Surah Nisa Ayat 113 In Arabic
وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَهَمَّتْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْهُمْ أَنْ يُضِلُّوكَ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلَّا أَنْفُسَهُمْ ۖ وَمَا يَضُرُّونَكَ مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۚ وَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمْ تَكُنْ تَعْلَمُ ۚ وَكَانَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ عَظِيمًا ﴿113﴾
Surah Nisa Ayat 113 Transliteration
Wa law laa fadlul laahi ‘alaika wa rahmatuhoo lahammat taaa’ifatum minhum ai yudillooka wa maa yudilloona illaaa anfusahum wa maa yadurroonaka min shai’; wa anzalal laahu ‘alaikal Kitaaba wal Hikmata wa ‘allamaka maa lam takun ta’lam; wa kaana fadlul laahi ‘alaika ‘azeemaa
Surah Nisa Ayat 113 Translation
But for the grace of Allah upon thee (Muhammad), and His mercy, a party of them had resolved to mislead thee, but they will mislead only themselves and they will hurt thee not at all. Allah revealeth unto thee the Scripture and wisdom, and teacheth thee that which thou knewest not. The grace of Allah toward thee hath been infinite.
Addressing the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) in the ninth verse (113), it has been said: It was Allah’s grace and mercy that He revealed to you the reality behind the event of theft, otherwise these people would have misled you into error. But, since you are not alone, Allah’s grace and mercy is with you, these people can never mislead you into error.
On the contrary, they themselves fall into error. Be sure that these people cannot harm you in any way whatsoever because Allah has revealed the Book and wisdom to you and taught you what you did not know.
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and Ijtihad
From verse 105 which begins with the words: إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ (Surely we have revealed to you the book with the truth) helps estab¬lish five rulings:
- The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had the right to arrive at his judgement in situations not covered by an explicit authority given in the Holy Qur’an. In situations of major importance, there were many decisions he took by his Ijtihad.
- The second rule that emerges from here is inseparably linked with the authenticity of Ijtihad. It means that, in the sight of Allah, an Ijtihad can be considered trustworthy only when it is based on and is deduced from Qur’anic principles and the clear authority of its text. Simple opinions or views are not trustworthy, nor can they be termed as Ijtihad in the sense recognized in Shari’ ah.
- The third rule of guidance we get to know is that the Ijtihad done by the Holy Prophet al was not like that done by Mujtahid Imams where the probability of an error of judgement always remains. As for the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، when he took a decision on the basis of his Ijtihad any possible error in the judgment would always stand corrected by Allah Almighty. Therefore, when he took a decision based on his Ijtihad and nothing against it came from Almighty Allah, then, this was an indicator that the decision taken finds favour with Allah and is correct in His sight.
- The fourth rule of guidance we come to know is: at the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) understood from the Qur’an was nothing but what Almighty Allah had Himself made him understand. A possibility of misunderstanding just did not exist there. This is contrary to the case of other ` Ulama and Mujtahidin whose understanding of the Qur’-an cannot be attributed to Almighty Allah in the sense that it was what Allah had told them. You will realize the difference when you carefully look at بِماٰ اَراکَ اللہُ (with the insight Allah has given to you) which refers to the noble Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلمin this very verse. This is why – when someone said to Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) عنہ (Decide as Allah shows you to) – he scolded him by saying: This is special to the Prophet of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)
- The fifth ruling we deduce from here is that pursuing or advo¬cating a false case or a false claim or to second or support them is totally Haram (forbidden).
The Reality of Repentance
Verse no which begins with the words: وَمَن يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا أَوْ يَظْلِمْ نَفْسَهُ tells us that all sins, whether they affect others or affect one’s own self, that is, whether they violate the rights of human beings (Huququl-‘Ibad) or rights of Allah (Huququllah), can be forgiven by one’s repenting and praying for forgiveness. But; it is necessary to know the reality of showing repentance and seeking forgiveness. Mere verbal declarations of ‘I seek Allah’s forgiveness’ (Astaghfirullah) and ‘I turn to Him in repentance’ (Wa atubu ilaihi) are not acts of genuine repentance as such. Therefore, according to a consensus of ` Ulama, the person who is involved in some sin, is not ashamed of it and does not leave it or, at least, does not resolve to leave it in the future, then, his verbal declar¬ation of Astaghfirullah is an open mockery of repentance.
In short, for repentance (Taubah) to be genuine, three things are necessary:
- Being ashamed of past sins.
- Immediately leaving the sin one is in.
- Resolving to stay away from sin in future.
However, forgiveness for sins related to the rights of the servants of Allah has to be sought from the wronged party itself; or, one should, to begin with, pay what was due or fulfill what was denied. These are binding conditions of genuine repentance.
Attributing one’s sins to others brings added punishment
From verse 112 – اَلخ وَمَن يَكْسِبْ خَطِيئَةً أَوْ إِثْمًا ثُمَّ يَرْمِ بِهِ we know that a person who himself commits a sin, then goes on to ascribe it to an innocent man, does something terrible – he doubles and hardens his sin. He has made himself deserving of severe punishment, the punishment of his own sin, then the added punishment for lying and accusing falsely.
The Reality of Qur’an and Sunnah
In verse 113: وَأَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمْ تَكُن تَعْلَمُ (And Allah has revealed to you the Book and the wisdom and has taught you what you did not know), by pairing al-Kitab (the Book) and al-Hikmah (the Wisdom) it has been pointed out that . Hikmah which is the name of the Sunnah and teachings of the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was also sent down by none but Allah Almighty. The difference is that its words are not from Allah and that is why they are not part of the Qur’an. But, its meanings and that of the Qur’an are certainly from Allah, therefore, it is obligatory to act in accordance with both.
This explains what some jurists say about Wahy (Revelation) being of two kinds: Matluww – that which is recited, and Ghayr-Matluww – that which is not recited. Wahy Matluww or the revelation which is recited is the name of the Qur’an – the words and meanings of which are both from Allah. And Ghayr-Matluww or that which is not recited is the name of the Hadith of the Rasul the words of which are from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and the meanings of which are from Allah.
Another problem which gets resolved from the words: وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمْ تَكُن تَعْلَمُ (and taught you what you did not know) (113) is that the noble Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) did not have the all-comprehending knowledge of the entire universe equal to Almighty Allah, as some ignorant people do insist. The truth is that the measure of his knowledge was corre¬sponding to what Allah bestowed upon him. However, there is no doubt that the knowledge bestowed upon the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) exceeds the combined knowledge of all created beings.
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
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