍ يَوْمَئِذٍ آمِنُونَ ﴿89﴾ وَمَنْ جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَكُبَّتْ وُجُوهُهُمْ فِي النَّارِ هَلْ تُجْزَوْنَ إِلَّا مَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿90﴾ إِنَّمَا أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ رَبَّ هَٰذِهِ الْبَلْدَةِ الَّذِي حَرَّمَهَا وَلَهُ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ ۖ وَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ﴿91﴾ وَأَنْ أَتْلُوَ الْقُرْآنَ ۖ فَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ ضَلَّ فَقُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُنْذِرِينَ ﴿92﴾ وَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ سَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ فَتَعْرِفُونَهَا ۚ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿93﴾
Transliteration In English
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Taa-Seeen; tilka Aayaatul Qur-aani wa Kitaabim Mubeen
- Hudanw wa bushraa lil mu’mineen
- Allazeena yuqeemoonas Salaata wa yu’toonaz Zakaata wa hum bil Aakhirati hum yooqinoon
- Innal lazeena laa yu’minoona bil Aakhirati zaiyannaa lahum a’maalahum fahum ya’mahoon
- Ulaaa’ikal lazeena lahum sooo’ul ‘azaabi wa hum fil Aakhirati humul akhsaroon
- Wa innaka latulaqqal Qur-aana mil ladun Hakeemin ‘Aleem
- Iz qaala Moosaa li ahliheee inneee aanastu naaran sa’aateekum minhaa bikhabarin aw aateekum bishihaabin qabasil la’allakum tastaloon
- Falammaa jaaa’ahaa noodiya am boorika man finnnnaari wa man hawlahaa wa Subhaanal laahi Rabbil ‘aalameen
- Yaa Moosaaa innahooo Anal laahul ‘Azeezul Hakeem
- Wa alqi ‘asaak; falammmaa ra aahaa tahtazzu ka annahaa jaaannunw wallaa mudbiranw wa lam yu’aqqib; yaa Moosaa laa takhaf innee laa yakhaafu ladaiyal mursaloon
- Illaa man zalama summa baddala husnam ba’da sooo’in fa innee Ghafoorur Raheem
- Wa adkhil yadaka fee jaibika takhruj baidaaa’a min ghairisooo’in feetis’i Aayaatin ilaa Fir’awna wa qawmih; innahum kaanoo qawman faasiqeen
- Falammaa jaaa’at hum Aayaatunaa mubsiratan qaaloo haazaa sihrum mubeen
- Wa jahadoo bihaa wastaiqanat haaa anfusuhum zulmanw-wa ‘uluwwaa; fanzur kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul mufsideen (section 1)
- Wa laqad aatainaa Daawooda wa sulaimaana ‘ilmaa; wa qaalal hamdu lil laahil lazee faddalanaa ‘alaa kaseerim min ‘ibaadihil mu’mineen
- Wa warisa Sulaimaanu Daawooda wa qaala yaaa aiyuhan naasu ‘ullimnaa mantiqat tairi wa ooteenaa min kulli shai’in inna haazaa lahuwal fadlul mubeen
- Wa hushira Sulaimaana junooduhoo minal jinni wal insi wattairi fahum yooza’oon
- hattaaa izaaa ataw ‘alaa waadin namli qaalat namlatuny yaaa aiyuhan namlud khuloo masaakinakum laa yahtimannakum Sulaimaanu wa junooduhoo wa hum laa yash’uroon
- Fatabassama daahikam min qawlihaa wa qaala Rabbi awzi’nee an ashkura ni’mata kal lateee an’amta ‘alaiya wa ‘alaa waalidaiya wa an a’mala saalihan tardaahu wa adkhilnee birahmatika fee ‘ibaadikas saaliheen
- Wa tafaqqadat taira faqaala maa liya laaa araa al hudhuda, am kaana minal ghaaa’ibeen
- La-u’azzibanahoo ‘azaaban shadeedan aw la azbahannahoo aw layaatiyannee bisultaanim mubeen
- Famakasa ghaira ba’eedin faqaala ahattu bimaa lam tuhit bihee wa ji’tuka min Sabaim binaba iny-yaqeen
- Innee wajattum ra atan tamlikuhum wa ootiyat min kulli shai’inw wa lahaa ‘arshun ‘azeem
- Wajattuhaa wa qawmahaa yasjudoona lishshamsi min doonil laahi wa zaiyana lahumush Shaitaanu a’maalahum fasaddahum ‘anis sabeeli fahum laa yahtadoon
- Allaa yasjudoo lillaahil lazee yukhrijul khab’a fis samaawaati wal ardi wa ya’lamu maa tukhfoona wa maa tu’linoon
- Allaahu laaa ilaaha illaa Huwa Rabbul ‘Arshil Azeem (make sajda)
- Qaala sananzuru asadaqta am kunta minal kaazibeen
- Izhab bikitaabee haaza fa alqih ilaihim summma tawalla ‘anhum fanzur maazaa yarji’oon
- Qaalat yaaa aiyuhal mala’u innee ulqiya ilaiya kitaabun kareem
- Innahoo min Sulaimaana wa innahoo bismil laahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Allaa ta’loo ‘alaiya waa toonee muslimeen (section 2)
- Qaalat yaaa aiyuhal mala’u aftoonee fee amree maa kuntu qaati’atan amran hattaa tashhhadoon
- Qaaloo nahnu uloo quwwatinw wa uloo baasin shadeed; wal amru ilaiki fanzuree maazaa taamureen
- Qaalat innal mulooka izaa dakhaloo qaryatan afsadoohaa wa ja’alooo a’izzata ahlihaaa azillah; wa kazaalika yaf’aloon
- Wa innee mursilatun ilaihim bihadiyyatin fanaaziratum bima yarji’ul mursaloon
- Falammaa jaaa’a Sulaimaana qaala atumiddoonani bimaalin famaaa aataaniyal laahu khairum mimmmaaa aataakum bal antum bihadiy-yatikum tafrahoon
- Irji’ ilaihim falanaatiyan nahum bijunoodil laa qibala lahum bihaa wa lanukhri jannahum minhaaa azillatanw wa hum saaghiroon
- Qaala yaaa aiyuhal mala’u aiyukum yaateenee bi’arshihaa qabla ai yaatoonee muslimeen
- Qaala ‘ifreetum minal jinni ana aateeka bihee qabla an taqooma mim maqaamika wa innee ‘alaihi laqawiyyun ameen
- Qaalal lazee indahoo ‘ilmum minal Kitaabi ana aateeka bihee qabla ai yartadda ilaika tarfuk; falammaa ra aahu mustaqirran ‘indahoo qaala haazaa min fadli Rabbee li yabluwaneee ‘a-ashkuru am akfuru wa man shakara fa innamaa yashkuru linafsihee wa man kafara fa inna Rabbee Ghaniyyun Kareem
- Qaala nakkiroo lahaa ‘arshahaa nanzur atahtadeee am takoonu minal lazeena laa yahtadoon
- Falammaa jaaa’at qeela ahaakaza ‘arshuki qaalat ka’annahoo hoo; wa ooteenal ‘ilma min qablihaa wa kunnaa muslimeen
- Wa saddahaa maa kaanat ta’budu min doonil laahi innahaa kaanat min qawmin kaafireen
- Qeela lahad khulis sarha falammaa ra at hu hasibat hu lujjatanw wa khashafat ‘an saaqaihaa; qaala innahoo sarhum mumarradum min qawaareer; qaalat Rabbi innee zalamtu nafsee wa aslamtu ma’a Sulaimaana lillaahi Rabbil ‘aalameen (section 3)
- Wa laqad arsalnaaa ilaa Samooda akhaahum Saalihan ani’budul laaha fa izaa hum fareeqaani yakhtasimoon
- Qaala yaa qawmi lima tasta’jiloona bissaiyi’ati qablal hasanati law laa tas taghfiroonal laaha la’allakum turhamoon
- Qaalut taiyarnaa bika wa bimam ma’ak; qaala taaa’irukum ‘indal laahi bal antum qawmun tuftanoon
- Wa kaana fil madeenati tis’atu rahtiny yufsidoona fil ardi wa laa yuslihoon
- Qaaloo taqaasamoo billaahi lanubaiyitannahoo wa ahlahoo summaa lanaqoolana liwaliy yihee maa shahidnaa mahlika ahlihee wa innaa lasaadiqoon
- Wa makaroo makranw wa makarnaa makranw wa hum laa yash’uroon
- Fanzur kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatu makrihim annaa dammar naahum wa qawmahum ajma’een
- Fatilka buyootuhum khaa wiyatam bimaa zalamoo; inna fee zaalika la Aayatal liqaw miny-ya’lamoon
- Wa anjainal lazeena aamanoo wa kaanoo yattaqoon
- Wa lootan iz qaala liqawmiheee ataatoonal faa hishata wa antum tubsiroon
- A’innakum lataatoonar rijaala shahwatam min doonin nisaaa’; bal antum qawmun tajhaloon (End Juz 19)
- Famaa kaana jawaaba qawmiheee illaaa an qaalooo akhrijooo aalaa Lootim min qaryatikum innahum unaasuny yatatahharoon
- Fa anjainaahu wa ahlahooo illam ra atahoo qaddarnaahaa minal ghaabireen
- Wa amtarnaa ‘alaihimm mataran fasaaa’a matarul munzareen (section 4)
- Qulil hamdu lillaahi wa salaamun ‘alaa ‘ibaadihil lazeenas tafaa; aaallaahu khairun ammmaa yushrikoon
- Amman khalaqas samaawaati wal arda wa anzala lakum minas samaaa’i maaa’an fa anbatnaa bihee hadaaa’iqa zaata bahjah; maa kaana lakum an tunbitoo shajarahaa; ‘a-ilaahun ma’al laah; bal hum qawmuny ya’diloon
- Ammann ja’alal arda qaraaranw wa ja’ala khilaalahaaa anhaaranw wa ja’ala lahaa rawaasiya wa ja’ala bainal bahraini haajizaa; ‘a-ilaahun ma’allah; bal aksaruhum laa ya’lamoon
- Ammany-yujeebul mud tarra izaa da’aahu wa yakshifus sooo’a wa yaj’alukum khula faaa’al ardi ‘a-ilaahun ma’allah qaleelan maa tazak karoon
- Ammany-yahdeekum fee zulumaatil barri wal bahri wa many yursilu riyaaha bushran baina yadai rahmatih; ‘a-ilaahun ma’allah; Ta’aalal laahu ‘ammaa yushrikoon
- Ammany yabda’ul khalqa thumma yu’eeduhoo wa many-yarzuqukum minas sammaaa’i wal ard; ‘a-ilaahun ma’allah; qul haatoo burhaanakum in kuntum saadiqeen
- Qul laa ya’lamu man fis sammaawaati wal ardil ghaiba illal laah; wa maa yash’uroona aiyaana yub’asoon
- Balid daaraka ‘ilmuhum fil Aakhirah; bal hum fee shakkin minhaa bal hum minhaa ‘amoon (section 5)
- Wa qaalal lazeena kafarooo ‘a-izaa kunnaa turaabanw wa aabaaa’unaaa a’innaa lamukhrajoon
- Laqad wu’idnaa haazaa nahnu wa aabaaa’unaa min qablu in haazaaa illaaa asaateerul awwaleen
- Qul seeroo fil ardi fanzuroo kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul mujrimeen
- Wa laa tahzan ‘alaihim wa laa takun fee daiqin mimmaa yamkuroon
- Wa yaqooloona mataa haazal wa’du in kuntum saadiqeen
- Qul ‘asaaa any-yakoona radifa lakum ba’dul lazee tasta’jiloon
- Wa inna Rabbaka lazoo fadlin ‘alan naasi wa laakinna aksarahum laa yashkuroon
- Wa inna Rabbaka la ya’lamu maa tukinnu sudooruhum wa maa yu’linoon
- Wa maa min ghaaa’ibatin fis samaaa’i wal ardi illaa fee kitaabin mubeen
- Inna haazal Qur-aana yaqussu ‘alaa Baneee israaa’eela aksaral lazee hum feehi yakhtalifoon
- Wa innahoo lahudanw wa rahmatul lilmu’mineen
- Inna Rabbaka yaqdee bainahum bihukmih; wa Huwal ‘Azeezul ‘Aleem
- Fatawakkal ‘alal laahi innaka ‘alal haqqil mubeen
- Innaka laa tusmi’ul mawtaa wa laa tusmi’us summad du’aaa izaa wallaw mudbireen
- Wa maaa anta bihaadil ‘umyi ‘an dalaalatihim in tusmi’u illaa mai yu’minu bi aayaatinaa fahum muslimoon
- Wa izaa waqa’al qawlu ‘alaihim akhrajnaa lahum daaabbatan minal ardi tukal limuhum annan naasa kaanoo bi aayaatinaa laa yooqinoon (section 6)
- Wa Yawma nahshuru min kulli ummatin fawjan mimmany yukazzibu bi Aayaatinaa fahum yooza’oon
- Hattaaa izaa jaaa’oo qaala akazzabtum bi Aayaatee wa lam tuheetoo bihaa ‘ilman ammaazaa kuntum ta’maloon
- Wa waqa’al qawlu ‘alaihim bimaa zalamoo fahum laa yantiqoon
- Alam yaraw annaa ja’alnal laila li yaskunoo feehi wannahaara mubsiraa; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil liqaw miny-yu’minoon
- Wa Yawma yunfakhu fis Soori fafazi’a man fis samaawaati wa man fil ardi illaa man shaaa’al laah; wa kullun atawhu daakhireen
- Wa taral jibaala tahsabuhaa jaamidatanw wa hiya tamurru marras sahaab; sun’al laahil lazeee atqana kulla shai’; innahoo khabeerun bimaa taf’aloon
- Man jaaa’a bil hasanati falahoo khairun minhaa wa hum min faza’iny Yawma’izin aaminoon
- Wa man jaaa’a bissai yi’ati fakubbat wujoohuhum fin Naari hal tujzawna illaa maa kuntum ta’maloon
- Innamaaa umirtu an a’buda Rabba haazihil baldatil lazee harramahaa wa lahoo kullu shai’inw wa umirtu an akoona minal muslimeen
- Wa an atluwal Qur-aana famanih tadaa fa innamaa yahtadee linafsihee wa man dalla faqul innamaaa ana minal munzireen
- Wa qulil hamdu lillaahi sa yureekum Aayaatihee fa ta’rifoonahaa; wa maa Rabbuka bighaafilin ‘ammaa ta’maloon (section 7)
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
- Sin. These are revelations of the Qur’an and a Scripture that maketh plain;
- A guidance and good tidings for believers
- Who establish worship and pay the poor-due and are sure of the Hereafter.
- Lo! as for those who believe not in the Hereafter, We have made their works fairseeming unto them so that they are all astray.
- Those are they for whom is the worst of punishment, and in the Hereafter they will be the greatest losers.
- Lo! as for thee (Muhammad), thou verily receivest the Qur’an from the presence of One Wise, Aware.
- (Remember) when Moses said unto his household: Lo! I spy afar off a fire; I will bring you tidings thence, or bring to you a borrowed flame that ye may warm yourselves.
- But when he reached it, he was called, saying: Blessed is Whosoever is in the fire and Whosoever is round about it! And Glorified be Allah, the Lord of the Worlds!
- O Moses! Lo! it is I, Allah, the Mighty, the Wise.
- And throw down thy staff! But when he saw it writhing as it were a demon, he turned to flee headlong; (but it was said unto him): O Moses! Fear not! the emissaries fear not in My presence,
- Save him who hath done wrong and afterward hath changed evil for good. And lo! I am Forgiving, Merciful.
- And put thy hand into the bosom of thy robe, it will come forth white but unhurt. (This will be one) among nine tokens unto Pharaoh and his people Lo! they were ever evil-living folk.
- But when Our tokens came unto them, plain to see, they said: This is mere magic,
- And they denied them, though their souls acknowledged them, for spite and arrogance. Then see the nature of the consequence for the wrong-doers!
- And We verily gave knowledge unto David and Solomon, and they said: Praise be to Allah, Who hath preferred us above many of His believing slaves!
- And Solomon was David’s heir. And he said: O mankind! Lo! we have been taught the language of birds, and have been given (abundance) of all things. This surely is evident favour.
- And there were gathered together unto Solomon his armies of the jinn and humankind, and of the birds, and they were set in battle order;
- Till, when they reached the Valley of the Ants, an ant exclaimed: O ants! Enter your dwellings lest Solomon and his armies crush you, unperceiving.
- And (Solomon) smiled, laughing at her speech, and said: My Lord, arouse me to be thankful for Thy favour wherewith Thou hast favoured me and my parents, and to do good that shall be pleasing unto Thee, and include me in (the number of) Thy righteous slaves.
- And he sought among the birds and said: How is it that I see not the hoopoe, or is he among the absent?
- I verily will punish him with hard punishment or I verily will slay him, or he verily shall bring me a plain excuse.
- But he was not long in coming, and he said: I have found out (a thing) that thou apprehendest not, and I come unto thee from Sheba with sure tidings.
- Lo! I found a woman ruling over them, and she hath been given (abundance) of all things, and hers is a mighty throne.
- I found her and her people worshipping the sun instead of Allah; and Satan maketh their works fairseeming unto them, and debarreth them from the way (of Truth), so that they go not aright;
- So that they worship not Allah, Who bringeth forth the hidden in the heavens and the earth, and knoweth what ye hide and what ye proclaim,
- Allah; there is no Allah save Him, the Lord of the Tremendous Throne.
- (Solomon) said: We shall see whether thou speakest truth or whether thou art of the liars.
- Go with this my letter and throw it down unto them; then turn away and see what (answer) they return,
- (The Queen of Sheba) said (when she received the letter): O chieftains! Lo! there hath been thrown unto me a noble letter.
- Lo! it is from Solomon, and lo! it is: In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful;
- Exalt not yourselves against me, but come unto me as those who surrender.
- She said: O chieftains! Pronounce for me in my case. I decide no case till ye are present with me.
- They said: We are lords of might and lords of great prowess, but it is for thee to command; so consider what thou wilt command.
- She said: Lo! kings, when they enter a township, ruin it and make the honour of its people shame. Thus will they do.
- But lo! I am going to send a present unto them, and to see with what (answer) the messengers return.
- So when (the envoy) came unto Solomon, (the King) said: What! Would ye help me with wealth? But that which Allah hath given me is better than that which He hath given you. Nay it is ye (and not I) who exult in your gift.
- Return unto them. We verily shall come unto them with hosts that they cannot resist, and we shall drive them out from thence with shame, and they will be abased.
- He said: O chiefs! Which of you will bring me her throne before they come unto me, surrendering?
- A stalwart of the jinn said: I will bring it thee before thou canst rise from thy place. Lo! I verily am strong and trusty for such work.
- One with whom was knowledge of the Scripture said: I will bring it thee before thy gaze returneth unto thee. And when he saw it set in his presence, (Solomon) said: This is of the bounty of my Lord, that He may try me whether I give thanks or am ungrateful. Whosoever giveth thanks he only giveth thanks for (the good of) his own soul; and whosoever is ungrateful (is ungrateful only to his own soul’s hurt). For lo! my Lord is Absolute in independence, Bountiful.
- He said: Disguise her throne for her that we may see whether she will go aright or be of those not rightly guided.
- So, when she came, it was said (unto her): Is thy throne like this? She said: (It is) as though it were the very one. And (Solomon said): We were given the knowledge before her and we had surrendered (to Allah).
- And (all) that she was wont to worship instead of Allah hindered her, for she came of disbelieving folk.
- It was said unto her: Enter the hall. And when she saw it she deemed it a pool and bared her legs. (Solomon) said: Lo! it is a hall, made smooth, of glass. She said: My Lord! Lo! I have wronged myself, and I surrender with Solomon unto Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.
- And We verily sent unto Thamud their brother Salih, saying: Worship Allah. And lo! they (then became two parties quarrelling.
- He said: O my people! Why will ye hasten on the evil rather than the good? Why will ye not ask pardon of Allah, that ye may receive mercy.
- They said: We augur evil of thee and those with thee. He said: Your evil augury is with Allah. Nay, but ye are folk that are being tested.
- And there were in the city nine persons who made mischief in the land and reformed not.
- They said: Swear one to another by Allah that we verily will attack him and his household by night, and afterward we will surely say unto his friend: We witnessed not the destruction of his household. And lo! we are truthtellers.
- So they plotted a plot: and We plotted a plot, while they perceived not.
- Then see the nature of the consequence of their plotting, for lo! We destroyed them and their people, every one.
- See, yonder are their dwellings empty and in ruins because they did wrong. Lo! herein is indeed a portent for a people who have knowledge.
- And we saved those who believed and used to ward off (evil).
- And Lot! when he said unto his folk: Will ye commit abomination knowingly?
- Must ye needs lust after men instead of women? Nay, but ye are folk who act senselessly.
- But the answer of his folk was naught save that they said: Expel the household of Lot from your township, for they (forsooth) are folk who would keep clean!
- Then We saved him and his household save his wife; We destined her to be of those who stayed behind.
- And We rained a rain upon them. Dreadful is the rain of those who have been warned.
- Say ( O Muhammad): Praise be to Allah, and peace be on His slaves whom He hath chosen! Is Allah best, or (all) that ye ascribe as partners (unto Him)?
- Is not He (best) Who created the heavens and the earth, and sendeth down for you water from the sky wherewith We cause to spring forth joyous orchards, whose trees it never hath been yours to cause to grow. Is there any Allah beside Allah? Nay, but they are folk who ascribe equals (unto Him) !
- Is not He (best) Who made the earth a fixed abode, and placed rivers in the folds thereof, and placed firm hills therein, and hath set a barrier between the two seas? Is there any Allah beside Allah? Nay, but most of them know not!
- Is not He (best) Who answereth the wronged one when he crieth unto Him and removeth the evil, and hath made you viceroys of the earth? Is there any Allah beside Allah? Little do they reflect!
- Is not He (best) Who guideth you in the darkness of the land and the sea, He Who sendeth the winds as heralds of His mercy? Is there any Allah beside Allah? High Exalted be Allah from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him) !
- Is not He (best) Who produceth creation, then reproduceth it, and Who provideth for you from the heaven and the earth? Is there any Allah beside Allah? Say: Bring your proof, if ye are truthful!
- Say ( O Muhammad): None in the heavens and the earth knoweth the Unseen save Allah; and they know not when they will be raised (again).
- Nay, but doth their knowledge reach to the Hereafter? Nay, for they are in doubt concerning it. Nay, for they cannot see it.
- Yet those who disbelieve say: When we have become dust like our fathers, shall we verily be brought forth (again)?
- We were promised this, forsooth, we and our fathers. (All) this is naught but fables of the men of old.
- Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Travel in the land and see the nature of the sequel for the guilty!
- And grieve thou not for them, nor be in distress because of what they plot (against thee).
- And they say: When (will) this promise (be fulfilled), if ye are truthful?
- Say: It may be that a part of that which ye would hasten on is close behind you.
- Lo! thy Lord is full of bounty for mankind, but most of them do not give thanks.
- Lo! thy Lord knoweth surely all that their bosoms hide, and all that they proclaim.
- And there is nothing hidden in the heaven or the earth but it is in a clear Record.
- Lo! this Qur’an narrateth unto the Children of Israel most of that concerning which they differ.
- And lo! it is a guidance and a mercy for believers.
- Lo! thy Lord will judge between them of His wisdom, and He is the Mighty, the Wise.
- Therefor ( O Muhammad) put thy trust in Allah, for thou (standest) on the plain Truth.
- Lo! thou canst not make the dead to hear, nor canst thou make the deaf to hear the call when they have turned to flee;
- Nor canst thou lead the blind out of their error. Thou canst make none to hear, save those who believe Our revelations and who have surrendered.
- And when the word is fulfilled concerning them, We shall bring forth a beast of the earth to speak unto them because mankind had not faith in Our revelations.
- And (remind them of) the Day when We shall gather out of every nation a host of those who denied Our revelations, and they will be set in array;
- Till, when they come (before their Lord), He will say: Did ye deny My revelations when ye could not compass them in knowledge, or what was it that ye did?
- And the Word will be fulfilled concerning them because they have done wrong, and they will not speak.
- Have they not seen how We have appointed the night that they may rest therein, and the day sight-giving? Lo! therein verily are portents for a people who believe.
- And (remind them of) the Day when the Trumpet will be blown, and all who are in the heavens and the earth will start in fear, save him whom Allah willeth. And all come unto Him, humbled.
- And thou seest the hills thou deemest solid flying with the flight of clouds: the doing of Allah Who perfecteth all things. Lo! He is Informed of what ye do.
- Whoso bringeth a good deed will have better than its worth; and such are safe from fear that Day.
- And whoso bringeth an ill-deed, such will be flung down on their faces in the Fire. Are ye rewarded aught save what ye did?
- (Say): I (Muhammad) am commanded only to serve the Lord of this land which He hath hallowed, and unto Whom all things belong. And I am commanded to be of those who surrender (unto Him),
- And to recite the Qur’an. And whoso goeth right, goeth right only for (the good of) his own soul; and as for him who goeth astray – (Unto him) say: Lo! I am only a warner.
- And say: Praise be to Allah Who will show you His portents so that ye shall know them. And thy Lord is not unaware of what ye (mortals) do.
[From Holy Quran Translation by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall]
اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ لَا يُؤْمِنُوْنَ بِالْاٰخِرَةِ زَيَّنَّا لَهُمْ اَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُمْ يَعْمَهُوْنَ
زَيَّنَّا لَهُمْ أَعْمَالَهُمْ (We have made their deeds adorned in their sight – 27:4)It means that those who do not believe in the Hereafter We have made their bad actions look adorned in their sight. Therefore they feel good about them and remain enthralled in depravity. Some commentators have interpreted that “their deeds” is used in this verse for good deeds. Hence meaning of the verse is that Allah had placed the good deeds before them with all their attractions. But those unjust people did not pay any attention to them, rather they remained engrossed in infidelity; hence lost their way in wilderness.
However, the first interpretation looks more appropriate and straightforward. In the first place, in the Qur’an, the word (Zinah) ‘adornment’ has been generally used for bad actions, for instance: زُيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ حُبُّ الشَّهَوَاتِ (It has been made attractive for people to love the desires – 3:14) زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا (Adorned is the present life for those who disbelieve – 2:212) زَيَّنَ لِكَثِيرٍ مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ (6:137). Its use for good actions is very rare , such as: وَلَـٰكِنَّ اللَّـهَ حَبَّبَ إِلَيْكُمُ الْإِيمَانَ وَزَيَّنَهُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ (But Allah has endeared to you belief, decking it fair in your hearts – 49:7). Secondly, the word اَعمَالَھُم (their deeds) used in the verse is also pointing out that bad actions are meant here and not the righteous actions.
اِذْ قَالَ مُوْسٰي لِاَهْلِهٖٓ اِنِّىْٓ اٰنَسْتُ نَارًا ۭ سَاٰتِيْكُمْ مِّنْهَا بِخَــبَرٍ اَوْ اٰتِيْكُمْ بِشِهَابٍ قَبَسٍ لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَصْطَلُوْنَ
Adoption of natural means for one’s need is not against trust in Allah
(Remember) when Musa said to his family, “I have noticed a fire. I shall bring to you some news or bring to you an inflamed ember, so that you may warm yourselves” (27:7).
Here Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) faced two necessities. One, to find out the way which he had forgotten, and second, to warm up with the fire, because it was a cold night. For achieving this purpose he tried to go to mount Tur. But he did not make a claim of success in his endeavour, rather he uttered such words that conveyed his servitude and hope from Allah Ta’ ala. Thus, it is apparent that in order to meet one’s requirements and needs in life it is not against the trust in Allah to strive and make endeavour. But the conviction should be in Allah Ta’ ala and not in one’s own efforts. Perhaps, the wisdom in showing him the fire was that it had fulfilled his two needs – finding the way and to get warm with its heat. (Ruh)
Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) has said اُمکُثُوا and تَصْطَلُونَ which are both in plural form, and are used where the addressees are more than one, although there was only his wife (Sayyidna Shuaib’s (عليه السلام) daughter) with him. Use of plural form for her only was to show respect to her. It was in the same manner as some times the noble people use plural form in addressing even a single person. It is reported from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) also in ahadith that he used to address his wives in plural form.
It is prudent not to refer one’s wife by her name in general gatherings, rather an allusion for the purpose is better
قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِأَهْلِهِ (Musa said to his family) The word “Ahl” is used in this verse for the wife of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) while this word means “family” and includes all the members of one’s household alongwith his wife, although the wife of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) was the only one present at the time of this incident, but by the use of this word in his discourse there is a hint that while referring to one’s wife in a group of people it is better to use common words. For example, ` my family members are of the opinion’.
فَلَمَّا جَاۗءَهَا نُوْدِيَ اَنْۢ بُوْرِكَ مَنْ فِي النَّارِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا ۭ وَسُبْحٰنَ اللّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعٰلَمِيْنَ
So when he came to it, he was called: “Blessed is the one who is in the fire and the one who is around it And pure is Allah, the Lord of the worlds. 0 Musa, the fact is that I AM Allah, the Mighty, the Wise. (27:8 – 9)
The real nature of seeing the fire and hearing the voice from it
This incident of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) has appeared in the Qur’an at many places under different chapters. Two sentences in the above verses of Surah An-Naml call for special attention. One بُورِكَ مَن فِي النَّارِ (Blessed is the one who is in the fire) and two, إِنَّهُ أَنَا اللَّـهُ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ.(The fact is that I AM Allah, the Mighty, the Wise) In Surah Ta-Ha, the commentary on which appears in this volume earlier, this incident is mentioned in these words:
إِذْ رَأَىٰ نَارًا فَقَالَ لِأَهْلِهِ امْكُثُوا إِنِّي آنَسْتُ نَارًا لَّعَلِّي آتِيكُم مِّنْهَا بِقَبَسٍ أَوْ أَجِدُ عَلَى النَّارِ هُدًى ﴿10﴾ فَلَمَّا أَتَاهَا نُودِيَ يَا مُوسَىٰ ﴿11﴾ إِنِّي أَنَا رَبُّكَ فَاخْلَعْ نَعْلَيْكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ بِالْوَادِ الْمُقَدَّسِ طُوًى ﴿12﴾ وَأَنَا اخْتَرْتُكَ فَاسْتَمِعْ لِمَا يُوحَىٰ ﴿13﴾ إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّـهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي ﴿14﴾
When he saw a fire and said to his family, wait. I have noticed a fire. Perhaps I bring you an ember from it, or find some guidance by the fire.”
So when he came to it, he was called, “0 Musa, it is Me, your Lord, remove your shoes, you are in the sacred valley of Tuwa. And I have chosen you, so listen to what is revealed: Surely, I AM ALLAH. There is no god but I, so worship Me and establish Salah for My remembrance. (20:10-14)
In these verses also two sentences need special attention: إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّـهُ (it is Me, your Lord) and إِنَّنِي أَنَا رَبُّکَ (I AM ALLAH). And in Surah Al-Qasas the incident is related in these words:
نُودِيَ مِن شَاطِئِ الْوَادِ الْأَيْمَنِ فِي الْبُقْعَةِ الْمُبَارَكَةِ مِنَ الشَّجَرَةِ أَن يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنِّي أَنَا اللَّـهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ
He was called by a voice coming from a side of the right valley in the blessed ground, from the tree, saying” 0 Musa, I am Allah, the Lord of the worlds” (28:30)
In all the three Surahs although the incident is described under different titles, yet the subject matter is the same, which is that Sayyidna Musa ill needed fire that night for quite a few reasons. Allah Ta’ ala evinced that to him on a tree of mount r, and he heard these words from that fire or the tree:
إِنِّي أَنَا رَبُّكَ
It is Me your Lord. (20:12)
إِنَّهُ أَنَا اللَّـهُ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ
The fact is that I am ALLAH, the Mighty, the Wise. (27:9)
إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّـهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا
I am ALLAH. There is no god but I. (20:14)
إِنِّي أَنَا اللَّـهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ
I am ALLAH, the Lord of the worlds. (28:30)
It is possible that this vocative might have been repeated again and again, sometime by one word and then by another. The condition of hearing this vocative as described by Abu Hayyan in Tafsir Al-Bahr ul-Muhit and by ` Alusi in Ruh ul-Ma’ ani is that it was heard in a manner as if it was emanating from all sides, and not from any particular direction. The hearing of this was also very peculiar in that it was not heard by the ears only but by all the parts of the body, which was nothing less than a miracle.
It was the sound of an invisible speaker which was being heard without a particular quality (kayf) and without determining the direction. But its source was the fire or the tree on which the fire was glowing. Under such situations normally people get led into fallacy and involve themselves in idol worshipping. Therefore, under each title, the Oneness of Allah has been reminded and emphasized alongside. In the verse under reference سُبحَانَ اللہ (Pure is Allah) is added for this very warning. In Surah Ta-Ha the expression لَا الٰہ اِلَّا اَنَا (20:14) and in Surah Al-Qasas أَنَا اللَّـهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ (28:30) is used for the emphasis of this point.
The outcome of this discussion is that the fire was shown to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) because he was in need of fire and light at that time, otherwise there was no connection between the Word of Allah or with the entity of Allah with the fire or the tree of Tur. Fire was nothing but a creature of Allah Ta’ ala like so many other creatures. This is why the commentators have different views in the interpretation of the verses under reference: أَن بُورِكَ مَن فِي النَّارِ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا (27:8) that is Blessed is the one who is in the fire and the one who is around it. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas, Mujahid and ` Ikrimah (رض) have expressed the view that the words مَن فِی النَّارِ the one who is in the fire) stand for Sayyidna Musa’ (عليه السلام) because the fire he had seen was not the real fire, but the auspicious spot he had reached was so luminous that it looked like fire from a distance. Therefore, Musa (عليه السلام) was inside that fire, and مَن حَولَھَا (the one who is around it) is purported for the angels, who were present there nearby. Other commentators have put forward a totally opposite explanation, that the words “who is in the fire” refer to the angels, while the words “who is around it” stand for Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) . Tafsir Bayan ul Qur’an has adopted the latter explanation. It is sufficient to know this much for the understanding of the meaning of these verses.
A narration of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) and Hasan Al-Basri (رح) and its explanation
Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Marduwaih etc., have also quoted another explanation put forward by Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas, Sayyidna Hasan Al- Basri and Said Ibn Jubair (رض) about the phrase مَن فِی النَّارِ (who is in the fire) that it is meant for Allah Ta’ ala Himself. It is but obvious that fire is created by Allah, and incarnation of the Creator into anything created by Him is impossible. Therefore, this narration cannot be taken to mean that Allah Ta’ ala had transfigured into the fire, as many idol-worshippers believe in transfiguration of God in their idols. This is absolutely against the concept of Tauhid (Oneness of Allah).
All it means is manifestation, like the reflection in the mirror. The image is manifested in the mirror but it is not transfigured in it. What is seen in the mirror is outside it, having its own entity. It is also quite evident that this manifestation, which is also called refulgence, was not the refulgence of Allah Ta’ ala. It is for the simple reason that if Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) had already witnessed the Divinity, he would not have requested at the mount of Tur رَبِّ أَرِنِي أَنظُرْ إِلَيْكَ that is, ` O my Lord, show Your Self to me (7:143), so that I may look at you’. In that case the reply لَن تَرَانِي (You will never see me – 7:143) would also have been meaningless.
It is now clear that Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) in his explanation had meant the manifestation of Allah Ta’ ala, that is refulgence, which appeared in the form of fire. As it was not the transmigration, it was also not the refulgence of His real Self. The phrase لَن تَرَانِي (You will never see me) has also clarified that in this world no one can witness the refulgence of His real Self. Then what do manifestation and refulgence really mean? The answer to this is that this refulgence was figurative, which is commonly known among the mystics. It is rather difficult to comprehend it fully, but in order to make it simple according to common understanding, I have tried to explain it in my book Ahkam ul-Qur’an, in Arabic language, in the explanation of Surah Al-Qasas. Those who are interested can see it there.
اِلَّا مَنْ ظَلَمَ ثُمَّ بَدَّلَ حُسْـنًۢا بَعْدَ سُوْۗءٍ فَاِنِّىْ غَفُوْرٌ رَّحِيْمٌ
Except him who did wrong, then after (doing) evil replaced (it) with good, then I am Most-Forgiving, Very-Merciful. 27:11
The miracle of the staff of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) was mentioned in the verse prior to this, where it was also stated that when the staff turned into serpent, Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) himself started running out of fear. The other miracle of illuminative hand of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) is related in the verse next to above referred verse. Then why this exception is mentioned in between two verses relating to miracles, and whether this exception is snapped from the subject (munqati`) or is it adjoining (muttasil)? The commentators have different view points on this subject. Some have declared it as snapped from the subject. In that case the verse will read as that in the previous verse it was stated that messengers do not get frightened, then it was also mentioned, by the way, as to who are the ones who should get frightened.
They are those who have committed any sin, but later repented and sought Allah’s pardon and performed good deeds. Although Allah Ta’ ala would pardon their sins, but even then there would be possibility of traces of sins being left over. It is for this reason that they always remain fearful of Allah. But If the exception is regarded adjoining with the subject, then the meaning of the verse would be that Allah’s messengers do not get frightened except those who have committed some trifle or minor mistake and have repented on that. In that situation such trifle sins are forgiven. But the actual position is that even if there were some minor slips by the messengers, they were not regarded as sins – neither small nor big. Although they looked like sins but factually they were errors of ijtihad. According to this interpretation, this exception is an allusion toward the incident of the Egyptian who was killed by Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) by error of judgment. Although this error was pardoned by Allah Ta’ ala, yet its effect remained with Musa I leaving some fear of the incident. Had this incident not have occurred, there would not have been any fear of the sort.
وَوَرِثَ سُلَيْمٰنُ دَاوٗدَ وَقَالَ يٰٓاَيُّهَا النَّاسُ عُلِّمْنَا مَنْطِقَ الطَّيْرِ وَاُوْتِيْنَا مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ۭ اِنَّ ھٰذَا لَهُوَ الْفَضْلُ الْمُبِيْنُ
There is no heritage of wealth among the prophets
وَوَرِثَ سُلَيْمَانُ دَاوُودَ (And Sulaiman inherited Dawud – 27:16). The inheritance mentioned in this verse is not the inheritance of wealth and property, because the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has clearly declared that the prophets do neither inherit the property of anyone nor does their property is inherited by anyone. Tirmidhi and Abu Dawud have reported from Sayyidna Abu darda’ (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said, ` Ulama’ (men of knowledge) are the inheritors of prophets, but the prophets did not leave dirhams or dinars (wealth) as their inheritance; instead, they have left knowledge as their heritage.
Al-Kulaini, the famous Shiite scholar, has reported from Sayyidna Ja’far As-sadiq that he said, “Sayyidna Sulaiman عليه السلام was the inheritor of Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) ، and the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was the inheritor of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) . (Ruh from al-Kulaini). This statement makes the issue very clear that the inheritance is used here in the sense of heritage of knowledge (because nobody can claim that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) inherited the property of Sulaiman (عليه السلام) .
Rationally speaking also, here inheritance cannot mean wealth, because when Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) died he had 19 sons, hence if inheritance of wealth was meant to be distributed, then all these sons would have been entitled for the inheritance, and it cannot be exclusive to Sayyidna Sulaiman عليه السلام alone. It is, therefore, quite clear that the inheritance meant here is the one in which the brothers were not included and only Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) was the inheritor. This could only be the inheritance of knowledge and prophethood. Along with that inheritance, Allah Ta’ ala also graced him with the empire of Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) and furthermore control over the Jinns, birds, animals and the wind. In the light of these proofs, the narration of Tabrasi is proved to be wrong in which he has regarded inheritance as that of wealth on authority of some Imams of Ah1-ul-Bait. (Ruh)
The period between the death of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) and the birth of the last of the prophets the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was seventeen hundred years, while Jews calculate this period as fourteen hundred years. The life span of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) was a little over fifty years. (Qurtubi)
It is permissible to use plural form for one’s own self, provided it is not out of arrogance
عُلِّمْنَا مَنطِقَ الطَّيْرِ وَأُوتِينَا (27:16). Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) has used plural form for himself as a regal idiom, although he was alone. It was to impress his subjects, so that they do not indulge in indolence in the obedience of Allah Ta’ ala and in following him. Similarly, there is no harm if the rulers and officials also use plural form for themselves while they are in the company of their subjects, provided it is for the esteem of the office they are holding and not out of arrogance.
Birds and animals also have sense and intelligence
There is sense and intelligence to some degree in all animals and birds. However, it is not developed to such an extent that they were made to follow any injunctions of the Shari’ah. But the humans and jinns are bestowed with such perfected sense and intelligence that they are made the addressee and followers of the injunctions of Allah Ta’ ala. Imam Shafi` i (رح) has said that dove is the cleverest of all the birds, and Ibn ` Atiyyah has said that ant is very intelligent animal; its smelling power is very strong . If it gets hold of a grain it breaks it into two, so that it does not germinate, and thus it stock its food for the winters. (Qurtubi)
The expression “speech of birds” is used in the verse because of the incident of the hoopoe which is a bird, otherwise Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) was taught languages of all the beasts, birds and the insects, as mentioned in the next verse about understanding the language of the ant. Imam Qurtubi has mentioned in his Tafsir different incidents in which Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) told the people how different birds chirped and what did they mean. The chirping of each bird was a word of advice.
وَأُوتِينَا مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ (and we have been given of everything -16). The word كُلِّ (every) applies to everything of a kind, but sometimes its application is not universal but pertains to a specific purpose. Here also it is used in that sense and “everything” refers to those things only which are needed by the government or an empire. Otherwise it is obvious that they did not have aeroplanes, motor cars or railways in those days.
رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِي (My Lord, enable me – 27:19). It is derived from ) وَزع (waz’ ), which lexically means to stop or restrain. Here it means ` enable me with Divine help so that I should have the trait of gratitude with me all the time and do not part with it ever’, which will result in restraint. In the earlier verse فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ (27:17) (translated as “kept under control” it was also used in the same sense, that in order to save them from confusion because of their large number the armies were restrained.
فَتَبَسَّمَ ضَاحِكًا مِّنْ قَوْلِهَا وَقَالَ رَبِّ اَوْزِعْنِيْٓ اَنْ اَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِيْٓ اَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلٰي وَالِدَيَّ وَاَنْ اَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضٰىهُ وَاَدْخِلْنِيْ بِرَحْمَتِكَ فِيْ عِبَادِكَ الصّٰلِحِيْنَ
وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ (and that I do the good deeds You like – 27:19). Here رضا (liking) means acceptance. Thus the meaning is ` Ya Allah! Grace me with Divine help for such righteous deeds which are acceptable to You’. From this it is argued in Ruh ul-Ma’ ani that it is not necessary for the righteous deeds to be accepted, but their acceptance is dependent on certain conditions. It is further explained that there is no relation between righteousness and acceptance either rationally or in religious law. It is for this reason that the prophets used to pray for the acceptance of their righteous deeds. Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) and Ismail (عليه السلام) prayed while constructing the House of Allah رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا (Our Lord accept from us – 2:127). It shows that after doing a good deed, one should not be complacent, but should pray to Allah for its acceptance.
Despite having done good deeds and their acceptance the entry into Paradise will not be possible without the grace of Allah
وَأَدْخِلْنِي بِرَحْمَتِكَ فِي عِبَادِكَ الصَّالِحِينَ (And admit me, by your mercy, among your righteous slaves – 27:19). Despite having performed good deeds and their acceptance, the entry into Paradise will depend on the grace and kindness of Allah Ta’ ala. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said that no one will enter into Paradise relying only on his deeds. So the companions enquired from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) “Even you too?”, and he answered “Yes, me too, but I am surrounded by Allah’s favour and grace”. (Ruh u1-Ma’ ani)
Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) was also praying for the grace of Allah for the entry into Paradise in these words ` O Allah, grace me also with your favour so that I become entitled to enter Paradise’.
وَتَفَقَّدَ الطَّيْرَ فَقَالَ مَا لِيَ لَآ اَرَى الْهُدْهُدَ ڮ اَمْ كَانَ مِنَ الْغَاۗىِٕـبِيْنَ
وَتَفَقَّدَ الطَّيْرَ (And he checked the birds – 27:20). The word تَفَقَّدَ (tafaqqud) means to verify about the presence or absence of some people. Hence it is translated as to check. Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) was bestowed by Allah Ta’ ala the rule over Jinns, the beasts and the birds, apart from humans. As it is customary for the ruler to look after and take care of all of his subjects, it is stated in this verse وَتَفَقَّدَ الطَّيْرَ That is Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) inspected the birds from his subjects, and made a note of the presence and absence of them all. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) also had the habit to keep himself informed about the wellbeing of his companions. If someone was absent, he used to go to his house to find out his welfare. If anyone was sick, he would go and visit him and do the needful nursing. If someone was afflicted with any trouble, he would make the effort to remove it.
It is necessary for the rulers to take care of their subjects and for the saints of their disciples and students
This verse has proved that Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) used to keep an eye on all types of his subjects, and used to keep himself fully informed about them, so much so that the absence of a small and weak bird like a hoopoe which has a small population compared to other birds, did not go unnoticed from him. It is also possible that his specific enquiry about the hoopoe was due to its small population and weak make-up among the species of birds. Therefore, he made special effort to keep his eyes on the weaker section of his subjects.
Among the companions, Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) established the traditions of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) in totality during his tenure as caliph. He used to go round the streets of Madinah during the nights to keep him fully abreast with the state of affairs. If he found any one in distress or need, he would help him out. A number of such incidents are related in his biography: He used to say “If a wolf kills a lamb by the side of river Euphrates, for that too Umar will be answerable”. (Qurtubi)
Such were the principles of rule and administration, which were taught by the prophets and practically demonstrated by the revered companions of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . Because of these practices, the entire populace, both Muslims and non-Muslims, used to live in complete harmony and tranquility. Such justice and fair play, composure and tranquility were never witnessed ever in the whole world after their time.
مَا لِيَ لَا أَرَى الْهُدْهُدَ أَمْ كَانَ مِنَ الْغَائِبِينَ
“What is wrong with me that I do not see the hoopoe; rather he has disappeared? – 27:20
Taking account of one’s own Self
Apparently Sulaiman (عليه السلام) should have said at this occasion, “ What is wrong with the hoopoe that he is absent?” But Sulaiman (عليه السلام) asked about his own wrong when he said, “What is wrong with me?” Perhaps, it was because the hoopoe and all other birds were put under his control as a special reward. Initially it crossed his mind momentarily that probably His blessings have been curtailed for some slip on his part that a species of birds (the hoopoe) was not present. So, he made some soul searching to find out what could have been the reason for its absence? It was a case similar to that of the mystic saints who make enquiries from their Self before looking into the material causes for the relief of any distress, or when any blessing is reduced for them. It is their practice to take into account of any possible slips on their part in paying gratitude to Allah Ta’ ala for His bounties, which might have caused the withdrawal of the blessings from them. Qurtubi has quoted here the practice of these saints on the authority of Ibn al-` Arabi in the following words:
اِذا فقدوا امالھم تفقّدوا اعمالھم That is ` when these saints do not succeed in their objectives, they take stock of their deeds to find out where have they committed the mistake’.
After this initial stock-taking of Self and due considerations and deliberations it is said أَمْ كَانَ مِنَ الْغَائِبِينَ (rather, he has disappeared – 27:20). Here the word اَم is used for the meaning of the word بَل (rather) (Qurtubi). Therefore, the meaning of the sentence is ` It is not that my sight has faltered in locating the hoopoe, but in fact it is not present’.
Reason for picking up hoopoe from among the birds, and an important warning
Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas (رض) was asked as to what was the reason that the hoopoe was picked up from all the birds. He replied that Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) had camped at a place where there was no water, and Allah Ta’ ala has bestowed such a peculiar instinct to hoopoe that it can see things under the ground and can also locate the underground water. Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) wanted to find out, through the proficiency of the hoopoe, the depth and extent of the underground water. Having known the location of the underground water, he would have commanded the Jinns to excavate the ground to bring the water up – a task they would have performed very quickly. Paradoxically, despite having the piercing sight, the hoopoe gets entrapped in the nets of the hunters. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has commented on this:
قف يا وقّاف کيف يری الھدھد باطن الأرض وھو لا يرٰی الفخّ حين يقع فيه.
` 0 the people of knowledge! try to understand this fact that the hoopoe has the ability to see things under the ground, but the net spread out over the ground gets obscured from its sight, and hence it gets entrapped in that’.
The bottom line to understand is that whatever is destined for a person through the divine decree, whether it is trouble or comfort, has to be enforced, and no one can escape from it by his wisdom, insight or through the use of force or money.
لَاُعَذِّبَنَّهٗ عَذَابًا شَدِيْدًا اَوْ لَاَاذْبَحَنَّهٗٓ اَوْ لَيَاْتِيَنِّيْ بِسُلْطٰنٍ مُّبِيْنٍ
I will punish him with a severe punishment – 27:21
It is part of the political sagacity to punish the absentee after making due scrutiny.
It is permissible to punish a lethargic animal moderately
Allah Ta’ ala had permitted Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) to punish the animals in the same way, as He had permitted people of all ages, a permission which is still valid, to slaughter them to make use of their flesh, bones, skin etc. Similarly, if the domestic animals, such as cow, horse, camel, donkey etc., do not perform their normal duty, then it is permissible even now to punish them moderately for disciplining. Punishing animals, other than domestic, is not permissible under Islamic law. (Qurtubi)
أَوْ لَيَأْتِيَنِّي بِسُلْطَانٍ مُّبِينٍ
Unless he brings to me a clear plea. – 27:21
That is, if the hoopoe offers a plausible excuse for its absence, then it will be saved from the punishment. There is a subtle hint in it that it is expected of a ruler or an administrator that if someone falters doing something, then it should be thoroughly investigated before punishing him. The punishment should be enforced only when the guilt is established, otherwise he should be forgiven.
فَمَكَثَ غَيْرَ بَعِيْدٍ فَقَالَ اَحَطْتُّ بِمَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهٖ وَجِئْتُكَ مِنْ سَبَاٍۢ بِنَبَاٍ يَّقِيْنٍ
أَحَطتُ بِمَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ (I have discovered what you did not – 27:22). That is, the hoopoe. said while offering its excuse that it knew something which he did not know. What it meant was that it had brought information, which he (Sulaiman عليه السلام) did not know before.
The prophets do not have the knowledge of the unknown
Imam Qurtubi has deduced from this incident that the prophets do not have the knowledge of the unseen (` Ilm ul-ghayb), so that they could know all about everything. It is quite evident from this verse.
وَجِئْتُكَ مِن سَبَإٍ بِنَبَإٍ يَقِينٍ
“And have brought to you a sure information from Saba’ (Sheba) “. 27:22
Saba’ (Sheba) (سَبَاء) is a well-known city of Yemen, and its other name is Ma’arib (مَآرِب). The distance between San` a’, the capital of Yemen, and Saba’ is three day’s journey.
Is it proper for a junior to say to his senior that he knows more than him?
On the basis of this conversation by the hoopoe, some people have deduced that it is appropriate for a pupil to say to his teacher or for a common man to say to a knowledgeable person that he knows more than the latter on the subject, provided he is absolutely confident that his knowledge on that subject is really more than others. But it is argued in Ruh ul-Ma’ ani that such an assertion before the elders and scholars is against the etiquettes, and should be avoided. This argument, however, does not apply to the conversation of the hoopoe, because it made that statement to save itself from the punishment and to justify its excuse for the absence. The hoopoe actually wanted to place before Sulaiman (عليه السلام) the exact position, so that he could understand the reason for its absence. In such situations it is not improper if something is said against the normal etiquettes.
اِنِّىْ وَجَدْتُّ امْرَاَةً تَمْلِكُهُمْ وَاُوْتِيَتْ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَّ لَهَا عَرْشٌ عَظِيْمٌ
I have found a woman ruling over them, – 27:23
The name of this woman is given in the history as Bilqis, daughter of Sharahil. But in some other narrations, it is mentioned that her mother was a jinni whose name was Bal’amah, daughter of Shisan. (Wuhaib b. Jarir has reported this from Khalil Ibn Ahmad, Qurtubi) Her grandfather, Hudahud, was a great king and controlled the entire land of Yemen. He had forty sons. All these sons became kings. Her father, Surah, had married a jinni woman, who gave birth to her (Bilqis). Different reasons are given for his marriage to a jinni. One of them being that he used to say with arrogance “No one from you is a match for me; hence I will not marry. It is because I do not like marrying outside my matching clan”. As a result of this, people got him married to a jinni woman. (Qurtubi) Perhaps it was his conceit that he deemed his own people as not his equal. This did not go well with the Divine writ and he was made to marry a jinni woman, who was neither from his family nor his kind or race.
Is it permissible to marry a jinni?
Some people have expressed doubt on the question, because they thought the jinns are not capable of reproducing like the humans. Ibn-al-` Arabi has opined in his commentary that this is a wrong conception. It is established through authentic ahadith that jinns also possess all the requisites of reproduction and the essentials of male and female, as in humans.
There is another aspect to this question from the angle of Islamic law. That is, whether it is permissible for a man to marry a jinni woman? On this aspect there are different views of the Islamic jurists. Some have ruled that it is permissible, while others have ruled it out, because of their different kind, like the animals. In the book named as (آکام المرجان في أحکام الجانّ ) this subject is discussed in detail, where some incidents are quoted mentioning that Muslim men married Muslim jinni women, and they also gave birth to children. Here this subject is irrelevant, because the father of Bilqis, who married the jinni woman, was not a Muslim. Hence, the question of permissibility does not arise here. In Islamic law the lineage is based on father, and the father of Bilqis was a human. Therefore, Bilqis would also be regarded as a human. In some narrations, marriage of Sulaiman (عليه السلام) with Bilqis is mentioned. Even if these narrations are correct, it does not corroborate permissibility to marry a jinni woman, because Bilqis herself was not a jinni, though her mother might have been one. Only Allah knows best. The marriage of Sulaiman (عليه السلام) will be discussed later in this commentary.
Is it permissible for a woman to be king or the head or Imam of a people?
It is reported in Sahih al-Bukhari on the authority of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، that when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) learnt that the people of Persia have made the daughter of Kisra as their queen, he ((صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) said لَن یُّفلِحَ قَومُ وَلَّوا اَمرَھُم اِمرأَۃً . That is, “Those people will never prosper who give control of authority to a woman”. It is for this verdict that scholars are unanimous on the point that the control of a government, an empire or caliphate cannot be assigned to a woman. Rather the greater imamah (al-imamah al-kubra) is also allowed only to men folk, like the Imamah for prayers. As for Bilqis being the queen of Saba’, it does not make it to be a religious decree, unless it is proven that Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) had married her, and then retained her as the queen. This assumption is not proven by any authentic narration, which could be trusted for the purpose of legislation of religious laws.
وَأُوتِيَتْ مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ
She has been given of everything – 23
It means that whatever services are needed to a king or an aristocrat according to their time, they all were available to her. It is, however, obvious that those things that were not invented by then, their unavailability is not in conflict with this verse.
وَلَهَا عَرْشٌ عَظِيمٌ (And she has a great throne – 23) Literal meaning of ` Arsh (عَرش) is throne of the empire. A narration is attributed to Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، ‘ that the length of the throne of Bilqis was eighty yards, its breadth was forty yards and height thirty yards. It was profusely decorated with pearls, red rubies, topaz and olivine, and its legs were studded with precious stones and pearls. Its curtains were made of silk and fine cloth. The throne was secured within seven buildings, one within the other, all well protected and locked.
وَجَدْتُّهَا وَقَوْمَهَا يَسْجُدُوْنَ لِلشَّمْسِ مِنْ دُوْنِ اللّٰهِ وَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطٰنُ اَعْمَالَهُمْ فَصَدَّهُمْ عَنِ السَّبِيْلِ فَهُمْ لَا يَهْتَدُوْنَ
I have found her and her people prostrating to the sun – 27:24
This shows that her people were star-worshippers and used to worship the sun. Some believe that they were Zoroastrians, who worship fire and all forms of light.
أَلَّا يَسْجُدُوا لِلَّـهِ الَّذِي يُخْرِجُ الْخَبْءَ (that is, they do not prostrate to Allah who bring forth what is hidden – 25).This sentence is linked with the previous one, “The Shaitan has beautified their deeds – 26” and the sense is that the Shaitan had engrained in their minds that they should not bow down before Allah, or had prevented them from the righteous path so that they should not prostrate before Allah Ta’ ala.
اِذْهَبْ بِّكِتٰبِيْ ھٰذَا فَاَلْقِهْ اِلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ فَانْظُرْ مَاذَا يَرْجِعُوْنَ
Letters and writings are enough proof on religious matters in the normal circumstances
اذْهَب بِّكِتَابِي هَـٰذَا (Go with this letter of mine – 28). Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) considered it enough to write to the queen of Saba’ (Sheba) for the fulfillment of his duty to invite her to faith, and hence sent her a letter. This shows that in the normal circumstances the letter or writing is an acceptable proof. The religious jurists did not accept a letter as an evidence only where a proper personal evidence is required under Islamic law, because testimony is not allowed on telephone or by letter. It has been made mandatory for the witnesses to appear in person before the court. There is a lot of wisdom in this law. Under any law of the world prevalent in any country it is compulsory for the witnesses to appear before the court in person, and the testimony through letter or telephone is not accepted.
Writing letters and sending them to the disbelievers is permissible
Another matter that has been pro-ved by the letter of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) is that in preaching of religion and invitation to Islam it is permissible to write letters to disbelievers and infidels. According to many Sahih ahadith it is established that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had also written letters to many infidels.
Social etiquettes should always be observed, no matter if it is a gathering of infidels
فَأَلْقِهْ إِلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ
Throw it down to them, then turn back from them – 27:28
When Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) made use of the hoopoe as a courier, he also taught him the social etiquette that after delivering the letter to Queen of Saba’ it should move out of her court, which is the norm of the royal courts. This shows that observance of social etiquettes and good human behavior is desirable as a general rule.
قَالَتْ يٰٓاَيُّهَا الْمَلَؤُا اِنِّىْٓ اُلْقِيَ اِلَيَّ كِتٰبٌ كَرِيْمٌ
She (the queen) said (to her officials after receiving the letter), “0 chieftains, there has been thrown to me an esteemed letter, 27:29.
Literal meaning of Karim is respectable, honorable or esteemed, and idiomatically this word is used for a letter when it is sealed. This is why Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، Qatadah, Zohair رحمۃ اللہ علیہما etc. have interpreted the expression کِتَابپ کَرِیم as the sealed book, which indicates that Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) had put his seal on the letter. When the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) learnt about the tradition of the non-Arab kings that they do not read the letter if it is not sealed, he got a seal made for himself, and used it on the letters he sent to Caesar and Chosro. It shows that the practice of sealing a letter is to show respect to the letter as well as to the addressee. The present day practice is to secure the letter in an envelope, which is as good as sealing it. Where show of respect to the addressee is intended, it is closer to the practice of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) to secure it in an envelope.
The language of the letter of Sulaiman
Although Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) was not an Arab, yet it is not unlikely that he knew the Arabic language, especially when he knew the languages of the animals. As the Arabic language is supreme among all the languages, it is possible that he might have written the letter in Arabic. It is also probable because Bilqis was an Arab by race, and she read the letter and understood it. The other probability is that he had written the letter in his own language and an interpreter read it for her. (Ruh)
اِنَّهٗ مِنْ سُلَيْمٰنَ وَاِنَّهٗ بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ
Some rules of writing letters
It is from Sulaiman and it is (in the following words:) With the name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the Very-Merciful. 27:30
There is not a single aspect of human life on which Qur’an does not provide guidance. Mutual exchange of welfare and other information through letters is part of human requirements. In this Surah, full text of the letter from Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) to Queen Saba’ has been reproduced. This is a letter from a prophet, and Qur’an has reproduced it as an approved format for a letter. Hence, it should be taken in that light and Muslims should try to follow the guidance provided in it for letter writing.
Writer should first write his name and then of the addressee
The very first guidance provided in this letter is that Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) has begun it by writing his name. How did he write the name of the addressee, it is not mentioned in the Qur’an. However, it does tell us that it was the practice of the prophets to write their name first, in which there are many benefits: For instance, the addressee would know even before reading the letter from whom it has come. So he would read the letter in the backdrop of his relations with the writer, and any confusion about the identity of the writer would be eliminated right in the beginning. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had also adopted the same practice in all his letters addressed to various persons, and began the letter with the wordings مِن مُحَمَّد عبد اللہ و رسولہٖ (From Muhammad, the slave of Allah and His messenger)
A question may arise here as to whether it would be a disrespect to the addressee if a junior writes his name first while writing to his elder, teacher or senior in status? So, is it appropriate to follow this practice or not? In this respect the companions of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had acted differently. Most of them preferred to follow the practice of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and not the requirement of the formality, and wrote their names first even when writing to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) himself. Ruh al-Ma’ ani has reproduced a narration of Sayyidna ‘Anas (رض) from al-Bahr ul-Muhit as follows:
وَعَنْ أَنَسٍ: مَا كَانَ أَحَدٌ أَعْظَمَ حُرْمَةً مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَكَانَ أَصْحَابُهُ إِذَا كَتَبُوا إِلَيْهِ كِتَابًا بدأوا بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ. وكتاب العلاء الحضرمي يشهد له على ما روى. البحر المحيط في التفسير (8/ 234)
“No human is more revered than the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) 0, but when his companions used to write to him, they would first write their names, and I say that Sayyidna ` Ala’ Al-Hadrami’s letter, which he wrote to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) “, is a proof to that.”
However, after quoting these narrations in Ruh ul-Ma’ ani it is observed that all this discussion is about the preferred way, otherwise both ways are permissible. If someone writes his name in the last, that too is correct. Religious jurist Abu al-Layth has written in his Bustan that if someone starts with the name of the addressee, no one can question its permissibility, because this has also been the practice among the Muslims for long, and no one has objected to that. (Ruh ul-Ma’ ani, Qurtubi)
Replying to letters is also a practice of the prophets
It is observed in Tafsir ul-Qurtubi that if someone receives a letter, it is incumbent upon him to answer it, because a letter from someone not present is as good as the greeting of the one who is present. It is attributed to Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) in a narration that he used to regard the reply of a letter as much obligatory as the reply to a greeting by salam. (Qurtubi)
Starting letters with Bismillah
The letter of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) and all the letters sent by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) have established that writing Bismillah at the beginning of a letter was the practice of the prophets. As to the question whether Bismillah should precede the name of the writer or not, the practice of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was that he always put Bismillah before his name, and the name of the addressee after his own name. But in the Qur’an the order is reversed and the name of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) is written first and then Bismillah.
Therefore, it is also in order if the name of the writer is written first and then Bismillah. But Ibn Abi Hatim has reported on the authority of Yazid Ibn Rauman that in fact Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) had written his letter in this manner: بسم اللہ الرحمٰن الرحیم ۔ من سليمان بن داؤد الٰی بلقيس ابنۃ شرح و قومھا۔ ان لا تعلوا عَلَیَّ وَاتُونِی مُسلِمِينَ (which means that he wrote Bismillah before his name) but when Bilqis read out this letter to her people, she mentioned the name of Sulaiman (عليه السلام) first in order to let them know the name of the writer. The Holy Qur’an has copied what Bilqis had uttered. There is no mention in the Qur’an whether Bismillah was written first or the name of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) in the original letter. There is yet another possibility that the name of Sulaiman (عليه السلام) was written on the envelope and Bismillah at the top of the letter, and when Bilqis read out the letter to her people she announced the name of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) first.
The original tradition (Sunnah) of letter writing is that all letters should begin with Bismillah. However, the religious jurists have ruled, on the authority of the indications given in the Qur’an and Sunnah, that if there is a risk of disrespect to the name of Allah on the apprehension that the paper on which Bismillah is written would be thrown away, then it is not right to write Bismillah, lest one should get involved in sin. The present day practice is that letters are thrown away after reading and they end up in garbage. Hence, it is better to perform Sunnah by reciting Bismillah orally before starting the letter, rather than writing it on paper.
Can a paper bearing a Qur’anic verse be given in the hands of a disbeliever?
Sayyidna Sulaiman عليه السلام had sent this letter to Bilqis when she was not a Muslim, but بسم اللہ الرحمٰن الرحیم was written on it. It confirms that this is permissible. The non-Arab kings to whom the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم had written letters were disbelievers. But the letters contained some Qur’anic verses too. It should be understood that although it is not permitted to hand over the Holy Qur’an to infidels, but any book or paper containing some verses of the Qur’an does not qualify to be the Qur’an itself; hence, such papers or books can be handed over to an infidel or to someone without وُضُو wudu’ (ablution). (Alamgiri)
Letters should be written short, comprehensive, eloquent and effective
Looking at the letter of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) one cannot avoid noticing that it is so comprehensive that all important matters have been put together in a few sentences, maintaining the high standard of eloquence along with the royal grandeur in front of the infidels. At the same time perfected attributes of Allah Ta’ ala are also described along with an invitation towards Islam. The condemnation of conceit and arrogance is also noticeable. As a matter of fact, this letter is a specimen of the marvel of Qur’an. Sayyidna Qatadah (رض) has stated that it was the practice in letter writing by all the prophets to make it brief but at the same time ensuring that nothing mentionable is left out. (Ruh ul-Ma’ ani)
قَالَتْ يٰٓاَيُّهَا الْمَلَؤُا اَفْتُوْنِيْ فِيْٓ اَمْرِيْ ۚ مَا كُنْتُ قَاطِعَةً اَمْرًا حَتّٰى تَشْهَدُوْنِ
Consultation in important matters is a Sunnah. It provides the benefit of having views of others, and gives them a sense of participation
She said, “0 chieftains, advise me in the matter I have (before me). I am not the one who decides a matter absolutely unless you are present with me.” – 32
The word اَفتُونِی is derived from Fatwa فَتوٰی ، which means answering some specific issue. Here it means to give counsel or to express one’s views. When Queen Bilqis received the letter of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) she called the members of her government and asked their view as to what she should do. Before asking their view on the matter, she encouraged and pleased them by declaring that she did not take decisions without consulting them. Because of her remarks, the ministers and the generals expressed their readiness to sacrifice everything they had in order to follow her command. نَحْنُ أُولُو قُوَّةٍ وَأُولُو بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ وَالْأَمْرُ إِلَيْكِ (“We are powerful and tough fighters, and the decision lies with you – 33). Sayyidna Qatadah (رض) has related that according to his information there were 313 members in her consultative committee, and each one of them represented and enjoyed the support of ten thousand persons. (Qurtubi)
This statement brings to light that having consultation with supporters is an old practice. Islam has attached great importance to consultation and has made this mandatory for the government functionaries. So much so that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، who was the recipient of revelations from Allah Ta’ ala and also used to get direct guidance from Him (thus did not have any need for consultation or advice), was also commanded to follow this practice, in order to set up a tradition for his followers. The Holy Qur’ an directs the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) وَشَاوِرْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْرِ (3:159) that is, he should consult them in the matters. There is a sense of participation for the companions in this command, and an advice for the coming generations that the government functionaries must always consult on important matters.
Reaction of Queen Bilqis on the letter of Sulaiman
After having consulted the functionaries of her government and gaining their confidence, she herself developed a strategy that she should initially test out the real intention of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) and to find out whether he was actually a prophet and messenger of God, and whether he was really conveying the message of God or he was aspiring for a greater empire. The purpose behind this strategy was to find out that if he was a prophet in reality, then his command should be followed and no hostility be adopted against him. On the other hand if he was only a king and wished to expand his empire by subjugating her kingdom, then a different plan be worked out to face the challenge. To test out the real intention of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) she adopted the tactic of sending to him precious gifts and presents. If he becomes satisfied after receiving the gifts, then it would indicate that he was only a king and had approached her with mundane motives. On the other hand, if he was actually a prophet then he would not agree on anything other than acceptance of Islam. Ibn Jarir has reported this explanation from Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) Mujahid, Ibn Juraij, and Ibn Wahb رحمۃ اللہ علیہم with several chins of narrators.The same subject is elaborated in the following verse:
وَاِنِّىْ مُرْسِلَةٌ اِلَيْهِمْ بِهَدِيَّةٍ فَنٰظِرَةٌۢ بِمَ يَرْجِعُ الْمُرْسَلُوْنَ
And I am going to send a gift to them, then see, what response the envoys will bring back.” 27:35.
Appearance of envoys of Bilqls in the court of Sulaiman (عليه السلام)
Historical Isra’ili legends describe in great detail the incident of the visit of the envoys of Bilqis and the gifts they had taken with them. All versions of the legends agree on that the gifts included some gold bricks, some precious stones, one hundred slaves and one hundred slave girls. But the slave girls were dressed in men’s clothes and the slaves were dressed in ladies outfits. There was also a letter from Bilqis, in which there were some questions for testing Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) the selection of gifts also, his test was intended. Allah Ta’ ala had passed on detailed information of gifts to Sulaiman (عليه السلام) even before their arrival.
Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) commanded the Jinns to lay out a floor of gold and silver bricks over a thirty miles stretch from his court, and that strange looking animals be lined up on either side of this pathway. Their excrement of bowels was also to be placed on the floor of gold and silver. Similarly, his court was decorated with special attention. Four thousand chairs of gold were placed on the left side and four thousand on the right side of the main hall for the scholars, ministers, and other officials of the court. The entire hall was bedecked with precious stones. When Bilqis’s envoys saw animals standing on the floor of gold bricks, they were embarrassed with the gifts they had brought with them. It is reported in some narrations that they threw away their gold bricks. Then as they proceeded, they saw rows of beasts and birds on either side of the pathway. After that they came across the rows of jinns. Seeing them, they were browbeaten. Ultimately, when they reached the court and stood before Sayyidna Sulaiman he received them with dignity, and entertained them with veneration. But he returned all their gifts and presents, and answered all the questions sent up by Bilqis. (Qurtubi)
فَلَمَّا جَاۗءَ سُلَيْمٰنَ قَالَ اَتُمِدُّوْنَنِ بِمَالٍ ۡفَمَآ اٰتٰىـنِۦ اللّٰهُ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّآ اٰتٰىكُمْ ۚ بَلْ اَنْتُمْ بِهَدِيَّتِكُمْ تَفْرَحُوْنَ
Return of the presents of Bilqis by Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام)
“Are you giving me an aid of wealth? So what Allah has given me is much better than He has given to you. But you yourselves are proud of your gift. 27:36.
When Bilqis’s envoys reached the court of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) with the gifts and presents sent by her, he said to them ` Do you wish to help me with wealth? Whatever wealth and bounties I have been given by Allah is much better than your wealth and material. Therefore, I do not accept your presents of wealth. You better take them away, and enjoy them yourself.
Is it permissible to accept presents from infidels?
Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) did not accept the presents of Queen Bilqis, which indicates that it is not permissible or not preferable to accept presents from infidels. The correct position about this question is that if this may lead to weakening of one’s position or that of Muslim community, or is likely to go against the expediency of the national interest, then it is prudent not to accept their presents. (Ruh ul-Ma’ ani). But if the interest of the Muslims is in favour of acceptance, for instance if this gesture may lead the non-Muslims to the acceptance of Islam, or may ward off some impending danger to Islam, in such situations it is permitted. It was the practice of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) to accept presents from some infidels and reject them from others. It is reported in ` Umdatul Qari Sharh al-Bukhari (Kitab ul-hibah) and Sharh-As- Siyar-Al-Kabr on the authority of Sayyidna Ka’b ibn Malik (رح) that ` Amir ibn Malik, brother of Bra’, went to Madinah on some work, when he was a disbelieving infidel, and presented two horses and two pairs of garments to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . He sent back these presents with the remarks “We do not accept presents from disbelievers”. Once ` Iyad ibn Himar al-Mujashi` i presented to him something. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) enquired from him whether he was a Muslim, to which he replied in the negative. So he returned his presents, explaining that Allah Ta’ ala has commanded him not to accept presents from the disbelievers.
As against this there are other narrations reporting that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had accepted presents from some disbelievers. In one such narration, it is related that Abu Sufyan had presented to him a piece of leather when he was still a disbeliever, which the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had accepted. Another narration has reported that a Christian had presented to him a very shiny piece of fine silk, which was also accepted by him.
Shamsul ‘A` immah has commented after citing these narrations that, in his view, the reason of rejection and acceptance of these presents by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was that where he thought that by their rejection the disbeliever would come near Islam, he rejected them, and where he considered that their acceptance will help bring the disbeliever close to Islam he did that. (Umdatul Qari)
Bilqis took the rejection of her presents by Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) as a sign of his prophethood – not because the acceptance of gifts from disbelievers is not permissible – but she had purposefully sent those presents as a bribe, in order to save herself from any attack from him.
قَالَ يٰٓاَيُّهَا الْمَلَؤُا اَيُّكُمْ يَاْتِيْنِيْ بِعَرْشِهَا قَبْلَ اَنْ يَّاْتُوْنِيْ مُسْلِمِيْنَ
Bilqis’s appearance in the court of Sulaiman (عليه السلام)
Qurtubi has reported, giving references of historical record, that Bilqis’s envoys returned from the court of Sulaiman (عليه السلام) totally dumb-founded and awe-struck, and conveyed his declaration of war to the queen. Then Bilqis said to her people that she was already of the view that he was no ordinary king, but was on some special assignment from God, and that fighting with His messenger is like fighting with God, for which they did not have the strength. After making this statement, she started getting ready to go to Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) .
She took along with her twelve thousand chiefs, commanding an army of hundred thousand men each.1 Allah Ta` ala had graced Sayyidnah Sulaiman (عليه السلام) with such awe and majesty that no one had the courage to speak before him. One day he saw a cloud of dust at some distance. So he asked from those who were present as to what that was. His people answered ` O messenger of Allah! Queen Bilqis is coming with her people’. Some narrations relate that at that time she was about three miles from the with her twelve thousand chiefs, commanding an army of hundred thousand men each.l Allah Ta` ala had graced Sayyidnah Sulaiman (عليه السلام) with such awe and majesty that no one had the courage to speak before him. One day he saw a cloud of dust at some distance. So he asked from those who were present as to what that was. His people answered ` O messenger of Allah! Queen Bilqis is coming with her people’. Some narrations relate that at that time she was about three miles from the court of Sayyidnah Sulaiman (عليه السلام) that moment Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) turned to his courtiers and asked them:
قَالَ يَا أَيُّهَا الْمَلَأُ أَيُّكُمْ يَأْتِينِي بِعَرْشِهَا قَبْلَ أَن يَأْتُونِي مُسْلِمِينَ
He said, “0 chieftains, which one of you will bring her throne to me before they come to me submissively?” 27:38.
Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) was already informed that Bilqis was coming to him to submit after having been impressed by his invitation. So he decided that, apart from royal grandeur, she should also witness a prophetic miracle, which should help her convert to faith. Allah Ta` ala had bestowed the miracle of control of jinns to Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) . After receiving the cue from Allah Ta` ala, he fancied to have Bilqis’s throne brought to his court even before her arrival. So he commanded the jinni, who was also present in his court, to bring her throne. Selection of throne was presumably made on the basis that it was the most secured object of her treasure, which was kept in the impregnable inner most hall of the seven castles, one within the other, properly secured under lock. So much so that her own people could not reach there. Shifting of such a huge and secured object without breaking the lock or door to a place so far away from where it was placed, could not have been possible without the help and will of Allah Ta` ala. This was an ideal way to make her see and realize the unlimited power and control of Allah. At the same time it was also intended to make her realize that the high position and status of Sulaiman (عليه السلام) was actually bestowed by Allah Ta` ala, which had enabled
him to perform such super-human things. (Ibn Jarir)
- The learned author has already mentioned that no authentic record is available on the details of this story. However there are some details found in the Israelite traditions some of which are reproduced here. This huge number of the army of Bilqis is also taken from those traditions; otherwise, the number given is highly exaggerated on the face of it, and ‘Allamah ‘Alusi has opined that the tradition giving such a huge number of the army seems to be a lie.
قَبْلَ أَن يَأْتُونِي مُسْلِمِينَ (before they come to me submissively – 27:38). The word مُسْلِمِينَ (muslimin) is the plural of Muslim, the literal meaning of which is obedient or submissive. In conventional expression, ‘Muslim’ is equivalent of ‘believer’. According to Sayyidna ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، here Muslimin is used in its literal meaning, that is, obedient or submissive. It is so because it was not established at that time that Queen Bilqis had converted to Islam. She actually converted to Islam after talking to Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) as is evident from the verses to follow now.
قَالَ الَّذِيْ عِنْدَهٗ عِلْمٌ مِّنَ الْكِتٰبِ اَنَا اٰتِيْكَ بِهٖ قَبْلَ اَنْ يَّرْتَدَّ اِلَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ ۭ فَلَمَّا رَاٰهُ مُسْتَقِرًّا عِنْدَهٗ قَالَ ھٰذَا مِنْ فَضْلِ رَبِّيْ ڷ لِيَبْلُوَنِيْٓ ءَاَشْكُرُ اَمْ اَكْفُرُ ۭ وَمَنْ شَكَرَ فَاِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهٖ ۚ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَاِنَّ رَبِّيْ غَنِيٌّ كَرِيْمٌ
قَالَ الَّذِي عِندَهُ عِلْمٌ مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ (Said the one who had the knowledge of the book – 27:40). The question is as to who was this person? One possibility is that he was Sulaiman (عليه السلام) himself, because his knowledge of the book of Allah was most extensive. In that case this incident happened as a miracle. The objective was also that Bilqis should have an experience of the prophetic miracle, so that no doubt was left in her mind. But Ibn Jarir has reported from many commentators of the Qur’an, like Qatadah, that he was a person from the companions of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) . Qurtubi has declared it to be the view of the majority. Ibn Ishaque has mentioned his name as ‘Asif Ibn Barkhiya, and has opined that he was a friend of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) .
Some other narrations say that a cousin of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) had the knowledge of Al-Ism ul-A` zam, (a particular name of Allah Almighty) the speciality of which is that whatever blessing is invoked from Allah Ta` ala by reciting this name, it is accepted, and anything requested is delivered from Him. It does not prove that Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) did not have the knowledge of Al-Ism-ul-A` zam. Rather it is quite likely that he considered it prudent to have the manifestation of the miracle by one of his people, which should have deeper impression on Bilqis. Therefore, instead of performing the miracle himself, he addressed his people in the above manner. (کذا فی فصوص الحکم) In such a situation, this incident was a Karamah, which was performed by ‘Asif Ibn Barkhiya.
Difference between miracle and Karmah
Miracles take place without any involvement of natural phenomena by the exclusive act and will of Allah Ta` ala. It is clearly defined in the Qur’an itself وَمَا رَمَيْتَ إِذْ رَمَيْتَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ اللَّـهَ رَمَىٰ (You did not throw when you threw but Allah did throw – 8:17). Likewise, there is no involvement of natural phenomena in the happening of Karamah. They take place exclusively with the act and will of Allah Ta’ ala. This should also be understood that miracles and Karamah do not take place with the wish or control of the person performing them, but only by the will and act of Allah Ta` ala. The only difference between the two is that if such an unusual act is demonstrated through a prophet, it is known as a miracle; and if it is demonstrated through someone who is not a prophet, it is called Karamah. In this particular incident if it is correct that ‘Asif Ibn Barkhiya, who was a companion of Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) performed it, then it will be called his Karamah. The unusual acts performed by saints are in fact the reflection of the perfections of their prophets, which in turn are deemed to be the miracles of their prophet.
The incident of the throne of Bilqis was a Karamah or a Tasarruf
Shaikh Muhiyyuddin ibn al-` Arabi has declared it as a Tasarruf of ‘Asif ibn Barkhiya. In the general use of the term, Tasarruf means to captivate the audience by the power of sight and mind, for which it is not necessary for the person performing it that he is a prophet or saint or even a Muslim. It is something like mesmerism or hypnotism. The saints have used this power occasionally for reforming and training of their disciples also. Ibn al-‘Arabi has explained that since prophets avoid using Tasarruf, therefore Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) got this job done by ‘Asif ibn Barkhiya. But the Qur’an has declared it the result of عِلْمٌ مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ (The knowledge of the book – 27:40). In the light of the wordings of the Qur’an, it seems preferable that it was an outcome of some prayer or of Al-Ism ul-A` zam which falls within the purview of Karamah, and has nothing to do with Tasarruf.
The assertion أَنَا آتِيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَن يَرْتَدَّ إِلَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ (I will bring it to you before your glance returns to you – 27:40) may create confusion, because it gives the impression that this act was carried out with intent and control. That being so, it is a sign of Tasarruf, because Karamah is not under the control of a saint. The answer to this doubt is that presumably Allah Ta’ ala had already given the signal that if there would be a desire for that, He would fulfill it in no time.
This explanation is taken from the commentary ` Ahkam ul Qur’an’ by Sayyidi Hakimul Ummah Maulana Ashraf ` Ali Thanawi (رح) ، on Surah An-Naml. Apart from that, he has also written a pamphlet on Tasarruf in Arabic under the title ` At-Tasarruf, which I have translated in Urdu and has been published separately.
قِيْلَ لَهَا ادْخُلِي الصَّرْحَ ۚ فَلَمَّا رَاَتْهُ حَسِبَتْهُ لُجَّةً وَّكَشَفَتْ عَنْ سَاقَيْهَا ۭ قَالَ اِنَّهٗ صَرْحٌ مُّمَرَّدٌ مِّنْ قَوَارِيْرَ ڛ قَالَتْ رَبِّ اِنِّىْ ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِيْ وَاَسْلَمْتُ مَعَ سُلَيْمٰنَ لِلّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعٰلَمِيْنَ
Did Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام)marry Bilqis?
The story of Bilqis has ended in the above verses on the statement that she converted to Islam after coming to Sayyidna Sulaiman ۔ (عليه السلام) What happened after that? The Qur’an is silent on this. It is for this reason that when someone asked ` Abdullah ibn ` Uyaynah whether Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) had married Bilqis, he answered that her case has finished on this أَسْلَمْتُ مَعَ سُلَيْمَانَ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (I submit, along with Sulaiman (عليه السلام) ، to Allah, the Lord of the worlds – 44). The idea behind this answer was that when Qur’an has not divulged anything after that, it is not for us to probe any further. But Ibn ` Asakir has reported on the authority of Sayyidna ` Ikrimah (رض) that Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) had married Bilqis after that, and she was retained as the sovereign of her country. She was then sent back to Yemen, and Sayyidna Sulaiman (عليه السلام) used to visit her every month for three days. He got three palaces made for her in Yemen, which had no parallel of their kind. (Only God knows best)
قَالُوْا تَقَاسَمُوْا بِاللّٰهِ لَـنُبَيِّتَـنَّهٗ وَاَهْلَهٗ ثُمَّ لَـنَقُوْلَنَّ لِوَلِيِّهٖ مَا شَهِدْنَا مَهْلِكَ اَهْلِهٖ وَاِنَّا لَصٰدِقُوْنَ
We shall attack him (Salih عليه السلام) and his family at night, then will say to his heir, We did not witness the destruction of his family and we are really truthful – 27:49.
The plan was that all of them together should attack him and his companions in the darkness of night, and kill them all. And when the claimant of the blood would make the claim, they would say that they did not kill him, and also they did not know who had killed him. In saying so they would have uttered the truth because no one could have known who had killed whom in the darkness of the night.
The point to note here is that all the acts of infidelity, disbelief, killing and pillage were being performed by the infidels, rather than those among them who were hardened criminals. Yet they were careful that they don’t speak a lie or get blamed for falsehood. This shows how great the sin of falsehood is, that even the perpetrators of heinous crimes avoid it for the sake of their self-respect.
The other thing worth noting in this verse is that the one whom these infidels had mentioned as the Wall or heir of Sayyidna Salili (عليه السلام) was a man of his own family. So, why did they leave him out from being assassinated? The answer to this question is that he might have been the successor from the lineage point of view, but otherwise he could be an infidel and be a party with the infidels. There could have been the consideration that he might claim the compensation for the blood of Sayyidna Salih (عليه السلام) because of his relationship with him. The other possibility is that he might have been a Muslim but enjoyed a prominent position and hence there could have been the risk of uprising and reprisal among the people. Only Allah knows best.
قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ وَسَلٰمٌ عَلٰي عِبَادِهِ الَّذِيْنَ اصْطَفٰى ۭ اٰۗللّٰهُ خَيْرٌ اَمَّا يُشْرِكُوْنَ
This incident has been related at many places in the Qur’an, especially in Surah Al-A` raf, where its necessary details have been discussed and may be consulted if required.
قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ (Say,”Praise belongs to Allah – 27:59). After describing some events of the prophets and earlier people, and the episodes of torments they faced, this sentence is addressed to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، that he should express his gratitude to Allah Ta’ ala, for his followers have been exempted from the punishment in this world. He is further asked to say salam to the earlier prophets and God-fearing persons. Majority of the commentators have adopted this explanation, but some feel that this sentence is also addressed to Sayyidna Lut (عليه السلام) .
It appears that the expression الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَىٰ (His slaves whom He has chosen – 27:59) is used in this verse for the prophets, like in another verse salam has been addressed to the prophets, وَسَلَامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ ﴿١٨١﴾ (And salam is on the messengers – 37:181). But Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) is of the opinion that it refers to the companions of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . This explanation is also adopted by Sufyan Ath-Thauri. (Ibn Jarir)
If the explanation of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) عنہما is adopted and the meaning of الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَىٰ – 27:59 is taken for the companions, then there will be a case for saying “Alaihis Salam” to non-prophets also. This subject will be discussed in detail Inshallah under Surah Al-Ahzab for the verse صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا (33:56).
This verse also teaches the formalities of an address, a sermon or a lecture, that it should start with the praise of Allah and the salah (durood) and salam to the prophets. This had always been the practice of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم in his addresses. His companions also adopted the same practice by commencing not only their addresses but also all the important jobs by praising Allah Ta’ ala and then salah and salam on the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ‘. (Ruh).
اَمَّنْ يُّجِيْبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ اِذَا دَعَاهُ وَيَكْشِفُ السُّوْۗءَ وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَـفَاۗءَ الْاَرْضِ ۭءَاِلٰهٌ مَّعَ اللّٰهِ ۭ قَلِيْلًا مَّا تَذَكَّرُوْنَ
(Or the One who responds to a helpless when he prays to Him and removes distress – 27:62)
Word الْمُضْطَرَّ (Mudtar) is derived from اِضطِرَار (Idtirar), which means to be helpless and restless under some necessity, and that happens when someone does not have any support and friends. Hence, مُضْطَرَّMudtar is that person who has lost all hopes from everyone and has turned to Allah as the sole redresser of his woes. This explanation of Mudtar is adopted by Suddi, Dhun-nun Al-Misri, Sahl ibn ` Abdullah etc. (Qurtubi). The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has advised that such a person should supplicate in the following manner.
اللَّھُمَّ رحمَتَکَ اَرجُوا، فلا تَکِلنِی اِلٰی نَفسِی طَرفَۃَ عَين، وَاَصلِح لِی شَأنِی کُلَّہُ ، لَآ اِلٰہَ اِلَّا اَنتَ
` O Allah, I am an aspirant of your grace. So, please do not leave me at the mercy of myself for a moment, and set right all my matters on Your own. There is no god except You’. (Qurtubi)
Supplication of a Mudtar is surely accepted because of its sincerity
Imam Qurtubi (رح) has said that Allah Ta` ala has taken upon Himself to accept the supplication of a Mudtar. He has made declaration to this effect in this verse. The main reason for it is that by divorcing all mundane supports and connections, beseeching from Allah, while regarding Him as the sole redresser is the sincerity at its best. Sincerity has a special position before Allah Taala. Whoever evinces sincerity, no matter if he is a believer or an infidel, a pious or a sinner, because of the auspiciousness of sincerity the divine favour gets attentive towards him. Allah Ta` ala Himself elaborates this point while describing the traits of the infidels. He has said that when they are in water and the boat is caught in storm, and they are sure of their death, they call out to Allah with all sincerity, saying that they would be thankful to Him forever if He would save their lives. But when Allah Ta` ala rescues them and brings them to land by accepting their supplication, they again indulge in associating Him with gods دَعَوُا اللَّـهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ فَلَمَّا نَجَّاهُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ إِذَا هُمْ يُشْرِكُونَ.
A Sahih hadith of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) says that ` Three supplications are surely accepted, in which there is no room for doubt. One, from an oppressed person, two, by a traveler, and three, from a father against his children’. After citing this hadith, Qurtubi has commented that in all these three cases the situation is the same as the supplication of a Mudtar, because when an oppressed person calls Allah after having been frustrated from mundane support and help, his condition is no different than that of a MOW. Similarly, a traveler is away from his dear ones, hence helpless, while in journey.
Likewise, a father cannot plead for something against his children because of his paternal love and affection for them, unless he is totally dejected and heart-broken, and calls Allah to save himself from the misery of sufferings. ` Ajurri, a scholar of hadith, has quoted on the authority of Sayyidna Abu Dharr4 that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said ` Allah Ta` ala has pronounced that He shall never reject an appeal from an oppressed person, even if it is made by an infidel’. (Qurtubi) If a Mudtar or an oppressed person or a traveler has a feeling that his appeal to Allah has not been accepted, he should not be dejected and be skeptical, because sometimes the request is accepted but its manifestation is delayed due to some expediency and divine wisdom. As an alternative, such a person should search his soul to find out if there was any deficiency in his sincerity or concentration while praying to Allah Ta` ala. (Only Allah knows best) Surah An-Naml : 27:65 – 75
اَمَّنْ يَّبْدَؤُا الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيْدُهٗ وَمَنْ يَّرْزُقُكُمْ مِّنَ السَّمَاۗءِ وَالْاَرْضِ ۭ ءَاِلٰهٌ مَّعَ اللّٰهِ ۭ قُلْ هَاتُوْا بُرْهَانَكُمْ اِنْ كُنْتُمْ صٰدِقِيْنَ
Say, “No one in the heavens and the earth has the knowledge of Unseen except Allah.” – 27:65
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was instructed to tell people that all the creatures that live in the heavens, like angels, and all the creatures that live in this world, like humans and jinns, none of them have any knowledge of the unseen (ghayb) except Allah. In the above-referred verse it has been stated very clearly that it is an exclusive attribute of Allah Ta` ala, and no one else, not even an angel or a prophet, could share this attribute. This subject has been dealt with in detail under verse No. 59 of Surah al-‘am on page No.360 in the 3rd volume. In addition to that, I have written a separate treatise on the subject under the title (کشف الریب عن علم الغیب) which has been published in my book Ahkam-ul Qur’an in arabic. Those who are interested in this subject can refer to that.
اِنَّ هٰذَا الْقُرْاٰنَ يَقُصُّ عَلٰي بَنِيْٓ اِسْرَاۗءِيْلَ اَكْثَرَ الَّذِيْ هُمْ فِيْهِ يَخْتَلِفُوْنَ
By describing Allah’s omnipotence through different examples in the earlier verses, the reality of the Hereafter and the rational possibility of resurrection of the dead has been established. There is no logical ambiguity in that. Its definite occurrence is confirmed by the sayings of the prophets and the divine books that were revealed to them. Authenticity and establishment of any information is based on the veracity of the courier or the narrator. In this verse it is stated that the informant of this news is the Holy Qur’an whose authenticity and truthfulness is beyond any doubt or contradiction. So much so that in matters in which the scholars of Bani Isra’il had differed strongly and could not resolve them, the Qur’an has given them evaluated verdict to follow for correct judgment. It is but obvious that in matters where there is difference of opinion among the scholars, the only competent authority to overrule is the one who is superior in knowledge and status. Therefore, it is established that Qur’an is an authentic informant. After this the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was consoled that he need not be despondent over their antagonism. ‘Allah Ta’ ala is to make judgment Himself in his case. He should have faith in Allah, because Allah’s help and aid is with the truth. And there is no doubt that he is on the right path’. (Verse 79).
اِنَّكَ لَا تُسْمِعُ الْمَوْتٰى وَلَاتُسْمِعُ الصُّمَّ الدُّعَاۗءَ اِذَا وَلَّوْا مُدْبِرِيْنَ
It was the demand of love and affection the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had for all human beings that he should save them all from the fire of jahannam by making them accept the message of Allah. It used to hurt him a lot if someone did not accept it. He used to feel as if someone’s children were proceeding toward the fire by not heeding to the advice of his parents.
Therefore, Qur’an has adopted different expressions to console him at many places. One such advice was contained in the sentence وَلَا تَحْزَنْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا تَكُن فِي ضَيْقٍ مِّمَّا يَمْكُرُونَ (And do not grieve for them, and do not be straitened because of what they plan – 27:70) which has appeared in the earlier verse. In the above verse he has been consoled in a slightly different manner, that his job was only to convey the message of truth, which he had done admirably. If someone had not accepted this, it was not his fault or deficiency. So, he need not worry and be despondent. Rather it is their own fault that they have lost their sense of direction. Qur’an has described the loss of their sense of direction by presenting three examples. First, that they were like dead bodies in the matter of acceptance of truth, and thus cannot take any one’s advice to their advantage. Second, that they were like the deaf man who does not wish to hear anything, rather they turn their back and go away if someone tries to give them any advice. Third, that they were like the blind that cannot see even if someone tries to show them the path. After providing these three examples it is said:
وَمَآ اَنْتَ بِهٰدِي الْعُمْىِ عَنْ ضَلٰلَتِهِمْ ۭ اِنْ تُسْمِعُ اِلَّا مَنْ يُّؤْمِنُ بِاٰيٰتِنَا فَهُمْ مُّسْلِمُوْنَ
You can make no one listen (to you) except those who believe in Our verses, then submit themselves (to Allah). 27:81.
It is very clear that in the subject under discussion it is not purported to make the voice reach the listener, but what is intended here is that what is conveyed should be beneficial to the addressee. The Qur’an has defined the audition as non-audition if it is not beneficial from the objective point of view. This point is elaborated at the end of the verse where it is stated that you can cause to hear only those who are willing to believe. Should it mean to make them hear only, then the statement of the Qur’an would have been contrary to facts and observations, because there are many undeniable proofs that divine message was conveyed to the disbelievers, which they not only listened but also answered to reject. It is therefore, quite clear that here causing to hear means the under-standing which is beneficial. Then by calling them as dead bodies, it is further emphasized that you cannot make them realize the truth, because even if the dead, could hear and wish to accept the truth, it would not be to their avail. The dead have passed through the worldly life, where faith and good deeds did matter. After the death, both in Barzakh and the Hereafter, all infidels and disbelievers would wish for faith and righteous deeds, but then it would be too late. This statement of the verse does not bear out that the dead cannot hear. In fact this verse is silent on the subject of hearing by the dead. This subject needs separate study which follows:
Can the dead persons hear?
The issue, whether the dead can hear or not, was one of the subjects on which the exalted companions of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم had different points of view. Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Umar (رض) has declared the hearing of the dead as established, but Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) has negated this understanding. Because of this difference of opinion there are two groups among the companions and the tab an (generation next to them). Some believe that the dead do hear, while others deny it. This subject is mentioned in the Qur’ an at three places. One is the same as referred above in Surah An-Naml. The other is in Surah Ar-RUm with almost similar wordings, and in Surah Al-F atir it has appeared with these words وَمَا أَنتَ بِمُسْمِعٍ مَّن فِي الْقُبُورِ, that is, ` You cannot cause those who are inthe graves to hear’. It is worth noting in all the three verses that none of them has declared that the dead cannot hear. The expression used in each one of the three verses is that ‘you cannot cause them to hear’. The consistent expression used in all the three verses seems to be a clear indication that the dead may have the ability to hear but we cannot cause them to listen to us.
As against these three verses, another verse relating to martyrs reveals that they are bestowed with a special type of life in their graves. In this special life they also get food and are conveyed good tidings from Allah Ta` ala about their dear ones . The verse reads as:
وَلَا تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ أَمْوَاتًا ۚ بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ ﴿169﴾ فَرِحِينَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّـهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَيَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِالَّذِينَ لَمْ يَلْحَقُوا بِهِم مِّنْ خَلْفِهِمْ أَلَّا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ ﴿170﴾
And never take those killed in the way of Allah as dead. Rather they are alive, with their Lord, well-provided, happy with what Allah has given them of His grace; and they feel pleased with the good news, about those who after them could not join them, that there shall be no fear for them, nor shall they grieve. (3:169-170)
This verse corroborates that even after death some intellect and perception may be left behind in the human spirit. Rather in the case of martyrs there is a hint that such a thing does happen. As for the argument that this position relates only to the martyrs, to whom the verse refers, and not to the ordinary dead, its answer is that at least it tells that after death some intellect and perception and understanding of the world may be left behind in the human spirit. The way Allah Ta` ala has bestowed upon martyrs the honour of maintaining the connection of their spirits with their bodies and graves, He can also grace the other dead with th same ability. Sayyidna ` Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، holds the view that dead do hear. This view is based on a Sahih Hadith, which is reported by Sayyidna ` Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . It is as follows:
عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ مَرْفُوعًا: مَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ يَمُرُّ بِقَبْرِ أَخِيهِ الْمُسْلِمِ، كَانَ يَعْرِفُهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا، فَيُسَلِّمُ عَلَيْهِ، إِلَّا رَدَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ رُوحَهُ، حَتَّى يَرُدَّ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامَ. تفسير ابن كثير ت سلامة (6/ 325)
` When a person passes by the grave of a Muslim brother whom he knew when he was alive and he offers salam to him, Allah Ta` ala returns his spirit into his body, so that he may return the salam’. (Ibn Kathir, declaring it as Sahih)
This also proves that when a person visits the grave of a Muslim brother and offers him his salam, the dead listens to his salam and answers back. It happens like this that Allah Ta` ala returns the spirit of the dead back to this world momentarily. It confirms two points. One, that dead can hear, and second, that their hearing and our causing them to hear is not in our control, but is dependent entirely on Allah’s will. Whenever He wills, they can hear and whenever He does not will, they do not hear. The above referred hadtth has made it clear that Allah Ta` ala is gracious to let the dead hear the salam of a Muslim brother, and also grants him privilege to answer back. But for any other situation or utterance it is not known whether the dead can hear or not.
The research carried out by Imam Ghazzali and Allamah Subki also corroborates that it is established by this Qur’anic verse and Sahih ahadtth that under certain conditions the dead do hear the utterance of the living, but it is not known whether every dead person hears the utterance at all times of all those who are living. This also makes the Qur’anic verse and narrations on the subject comparable. It is quite possible that the dead could hear the utterance of the living at certain times and could not hear at others. This is also possible that they may hear the utterance of some and do not hear of others. Yet there is another possibility that some dead could hear and others could not. It is also established by the verses of Surahs An-Naml, Ar-Rum and Fatir that it is not under the control of human beings to cause the dead to hear; rather it rests with Allah alone to make them hear whenever He wills. Therefore, where it is established by the Sahih ahadith that the dead did hear, we should believe it; and where it is not established, both the situations are possible . Hence, we should neither accept nor deny it. For further details of the subject, my treatise on the subject may be consulted. This treatise is in Arabic and is included in Ahkam-ul-Qur’an.
وَاِذَا وَقَعَ الْقَوْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ اَخْرَجْنَا لَهُمْ دَاۗبَّةً مِّنَ الْاَرْضِ تُكَلِّمُهُمْ ۙ اَنَّ النَّاسَ كَانُوْا بِاٰيٰتِنَا لَا يُوْقِنُوْنَ
The nature of the beast coming out of the earth, and its time and place
It is reported in Musnad of Ahmad on the authority of Sayyidna Hudhaifah (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said that the Doomsday would not come until you witness ten signs of it. They are:
(1) Appearance of the sun from the west.
(2) Dukhan (Smoke).
(3) Dabba-tul-ard, i.e the beast coming out of the earth
(4) Coming out of Ya’ juj and Ma’ juj.
(5) Descent of Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) .
7, 8, 9) Three lunar eclipses together – one in the west, second in the east and the third in the peninsula of Arabia.
10) A fire, that will emerge from the Gulf of Aden and drive every one towards the plain of mahshar; wherever people will stop for the rest at night, the fire will also stop there, and will drive them again the next day. (Muslim, Tirmidhi)
This hadith has informed us of the emergence of such an animal close to Doomsday that will talk to human beings. The Tannin of the word Dabbah indicates that this animal will be extra-ordinary. This animal will not be born by the normal way of propagation; instead, it will emerge from the ground all of a sudden. There is an allusion in this hadith that the emergence of this animal would be one of the very last signs, after which the Doomsday will follow soon. Ibn Kathir has reported in a lengthy hadith on the authority of Sayyidna Talhah ibn ‘Umar through Abu Dawud Tayalisi that this beast will emerge in Makkah from the mount of Sara, and after cleaning the dust from its head will reach at a point between the Black Stone (Al-Hajar-al-Aswad) and the Station of Ibrahim (Magam Ibrahim). Seeing this creature , people will start running helter-skelter. Only one group of people will stay behind. Then the beast will make their faces glitter like stars. After that it will go out in the world, and put a sign of infidelity on the face of every infidel. No one will be able to get out of its grasp. It will recognize every believer and the infidel (Ibn Kathir). And Muslim Ibn Hajjaj has reported on the authority of Sayyidna ` Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) that he had heard the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) saying, which he did not forget, that among the last signs of the Doomsday the first would be the rising of the sun from the west, and after that Dabbah would come out. Out of the two signs whichever appears first, the Doomsday will follow soon. (Ibn Kathir)
Shaikh Jalaluddin Mahalli (رح) has said that after the appearance of Dabbah the obligation of inviting others to good deeds and forbidding them from the evils will cease to apply, and no infidel would convert to Islam after that. This statement is inferred from many ahadith and the statements of Sahabah. (Mazhari). Ibn Kathir has related many a things about the appearance and activities of Dabbah, most of which are not trustworthy. Therefore, only that much should be trusted and believed which is contained in the Qur’an and authentic ahadith. Anything beyond that should be discarded, as it is neither of any value nor benefit.
As for the question as to what this Dabbah will converse with people, some commentators are of the view that it will communicate what is stated in the Qur’an, that is أَنَّ النَّاسَ كَانُوا بِآيَاتِنَا لَا يُوقِنُونَ (that the human beings did not believe in Our verses). It will communicate the message on behalf of Allah Ta` ala that ` Many did not believe Our verses before this’. It would mean that now the time has come that every one would believe, but then it would be too late, because it would not be acceptable then. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah رحمۃ اللہ علیہما ، have reported, which is corroborated by a narration of Sayyidna also, that the Dabbah will converse with people normally, as people do among themselves (Ibn Kathir).
وَيَوْمَ نَحْشُرُ مِنْ كُلِّ اُمَّةٍ فَوْجًا مِّمَّنْ يُّكَذِّبُ بِاٰيٰتِنَا فَهُمْ يُوْزَعُوْنَ
(and they will be kept under control – 27:83), The word used here is derived from Waz’, which means to stop. The sense here is that the people in front will be stopped, so that those left behind could catch up. Some have taken the word Waz’ in the sense of ‘pushing’. Hence, it would mean that they would be pushed while being brought to their stand.
وَلَمْ تُحِيطُوا بِهَا عِلْمًا (while you did not comprehend them with knowledge – 27:84). There is an allusion in this verse that falsifying the message of Allah Ta` ala is by itself a great sin, especially when one falsifies it without giving any consideration or thought, then the crime is doubled. This has brought to light that if an issue or subject is duly considered and thought over, and yet one could not get to the truth, in that situation the intensity of the crime is reduced. Nevertheless, the denial of the existence of Allah and His Oneness would not save any one from infidelity and adoption of the wrong path, and would thus lead to perpetual torment. It is because they are such self-evident matters that any mistake of judgment is not allowed in them.
وَ يَوْمَ يُنْفَخُ فِي الصُّوْرِ فَفَزِعَ مَنْ فِي السَّمٰوٰتِ وَمَنْ فِي الْاَرْضِ اِلَّا مَنْ شَاۗءَ اللّٰهُ ۭ وَكُلٌّ اَتَوْهُ دٰخِرِيْنَ
وَيَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ فَفَزِعَ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ (And [ remember ] the day when the Horn will be blown; so all those in the heavens and the earth will be in panic – 27:87). The word فَزِعَ faza’ means being nervous or perplexed. In another verse on the same subject the word فَزِعَ Fazi’a is substituted by صَعِقَ ` Sa’ iqa which means losing consciousness. If both these verses are taken to refer to the first blowing of the Sur (the Horn) then the total sum of the two words would be that, at the time of the blowing of the Sur, everyone will get nervous and perplexed initially, and then will lose consciousness, and ultimately will die. Qatadah and some other Imams of tafsir have taken this verse for the second blowing of the Sur, when all the dead will resurrect. Thus the meaning of the verse would be that all the dead would get up perplexed. Some have interpreted that Sur will be blown thrice. On the first blowing, everyone will get nervous and perplexed, which is called ‘the blowing of فَزِعَ faza’. On the second blowing everyone will die, which is ‘the blowing of صَعِقَ Sa` aqa. The third blowing will be the blowing for the resurrection, on which all dead will get up. But only two blowings are mentioned in the Qur’an and Sahih ahadith. (Qurtubi, Ibn Kathir). Ibn Mubarak has quoted Hasan al-Basri (رح) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said that there will be a forty years gap in between the two blowings. (Qurtubi)
إِلَّا مَن شَاءَ اللَّـهُ (except such as Allah wills – 27:87). This exception is from Faza’, which means panic and perplexity. The sense is that there will be people who will not be nervous at all at the time of resurrection. There is a hadith reported by Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض) that these people would be the martyrs. At the time of second life on resurrection they will not get nervous. (This is a Sahih hadith according to Ibn al-` Arabi – Qurtubi). Sayyidna Said ibn Jubair (رض) has also said that the exception applies to the martyrs, who will assemble around the ` Arsh wearing their swords. Quashiri has observed that prophets are the very first included among them, because they have the status of martyrs also, and their position as prophet is still higher. (Qurtubi)
The following verse will appear later in Surah Az-Zumar:
وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَصَعِقَ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَن فِي الْأَرْضِ إِلَّا مَن شَاءَ اللَّـهُ
For the Trumpet shall be blown and whosoever is in the heavens and whosoever is in the earth shall swoon, save whom Allah wills – 39:68.
This verse tells us that when the Horn will be blown, all those in the heavens and the earth will get unconscious, and then die. Here also an exception is made, which according to one hadith is meant for six angels, namely Jibra’il, Mik` ail, Israfil, Malakul-Maut and Hamalatul- ‘Arsh, who will not die by the blow of Sur. Later, they will also die, as explained in the hadith. Those who have held that Faza’ and Sa’aqa both relate to the same blowing, they have taken the exception, here as well, for the special angels, like Surah Az-Zumar. But those who have held that Faza’ and Sa’aqa relate to two different blowings, they interpret the exception in the present verse as referring to the martyrs, as explained above.
وَتَرَى الْجِبَالَ تَحْسَبُهَا جَامِدَةً وَّهِىَ تَمُــرُّ مَرَّ السَّحَابِ ۭ صُنْعَ اللّٰهِ الَّذِيْٓ اَتْقَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۭ اِنَّهٗ خَبِيْرٌۢ بِمَا تَفْعَلُوْنَ
And you see the mountains (at present) taking them as fixed, while they will fly like the flight of clouds – 27:88
The word تَرَى in the beginning of this verse is used in Arabic for both present and future tense. Therefore, it can be translated as “You see” or as “You will see”. In the latter case, the verse would be referring to the mountains as they will appear on the Doomsday. The sense in that case will be that the mountains will be uprooted and blown like clouds, which though would appear stationary to the onlookers, but in reality will actually move swiftly. When huge bodies, whose beginning and end is not visible to the eyes, move in any direction, one does not perceive their movement, no matter how swiftly they move. They look like stationary objects, although they are moving.
One could experience this while looking at a mass of cloud hanging overhead. One discovers their movement only when they move out so far away that a part of the sky is left bare towards the horizon. Based on this principle, the verse means that the mountains will seem, on the Doomsday, as if they are fixed, but it will be an illusion for an onlooker, because in reality they will be moving. Most of the commentators have interpreted this verse in this manner. The other interpretation is based on regarding the word “tara” as a verb in the present tense and translating it as,”You see” instead of “You will see”. In this case, the verse is referring to the present state of the mountains, as they look stationary, and an ordinary onlooker thinks that they will remain fixed forever and will never move from their place, but on the Doomsday they will be floating like clouds. This interpretation is adopted by Maulana Ashraf Thanawi (رح) (and on that basis the verse is translated above as “You see” )
Some scholars have pointed out that different conditions are described in the Qur’an about mountains on the Doomsday. The first condition is that of اِندکاک Indkak and earthquake, which will envelop all the mountains of the world إِذَا دُكَّتِ الْأَرْضُ دَكًّا (When the earth is ground to powder-89:21) or إِذَا زُلْزِلَتِ الْأَرْضُ زِلْزَالَهَا (When the earth is shaken with a mighty shaking – 99:1). The second condition is that their big rocks will become like carded wool وَتَكُونُ الْجِبَالُ كَالْعِهْنِ الْمَنفُوشِ (And the mountains shall be like plucked wool-tufts – 101:5). This will happen at the time when the sky will become like molten copper. Mountain rocks will go up like carded wool, and the skies will come down and meet them in the middle يَوْمَ تَكُونُ السَّمَاءُ كَالْمُهْلِ وَتَكُونُ الْجِبَالُ كَالْعِهْنِ (Upon the day when heaven shall be as molten copper and the mountains shall be as plucked wool-tufts – 70:8-9).
In the third condition the carded wool will no more remain a homogeneous body like rocks, but will turn into very fine particles وَبُسَّتِ الْجِبَالُ بَسًّا ﴿٥﴾ فَكَانَتْ هَبَاءً مُّنبَثًّا (and the mountains crumbled and become a dust scattered – 56:5-6). In the fourth condition, the fine particles of mountain rocks will get dispersed يَنسِفُهَا رَبِّي نَسْفًا (So, you say, “My Lord will blow them up totally (as dust) – 20:105). In the fifth condition, the fine particles of mountain rocks, which will engulf the land like cloud of dust will be driven up by the winds. This cloud of dust will cover up the whole world, and will appear stationary, although there will be swift movement in it like clouds تَرَى الْجِبَالَ تَحْسَبُهَا جَامِدَةً وَهِيَ تَمُرُّ مَرَّ السَّحَابِ (And you see the mountains (at present) taking them as fixed, while they will fly like the flight of clouds – 27:88). Some of these conditions will take place at the first blowing of the Sur, and some after the second blowing, when the world will be made absolutely flat plain. There will be no caves or mountains left in the world, nor will there be any building or tree فَقُلْ يَنسِفُهَا رَبِّي نَسْفًا فَيَذَرُهَا قَاعًا صَفْصَفًا لَّا تَرَىٰ فِيهَا عِوَجًا وَلَا أَمْتًا (20:105-107). (Qurtubi, Ruh ul-Ma ani)
صُنْعَ اللَّـهِ الَّذِي أَتْقَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ
An act of Allah who has perfected every thing. – 27:88
Sun’ means skillful act, and ‘itqan’ means to make perfect and firm. Apparently this sentence is related to all the preceding subjects wherein Allah Ta` ala’s omnipotence and marvelous creations are described, where the alteration of day and night is mentioned, and the blowing of Sur and resulting conditions of the Doomsday are related. It is to emphasize that all these situations should not amaze and astonish any one, because their Creator is not a man or an angel having limited knowledge and power, but the Lord of all the worlds. But if this sentence is read as referring only to the adjacent preceding sentence تَرَى الْجِبَالَ تَحْسَبُهَا جَامِدَةً (And you see the mountains (at present) taking them as fixed – 27:88) then it would mean that the phenomenon about the mountains, that they look stationary, whereas in reality they are moving, is not something astonishing, because all these happenings are not beyond the power of Allah Ta` ala, who is All Powerful.
مَنْ جَاۗءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهٗ خَيْرٌ مِّنْهَا ۚ وَهُمْ مِّنْ فَزَعٍ يَّوْمَىِٕذٍ اٰمِنُوْنَ
“Whoever will come with the good deed will have (a reward) better than that” – 27:89
This description relates to the situation that will take place after the Doomsday and the account taking. Here the word hasanah is purported for the kalimah of لا إله إلا اللہ محمد رسول اللہ (as explained by Ibrahim) or it is an expression of sincerity (as interpreted by Qatadah). Some have interpreted this to include complete submission. The sense is that every good deed will be recompensed by a reward better than the deed; but it should be remembered that a person’s righteous acts could be considered as righteous only when he fulfills its first condition of having faith in Allah Ta` ala. Then he would get an award better than commensurable to his good deeds. It means that he would be graced with eternal bounties of the Paradise, and would escape from all troubles and torments for good. Some have interpreted that the word “better” means here that the reward of one good deed would be awarded from ten times to seven hundred times more. (Mazhari)
وَهُم مِّن فَزَعٍ يَوْمَئِذٍ آمِنُونَ
and such people will be immune on that day from any panic -27:89.
Word Faza’ is purported here for any big calamity or perplexity. Thus the meaning of the sentence is that, while living in this world, every pious person is scared of his fate in the Hereafter, and as a matter of fact, he should be scared in the light of Qur’anic verse إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّهِمْ غَيْرُ مَأْمُونٍ (70:28). The torment of Allah is not something to be forgotten and set aside. It is for this reason that even the prophets, the companions, and saints were always frightened and daunted. But after the account taking on Doomsday those who would bring the hasanah (the good deed contemplated in this verse) with them would be free from all fear and grief, and will live forever in complete tranquility. (Only Allah knows best)
اِنَّمَآ اُمِرْتُ اَنْ اَعْبُدَ رَبَّ هٰذِهِ الْبَلْدَةِ الَّذِيْ حَرَّمَهَا وَلَهٗ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ ۡ وَّاُمِرْتُ اَنْ اَكُوْنَ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِيْنَ
رَبَّ هَـٰذِهِ الْبَلْدَةِ (the Lord of this city – 27:91). Majority of the commentators have taken the word o=ff “Baldah” (the city) for Makkah. Allah Ta’ ala is the Lord of all the worlds and the Lord of heavens and earth. Therefore, the particular mention of Makkah here is to show its revered splendor, and its respect and honour in the sight of Allah Ta a1a. Word Haram is derived from Tahrim, which means “to prohibit” and also means “complete respect and veneration”, and because of this respect and veneration whatever special religious prohibitions are applicable to Makkah and its surrounding land are also included in it. For instance, whoever takes refuge in Haram is secured. It is not allowed to kill or take revenge from anyone in the Haram. Even hunting of animals and cutting of trees is not permitted in the precincts of Haram. These restrictions are enjoined in the verse وَمَن دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا (and whoever enters there is secure – 3:97), while some of them have appeared in the beginning of Surah Ma’ idah. In addition, verse لَا تَقْتُلُوا الصَّيْدَ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ (do not kill game when, you are in Ihram – 5:95) also includes this subject.
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
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