Surah An-Nahl In Arabic
أَتَىٰ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلُوهُ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿1﴾ يُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَائِكَةَ بِالرُّوحِ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَىٰ مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ أَنْ أَنْذِرُوا أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاتَّقُونِ ﴿2﴾ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ ۚ تَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿3﴾ خَلَقَ الْإِنْسَانَ مِنْ نُطْفَةٍ فَإِذَا هُوَ خَصِيمٌ مُبِينٌ ﴿4﴾ وَالْأَنْعَامَ خَلَقَهَا ۗ لَكُمْ فِيهَا دِفْءٌ وَمَنَافِعُ وَمِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ ﴿5﴾ وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا جَمَالٌ حِينَ تُرِيحُونَ وَحِينَ تَسْرَحُونَ ﴿6﴾ وَتَحْمِلُ أَثْقَالَكُمْ إِلَىٰ بَلَدٍ لَمْ تَكُونُوا بَالِغِيهِ إِلَّا بِشِقِّ الْأَنْفُسِ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ لَرَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ ﴿7﴾ وَالْخَيْلَ وَالْبِغَالَ وَالْحَمِيرَ لِتَرْكَبُوهَا وَزِينَةً ۚ وَيَخْلُقُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿8﴾ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ قَصْدُ السَّبِيلِ وَمِنْهَا جَائِرٌ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ لَهَدَاكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ ﴿9﴾ هُوَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً ۖ لَكُمْ مِنْهُ شَرَابٌ وَمِنْهُ شَجَرٌ فِيهِ تُسِيمُونَ ﴿10﴾ يُنْبِتُ لَكُمْ بِهِ الزَّرْعَ وَالزَّيْتُونَ وَالنَّخِيلَ وَالْأَعْنَابَ وَمِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ ۗ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ ﴿11﴾ وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ ۖ وَالنُّجُومُ مُسَخَّرَاتٌ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ ﴿12﴾ وَمَا ذَرَأَ لَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُخْتَلِفًا أَلْوَانُهُ ۗ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لِقَوْمٍ يَذَّكَّرُونَ ﴿13﴾ وَهُوَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ الْبَحْرَ لِتَأْكُلُوا مِنْهُ لَحْمًا طَرِيًّا وَتَسْتَخْرِجُوا مِنْهُ حِلْيَةً تَلْبَسُونَهَا وَتَرَى الْفُلْكَ مَوَاخِرَ فِيهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِهِ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿14﴾ وَأَلْقَىٰ فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَنْ تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ وَأَنْهَارًا وَسُبُلًا لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ ﴿15﴾ وَعَلَامَاتٍ ۚ وَبِالنَّجْمِ هُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ ﴿16﴾ أَفَمَنْ يَخْلُقُ كَمَنْ لَا يَخْلُقُ ۗ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ ﴿17﴾ وَإِنْ تَعُدُّوا نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ لَا تُحْصُوهَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ ﴿18﴾ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُسِرُّونَ وَمَا تُعْلِنُونَ ﴿19﴾ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ لَا يَخْلُقُونَ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ ﴿20﴾ أَمْوَاتٌ غَيْرُ أَحْيَاءٍ ۖ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ أَيَّانَ يُبْعَثُونَ ﴿21﴾ إِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۚ فَالَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ قُلُوبُهُمْ مُنْكِرَةٌ وَهُمْ مُسْتَكْبِرُونَ ﴿22﴾ لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْتَكْبِرِينَ ﴿23﴾ وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ مَاذَا أَنْزَلَ رَبُّكُمْ ۙ قَالُوا أَسَاطِيرُ الْأَوَّلِينَ ﴿24﴾ لِيَحْمِلُوا أَوْزَارَهُمْ كَامِلَةً يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۙ وَمِنْ أَوْزَارِ الَّذِينَ يُضِلُّونَهُمْ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ أَلَا سَاءَ مَا يَزِرُونَ ﴿25﴾ قَدْ مَكَرَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ فَأَتَى اللَّهُ بُنْيَانَهُمْ مِنَ الْقَوَاعِدِ فَخَرَّ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّقْفُ مِنْ فَوْقِهِمْ وَأَتَاهُمُ الْعَذَابُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ ﴿26﴾ ثُمَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُخْزِيهِمْ وَيَقُولُ أَيْنَ شُرَكَائِيَ الَّذِينَ كُنْتُمْ تُشَاقُّونَ فِيهِمْ ۚ قَالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ إِنَّ الْخِزْيَ الْيَوْمَ وَالسُّوءَ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿27﴾ الَّذِينَ تَتَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ ۖ فَأَلْقَوُا السَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ مِنْ سُوءٍ ۚ بَلَىٰ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿28﴾ فَادْخُلُوا أَبْوَابَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ فَلَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ ﴿29﴾ وَقِيلَ لِلَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا مَاذَا أَنْزَلَ رَبُّكُمْ ۚ قَالُوا خَيْرًا ۗ لِلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا فِي هَٰذِهِ الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةٌ ۚ وَلَدَارُ الْآخِرَةِ خَيْرٌ ۚ وَلَنِعْمَ دَارُ الْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿30﴾ جَنَّاتُ عَدْنٍ يَدْخُلُونَهَا تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ لَهُمْ فِيهَا مَا يَشَاءُونَ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَجْزِي اللَّهُ الْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿31﴾ الَّذِينَ تَتَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ طَيِّبِينَ ۙ يَقُولُونَ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمُ ادْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿32﴾ هَلْ يَنْظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَنْ تَأْتِيَهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ أَوْ يَأْتِيَ أَمْرُ رَبِّكَ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ فَعَلَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ وَمَا ظَلَمَهُمُ اللَّهُ وَلَٰكِنْ كَانُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ ﴿33﴾ فَأَصَابَهُمْ سَيِّئَاتُ مَا عَمِلُوا وَحَاقَ بِهِمْ مَا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ ﴿34﴾ وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا عَبَدْنَا مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ نَحْنُ وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمْنَا مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ فَعَلَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ فَهَلْ عَلَى الرُّسُلِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ ﴿35﴾ وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ ۖ فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ هَدَى اللَّهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ الضَّلَالَةُ ۚ فَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ ﴿36﴾ إِنْ تَحْرِصْ عَلَىٰ هُدَاهُمْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي مَنْ يُضِلُّ ۖ وَمَا لَهُمْ مِنْ نَاصِرِينَ ﴿37﴾ وَأَقْسَمُوا بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ ۙ لَا يَبْعَثُ اللَّهُ مَنْ يَمُوتُ ۚ بَلَىٰ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّا وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿38﴾ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي يَخْتَلِفُونَ فِيهِ وَلِيَعْلَمَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا كَاذِبِينَ ﴿39﴾ إِنَّمَا قَوْلُنَا لِشَيْءٍ إِذَا أَرَدْنَاهُ أَنْ نَقُولَ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ ﴿40﴾ وَالَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا فِي اللَّهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا ظُلِمُوا لَنُبَوِّئَنَّهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً ۖ وَلَأَجْرُ الْآخِرَةِ أَكْبَرُ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿41﴾ الَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ ﴿42﴾ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ إِلَّا رِجَالًا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ فَاسْأَلُوا أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿43﴾ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالزُّبُرِ ۗ وَأَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ ﴿44﴾ أَفَأَمِنَ الَّذِينَ مَكَرُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ أَنْ يَخْسِفَ اللَّهُ بِهِمُ الْأَرْضَ أَوْ يَأْتِيَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ ﴿45﴾ أَوْ يَأْخُذَهُمْ فِي تَقَلُّبِهِمْ فَمَا هُمْ بِمُعْجِزِينَ ﴿46﴾ أَوْ يَأْخُذَهُمْ عَلَىٰ تَخَوُّفٍ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ لَرَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ ﴿47﴾ أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا إِلَىٰ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ مِنْ شَيْءٍ يَتَفَيَّأُ ظِلَالُهُ عَنِ الْيَمِينِ وَالشَّمَائِلِ سُجَّدًا لِلَّهِ وَهُمْ دَاخِرُونَ ﴿48﴾ وَلِلَّهِ يَسْجُدُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مِنْ دَابَّةٍ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَهُمْ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ ﴿49﴾ يَخَافُونَ رَبَّهُمْ مِنْ فَوْقِهِمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا يُؤْمَرُونَ ۩ ﴿50﴾ وَقَالَ اللَّهُ لَا تَتَّخِذُوا إِلَٰهَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ ۖ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ فَإِيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ ﴿51﴾ وَلَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلَهُ الدِّينُ وَاصِبًا ۚ أَفَغَيْرَ اللَّهِ تَتَّقُونَ ﴿52﴾ وَمَا بِكُمْ مِنْ نِعْمَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ ۖ ثُمَّ إِذَا مَسَّكُمُ الضُّرُّ فَإِلَيْهِ تَجْأَرُونَ ﴿53﴾ ثُمَّ إِذَا كَشَفَ الضُّرَّ عَنْكُمْ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِنْكُمْ بِرَبِّهِمْ يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿54﴾ لِيَكْفُرُوا بِمَا آتَيْنَاهُمْ ۚ فَتَمَتَّعُوا ۖ فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿55﴾ وَيَجْعَلُونَ لِمَا لَا يَعْلَمُونَ نَصِيبًا مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ ۗ تَاللَّهِ لَتُسْأَلُنَّ عَمَّا كُنْتُمْ تَفْتَرُونَ ﴿56﴾ وَيَجْعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ الْبَنَاتِ سُبْحَانَهُ ۙ وَلَهُمْ مَا يَشْتَهُونَ ﴿57﴾ وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُمْ بِالْأُنْثَىٰ ظَلَّ وَجْهُهُ مُسْوَدًّا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌ ﴿58﴾ يَتَوَارَىٰ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ مِنْ سُوءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِهِ ۚ أَيُمْسِكُهُ عَلَىٰ هُونٍ أَمْ يَدُسُّهُ فِي التُّرَابِ ۗ أَلَا سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ ﴿59﴾ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ مَثَلُ السَّوْءِ ۖ وَلِلَّهِ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَىٰ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴿60﴾ وَلَوْ يُؤَاخِذُ اللَّهُ النَّاسَ بِظُلْمِهِمْ مَا تَرَكَ عَلَيْهَا مِنْ دَابَّةٍ وَلَٰكِنْ يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ۖ فَإِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهُمْ لَا يَسْتَأْخِرُونَ سَاعَةً ۖ وَلَا يَسْتَقْدِمُونَ ﴿61﴾ وَيَجْعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ مَا يَكْرَهُونَ وَتَصِفُ أَلْسِنَتُهُمُ الْكَذِبَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۖ لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ النَّارَ وَأَنَّهُمْ مُفْرَطُونَ ﴿62﴾ تَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمَمٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ الْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ﴿63﴾ وَمَا أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ الَّذِي اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۙ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿64﴾ وَاللَّهُ أَنْزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لِقَوْمٍ يَسْمَعُونَ ﴿65﴾ وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ فِي الْأَنْعَامِ لَعِبْرَةً ۖ نُسْقِيكُمْ مِمَّا فِي بُطُونِهِ مِنْ بَيْنِ فَرْثٍ وَدَمٍ لَبَنًا خَالِصًا سَائِغًا لِلشَّارِبِينَ ﴿66﴾ وَمِنْ ثَمَرَاتِ النَّخِيلِ وَالْأَعْنَابِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنْهُ سَكَرًا وَرِزْقًا حَسَنًا ۗ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ ﴿67﴾ وَأَوْحَىٰ رَبُّكَ إِلَى النَّحْلِ أَنِ اتَّخِذِي مِنَ الْجِبَالِ بُيُوتًا وَمِنَ الشَّجَرِ وَمِمَّا يَعْرِشُونَ ﴿68﴾ ثُمَّ كُلِي مِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ فَاسْلُكِي سُبُلَ رَبِّكِ ذُلُلًا ۚ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ بُطُونِهَا شَرَابٌ مُخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُهُ فِيهِ شِفَاءٌ لِلنَّاسِ ۗ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ ﴿69﴾ وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ يَتَوَفَّاكُمْ ۚ وَمِنْكُمْ مَنْ يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْ لَا يَعْلَمَ بَعْدَ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ قَدِيرٌ ﴿70﴾ وَاللَّهُ فَضَّلَ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ فِي الرِّزْقِ ۚ فَمَا الَّذِينَ فُضِّلُوا بِرَادِّي رِزْقِهِمْ عَلَىٰ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِيهِ سَوَاءٌ ۚ أَفَبِنِعْمَةِ اللَّهِ يَجْحَدُونَ ﴿71﴾ وَاللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَزْوَاجِكُمْ بَنِينَ وَحَفَدَةً وَرَزَقَكُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ ۚ أَفَبِالْبَاطِلِ يُؤْمِنُونَ وَبِنِعْمَتِ اللَّهِ هُمْ يَكْفُرُونَ ﴿72﴾ وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ رِزْقًا مِنَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ﴿73﴾ فَلَا تَضْرِبُوا لِلَّهِ الْأَمْثَالَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿74﴾ ضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا عَبْدًا مَمْلُوكًا لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَمَنْ رَزَقْنَاهُ مِنَّا رِزْقًا حَسَنًا فَهُوَ يُنْفِقُ مِنْهُ سِرًّا وَجَهْرًا ۖ هَلْ يَسْتَوُونَ ۚ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿75﴾ وَضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا رَجُلَيْنِ أَحَدُهُمَا أَبْكَمُ لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ كَلٌّ عَلَىٰ مَوْلَاهُ أَيْنَمَا يُوَجِّهْهُ لَا يَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ ۖ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي هُوَ وَمَنْ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ ۙ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ ﴿76﴾ وَلِلَّهِ غَيْبُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَمَا أَمْرُ السَّاعَةِ إِلَّا كَلَمْحِ الْبَصَرِ أَوْ هُوَ أَقْرَبُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿77﴾ وَاللَّهُ أَخْرَجَكُمْ مِنْ بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ ۙ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿78﴾ أَلَمْ يَرَوْا إِلَى الطَّيْرِ مُسَخَّرَاتٍ فِي جَوِّ السَّمَاءِ مَا يُمْسِكُهُنَّ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۗ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿79﴾ وَاللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِنْ بُيُوتِكُمْ سَكَنًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِنْ جُلُودِ الْأَنْعَامِ بُيُوتًا تَسْتَخِفُّونَهَا يَوْمَ ظَعْنِكُمْ وَيَوْمَ إِقَامَتِكُمْ ۙ وَمِنْ أَصْوَافِهَا وَأَوْبَارِهَا وَأَشْعَارِهَا أَثَاثًا وَمَتَاعًا إِلَىٰ حِينٍ ﴿80﴾ وَاللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلَالًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِنَ الْجِبَالِ أَكْنَانًا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ سَرَابِيلَ تَقِيكُمُ الْحَرَّ وَسَرَابِيلَ تَقِيكُمْ بَأْسَكُمْ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُتِمُّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُسْلِمُونَ ﴿81﴾ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ ﴿82﴾ يَعْرِفُونَ نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنْكِرُونَهَا وَأَكْثَرُهُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ ﴿83﴾ وَيَوْمَ نَبْعَثُ مِنْ كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ شَهِيدًا ثُمَّ لَا يُؤْذَنُ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَلَا هُمْ يُسْتَعْتَبُونَ ﴿84﴾ وَإِذَا رَأَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا الْعَذَابَ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْظَرُونَ ﴿85﴾ وَإِذَا رَأَى الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا شُرَكَاءَهُمْ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ شُرَكَاؤُنَا الَّذِينَ كُنَّا نَدْعُو مِنْ دُونِكَ ۖ فَأَلْقَوْا إِلَيْهِمُ الْقَوْلَ إِنَّكُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ ﴿86﴾ وَأَلْقَوْا إِلَى اللَّهِ يَوْمَئِذٍ السَّلَمَ ۖ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ ﴿87﴾ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ زِدْنَاهُمْ عَذَابًا فَوْقَ الْعَذَابِ بِمَا كَانُوا يُفْسِدُونَ ﴿88﴾ وَيَوْمَ نَبْعَثُ فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ ۖ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ شَهِيدًا عَلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ ۚ وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ تِبْيَانًا لِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ ﴿89﴾ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَيَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ ۚ يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ ﴿90﴾ وَأَوْفُوا بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ إِذَا عَاهَدْتُمْ وَلَا تَنْقُضُوا الْأَيْمَانَ بَعْدَ تَوْكِيدِهَا وَقَدْ جَعَلْتُمُ اللَّهَ عَلَيْكُمْ كَفِيلًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ ﴿91﴾ وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّتِي نَقَضَتْ غَزْلَهَا مِنْ بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ أَنْكَاثًا تَتَّخِذُونَ أَيْمَانَكُمْ دَخَلًا بَيْنَكُمْ أَنْ تَكُونَ أُمَّةٌ هِيَ أَرْبَىٰ مِنْ أُمَّةٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا يَبْلُوكُمُ اللَّهُ بِهِ ۚ وَلَيُبَيِّنَنَّ لَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مَا كُنْتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ ﴿92﴾ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَلَٰكِنْ يُضِلُّ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَلَتُسْأَلُنَّ عَمَّا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿93﴾ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا أَيْمَانَكُمْ دَخَلًا بَيْنَكُمْ فَتَزِلَّ قَدَمٌ بَعْدَ ثُبُوتِهَا وَتَذُوقُوا السُّوءَ بِمَا صَدَدْتُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَلَكُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ ﴿94﴾ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۚ إِنَّمَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿95﴾ مَا عِنْدَكُمْ يَنْفَدُ ۖ وَمَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ بَاقٍ ۗ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّ الَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا أَجْرَهُمْ بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿96﴾ مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِنْ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهُ حَيَاةً طَيِّبَةً ۖ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْرَهُمْ بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿97﴾ فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ ﴿98﴾ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ لَهُ سُلْطَانٌ عَلَى الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ ﴿99﴾ إِنَّمَا سُلْطَانُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَهُ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ بِهِ مُشْرِكُونَ ﴿100﴾ وَإِذَا بَدَّلْنَا آيَةً مَكَانَ آيَةٍ ۙ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يُنَزِّلُ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا أَنْتَ مُفْتَرٍ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿101﴾ قُلْ نَزَّلَهُ رُوحُ الْقُدُسِ مِنْ رَبِّكَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيُثَبِّتَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ ﴿102﴾ وَلَقَدْ نَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُمْ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّمَا يُعَلِّمُهُ بَشَرٌ ۗ لِسَانُ الَّذِي يُلْحِدُونَ إِلَيْهِ أَعْجَمِيٌّ وَهَٰذَا لِسَانٌ عَرَبِيٌّ مُبِينٌ ﴿103﴾ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ لَا يَهْدِيهِمُ اللَّهُ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ﴿104﴾ إِنَّمَا يَفْتَرِي الْكَذِبَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَاذِبُونَ ﴿105﴾ مَنْ كَفَرَ بِاللَّهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ إِيمَانِهِ إِلَّا مَنْ أُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهُ مُطْمَئِنٌّ بِالْإِيمَانِ وَلَٰكِنْ مَنْ شَرَحَ بِالْكُفْرِ صَدْرًا فَعَلَيْهِمْ غَضَبٌ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ ﴿106﴾ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ اسْتَحَبُّوا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا عَلَى الْآخِرَةِ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿107﴾ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ ﴿108﴾ لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ ﴿109﴾ ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا مِنْ بَعْدِ مَا فُتِنُوا ثُمَّ جَاهَدُوا وَصَبَرُوا إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِنْ بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ ﴿110﴾ يَوْمَ تَأْتِي كُلُّ نَفْسٍ تُجَادِلُ عَنْ نَفْسِهَا وَتُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَا عَمِلَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ ﴿111﴾ وَضَرَبَ اللَّهُ مَثَلًا قَرْيَةً كَانَتْ آمِنَةً مُطْمَئِنَّةً يَأْتِيهَا رِزْقُهَا رَغَدًا مِنْ كُلِّ مَكَانٍ فَكَفَرَتْ بِأَنْعُمِ اللَّهِ فَأَذَاقَهَا اللَّهُ لِبَاسَ الْجُوعِ وَالْخَوْفِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَصْنَعُونَ ﴿112﴾ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْهُمْ فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَأَخَذَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَهُمْ ظَالِمُونَ ﴿113﴾ فَكُلُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللَّهُ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَاشْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ ﴿114﴾ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنْزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ بِهِ ۖ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ ﴿115﴾ وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَا تَصِفُ أَلْسِنَتُكُمُ الْكَذِبَ هَٰذَا حَلَالٌ وَهَٰذَا حَرَامٌ لِتَفْتَرُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ لَا يُفْلِحُونَ ﴿116﴾ مَتَاعٌ قَلِيلٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ﴿117﴾ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا مَا قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ وَمَا ظَلَمْنَاهُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ كَانُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ ﴿118﴾ ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ عَمِلُوا السُّوءَ بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ تَابُوا مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ وَأَصْلَحُوا إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِنْ بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ ﴿119﴾ إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ كَانَ أُمَّةً قَانِتًا لِلَّهِ حَنِيفًا وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ﴿120﴾ شَاكِرًا لِأَنْعُمِهِ ۚ اجْتَبَاهُ وَهَدَاهُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ ﴿121﴾ وَآتَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً ۖ وَإِنَّهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ ﴿122﴾ ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ أَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۖ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ﴿123﴾ إِنَّمَا جُعِلَ السَّبْتُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۚ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَيَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ﴿124﴾ ادْعُ إِلَىٰ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ ۖ وَجَادِلْهُمْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ ضَلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ ۖ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ ﴿125﴾ وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُوا بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُمْ بِهِ ۖ وَلَئِنْ صَبَرْتُمْ لَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لِلصَّابِرِينَ ﴿126﴾ وَاصْبِرْ وَمَا صَبْرُكَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ ۚ وَلَا تَحْزَنْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا تَكُ فِي ضَيْقٍ مِمَّا يَمْكُرُونَ ﴿127﴾ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ مُحْسِنُونَ ﴿128﴾
Transliteration in English
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Ataaa amrullaahi falaa tasta’jilooh; Subhaanahoo wa Ta’aalaa ‘ammaa yushrikoon
- Yunazzilul malaaa ‘ikata birroohi min amrihee ‘alaa mai yashaaa’u min ‘ibaadiheee an anzirooo annahoo laaa ilaaha illaaa ana fattaqoon
- Khalaqas samaawaati wal arda bilhaqq; Ta’aalaa ‘ammaa yushrikoon
- Khalaqal insaana min nutfatin fa izaa huwa khaseemum mubeen
- Wal an ‘amaa khalaqahaa; lakum feehaa dif’unw wa manaafi’u wa minhaa taakuloon
- Wa lakum feehaa jamaalun heena tureehoona wa heena tasrahoon
- Wa tahmilu asqaalakum ilaa baladil lam takoonoo baaligheehi illaa bishiqqil anfus; inna Rabbakum la Ra’oofur Raheem
- Walkhaila wal bighaala wal hameera litarkaboohaa wa zeenah; wa yakhluqu maa laa ta’lamoon
- Wa ‘alal laahi qasdus sabeeli wa minhaa jaaa’ir; wa law shaaa’a lahadaakum ajma’een (section 1)
- Huwal lazeee anzala minas samaaa’i maaa’al lakum minhu sharaabunw wa minhu shajarun feehi tuseemoon
- Yumbitu lakum bihiz zar’a wazzaitoona wanna kheela wal-a’naaba wa min kullis samaraat, inna fee zaalika la Aayatal liqawminy yatafakkaroon
- Wa sakkhkhara lakumul laila wannahaara wash shamsa walqamara wannujoomu musakhkharaatum bi amrih; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil liqawminy ya’qiloon
- Wa maa zara a lakum fil ardi mukhtalifan alwaanuh; inna fee zaalika la Aayatal liqawminy yazakkaroon
- Wa Huwal lazee sakhkharal bahra litaakuloo minhu lahman tariyyanw wa tastakhrijoo minhu hilyatan talbasoonahaa wa taral fulka mawaakhira feehi wa litabtaghoo min fadlihee wa la’allakum tashkuroon
- Wa alqaa fil ardi rawaasiya an tameeda bikum wa anhaaranw wa sublulal la ‘allakum tahtadoon
- Wa ‘alaamaat; wa bin najmi hum yahtadoon
- Afamany yakhluqu kamallaa yakhluq; afalaa tazak karoon
- Wa in ta’uddoo ni’matal laahi laa tuhsoohaa; innal laaha la Ghafoorur Raheem
- Wallaahu ya’lamu maa tusirroona wa maa tu’linoon
- Wallazeena yad’oona min doonil laahi laa yakhluqoona shai’anw wa hum yukhlaqoon
- Amwaatun ghairu ahyaaa’inw wa maa yash’uroona aiyaana yub’asoon (section 2)
- Illahukum Ilaahunw Waahid; fallazeena laa yu’minoona bil Aakhirati quloobuhum munkiratunw wa hum mustakbiroon
- Laa jarama annal laaha ya’lamu maa yusirrona wa ma yu’linoon; innahoo laa yuhibbul mustakbireen
- Wa izaa qeela lahum maazaaa anzala Rabbukum qaaloo asaateerul awwaleen
- Liyahmilooo awzaarahum kaamilatany Yawmal Qiyaamati wa min awzaaril lazeena yudilloonahum bighairi ‘ilm; alaa saaa’a maa yaziroon (section 3)
- Qad makaral lazeena min qablihim fa atal laahu bunyaa nahum minal qawaa’idi fakharra ‘alaihimus saqfu min fawqihim wa ataahumul ‘azaabu min haisu laa yash’uroon
- Summa Yawmal Qiyaamati yukhzeehim wa yaqoolu aina shurakaaa’iyal lazeena kuntum tushaaaqqoona feehim; qaalal lazeena ootul ‘ilma innal khizyal Yawma wassooo’a ‘alal kaafireen
- Allazeena tatawaf faahu mul malaaa’ikatu zaalimeee anfusihim fa alqawus salama maa kunnaa na’malu min sooo’; balaaa innal laaha ‘aleemum bimaa kuntum ta’maloon
- Fadkhulooo abwaaba jahannama khaalideena feeha falabi’sa maswal mutakab bireen
- Wa qeela lillazeenat taqaw maazaaa anzala Rabbukum; qaaloo khairaa; lillazeena ahsanoo fee haazihid dunyaa hasanah; wa la Daarul Aakhirati khair; wa lani’ma daarul muttaqeen
- Jannaatu ‘Adniny yadkhuloonahaa tajree min tahtihal anhaaru lahum feehaa maa yashaaa’oon; kazaalika yajzil laahul muttaqeen
- Allazeena tatawaf faahumul malaaa’ikatu taiyibeena yaqooloona salaamun ‘alai kumud khulul Jannata bimaa kuntum ta’maloon
- Hal yanzuroona illaaa an taatiyahumul malaaa’ikatu aw yaatiya amru Rabbik; kazaalika fa’alal lazeena min qablihim; wa maa zalamahumul laahu wa laakin kaanoo anfusahum yazlimoon
- Fa asaabahum saiyi aatu maa ‘amiloo wa haaqa bihim maa kaano bihee yastahzi’oon (section 4)
- Wa qaalal lazeena ashrakoo law shaaa’al laahu ma ‘abadnaa min doonihee min shai’in nahnu wa laaa aabaaa’unaa wa laa harramnaa min doonihee min shai’; kazaalika fa’alal lazeena min qablihim fahal ‘alar Rusuli illal balaaghul mubeen
- Wa laqad ba’asnaa fee kulli ummatir Rasoolan ani’budul laaha wajtanibut Taaghoota faminhum man hadal laahu wa minhum man haqqat ‘alaihid dalaalah; faseeroo fil ardi fanzuroo kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul mukazzibeen
- In tahris ‘alaa hudaahum fa innal laaha laa yahdee mai yudillu wa maa lahum min naasireen
- Wa aqsamoo billaahi jahda aimaanihim laa yab’asul laahu mai yamoot; balaa wa’dan ‘alaihi haqqanw wa laakinna aksaran naasi laa ya’lamoon
- Liyubaiyina lahumul lazee yakhtalifoona feehi wa liya’lamal lazeena kafarooo annahum kaanoo kaazibeen
- Innamaa qawlunaa lishay’in izaa aradnaahu an naqoola lahoo kun fa yakoon (section 5)
- Wallazeena haajaroo fil laahi mim ba’di maa zulimoo lanubawwi’ annahum fiddunyaa hasanatanw wa la ajrul Aakhirati akbar; law kaanoo ya’lamoon
- Allazeena sabaroo wa ‘alaa Rabbihim yatawak kaloon
- Wa maaa arsalnaa min qablika illaa rijaalan nooheee ilaihim; fas’alooo ahlaz zikri in kuntum laa ta’lamoon
- Bilbaiyinaati waz Zubur; wa anzalnaaa ilaikaz Zikra litubaiyina linnaasi maa nuzzila ilaihim wa la’allahum yatafakkaroon
- Afa aminal lazeena makarus saiyi aati ai yakhsifal laahu bihimul arda aw yaaa tiyahumul ‘azaabu min haisu laa yash’uroon
- Aw yaakhuzahum fee taqallubihim famaa hum bi mu’jizeen
- Aw yaakhuzahum ‘alaa takhawwuf; fa inna Rabbakum la Ra’oofur Raheem
- Awa lam yaraw ilaa maa khalaqal laahu min shai’iny-yatafaiya’u zilaaluhoo ‘anil yameeni washshamaaa’ ili sujjadal lillaahi wa hum daakhiroon
- Wa lillaahi yasjudu maa fis samaawaati wa maa fil ardi min daaabbatinw walma laaa’ikatu wa hum laa yastakbiroon
- yakhaafoona Rabbahum min fawqihim wa yaf’aloona maa yu’maroon (section 6) (make sajda)
- Wa qaalal laahu laa tatta khizooo ilaahainis naini innamaa Huwa Ilaahunw Waahid; fa iyyaaya farhaboon
- Wa lahoo maa fis samaawaati wal ardi wa lahud deenu waasibaa; afaghairal laahi tattaqoon
- Wa maa bikum minni’matin faminal laahi summa izaa massakumud durru fa ilaihi taj’aroon
- Summaa izaa kashafad durra ‘ankum izaa fareequm minkum bi Rabbihim yushrikoon
- Liyakfuroo bimaa aatainaahum; fatamatta’oo, fasawfa ta’lamoon
- Wa yaj’aloona limaa laa ya’lamoona naseebam mimmaa razaqnnaahum; tallaahi latus’alunaa ‘ammaa kuntum taftaroon
- Wa yaj’aloona lillaahil banaati Subhaanahoo wa lahum maa yashtahoon
- Wa izaa bushshira ahaduhum bil unsaa zalla wajhuhoo muswaddanw wa huwa kazeem
- yatawaaraa minal qawmimin sooo’i maa bushshira bih; a-yumsikuhoo ‘alaa hoonin am yadussuhoo fit turaab; alaa saaa’a maa yahkumoon
- Lillazeena laa yu’minoona bil Aakhirati masalus saw’i wa lillaahil masalul a’laa; wa Huwal ‘Azeezul Hakeem (section 7)
- Wa law yu’aakhizul laahun naasa bizulminhim maa taraka ‘alaihaa min daaabbatinw wa laakiny yu’akhkhiruhum ilaaa ajalim musamman fa izaa jaaa’a ajaluhum laa yastaakhiroona saa’atanw wa laa yastaqdimoon
- Wa yaj’aloona lillaahi maa yakrahoona wa tasifu alsinatuhumul kaziba anna lahumul husnaa laa jarama anna lahumun Naara wa annahum mufratoon
- Tallaahi laqad arsalnaaa ilaaa umamim min qablika fazayyana lahumush Shaitaanu a’maalahum fahuwa waliyyuhumul yawma wa lahum ‘azaabun aleem
- Wa maaa anzalnaa ‘alaikal Kitaaba illaa litubaiyina lahumul lazikh talafoo feehi wa hudanw wa rahmatal liqawminy yu’minoon
- Wallaahu anzala minas samaaa’i maaa’an fa ahyaa bihil arda ba’da mawtihaa; inna fee zaalika la aayatal liqaw miny yasma’oon (section 8)
- Wa inna lakum fil an’aami la’ibrah; nusqeekum mimmmaa fee butoonihee mim baini farsinw wa damil labanann khaalisan saaa’ighallish shaaribeen
- Wa min samaraatin nakheeli wal a’nnaabi tattakhizoona minhu sakaranw wa rizqann hasanaa; inna fee zaalika la Aayatal liqawminy ya’qiloon
- Wa awhaa Rabbuka ilan-nahli anit takhizee minal jibaali buyootanw wa minash shajari wa mimmaa ya’rishoon
- Summma kulee min kullis samaraati faslukee subula Rabbiki zululaa; yakhruju mim butoonihaa sharaabum mukh talifun alwaanuhoo feehi shifaaa’ul linnaas, innna fee zaalika la Aayatal liqawminy yatafakkaroon
- Wallaahu khalaqakum suma yatawaffaakum; wa minkum many-yuradu ilaaa arzalil ‘umuri likai laa ya’lama ba’da ‘ilmin shai’aa; innal laaha ‘Aleemun Qadeer (section 9)
- Wallaahu faddala ba’dakum ‘alaa ba’din fir rizq; famal lazeena fuddiloo biraaaddee rizqihim ‘alaa maa malakat aimaanuhum fahum feehi sawaaa’; afabini’matil laahi yajhadoon
- Wallaahu ja’ala lakum min anfusikum azwaajanw wa ja’ala lakum min azwaajikum baneena wa hafadatanw wa razaqakum minat taiyibaat; afabil baatili yu’minoona wa bini’matil laahi hum yakkfuroon
- Wa ya’budoona min doonil laahi maa laa yamliku lahum rizqam minas samaawaati wal ardi shai’anw wa laa yastatee’oon
- Falaa tadriboo lillaahil amsaal; innal laaha ya’lamu wa antum laa ta’lamoon
- Darabal laahu masalan ‘abdam mammlookal laa yaqdiru ‘alaa shai’inw wa marrazaqnaahu mminnaa rizqan hasanan fahuwa yunfiqu minhu sirranw wa jahra; hal yasta-woon; alhamdu lillaah; bal aksaruhum laa ya’lamoon
- Wa darabal laahu masalar rajulaini ahaduhumaaa abkamu laa yaqdiru ‘alaa shai’inw wa huwa kallun ‘alaa mawlaahu ainamaa yuwajjihhu laa yaati bikhairin hal yastawee huwa wa many-yaamuru bil’adli wa huwa ‘alaa Siraatim Mustaqeem (section 10)
- Wa lillaahi ghaibus samaawaati wal ard; wa maaa amrus Saa’ati illaa kalamhil basari aw huwa aqrab; innal laaha ‘alaaa kulli shai’in Qadeer
- Wallaahu akhrajakum mim butooni ummahaatikum laa ta’lamoona shai’anw wa ja’ala lakumus sam’a wal absaara wal af’idata la’allakum tashkuroon
- Alam yaraw ilat tairi musakhkharaatin fee jawwis samaaa’i maa yumsikuhunna illal laah; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil liqawminy yu’minoon
- Wallaahu ja’ala lakum mim buyootikum sakananw wa ja’ala lakum min juloodil an’aami buyootan tastakhif foonahaa yawma za’nikum wa yawma iqaamatikum wa min aswaafihaa wa awbaarihaa wa ash’aarihaaa asaasanw wa mataa’an ilaa heen
- Wallaahu ja’ala lakum mimmaa khalaqa zilaalanw wa ja’ala lakum minal jibaali aknaananw wa ja’ala lakum saraabeela taqeekumul harra wa saraabeela taqeekum baasakum; kazaalika yutimmu ni’matahoo alaikum la’allakum tuslimoon
- Fa in tawallaw fa innamaa ‘alaikal balaaghul mubeen
- Ya’rifoona ni’matal laahi summa yunkiroonahaa wa aksaruhumul kaafiroon (section 11)
- Wa yawma nab’asu min kulli ummatin shaheedan summa laa yu’zanu lillazeena kafaroo wa laa hum yusta’taboon
- Wa izaa ra al lazeena zalamul ‘azaaba falaa yukhaf fafu ‘anhum wa laa hum yunzaroon
- Wa izaa ra al lazeena ashrakoo shurakaaa’ahum qaaloo Rabbana haaa’ulaaa’i shurakaaa’unal lazeena kunnaa nad’oo min doonika fa alqaw ilaihimul qawla innakum lakaaziboon
- Wa alqaw ilal laahi yawma’izinis salama wa dalla ‘anhum maa kaanoo yaftaroon
- Allazeena kafaroo wa saddoo ‘an sabeelil laahi zidnaahum ‘azaaban fawqal ‘azaabi bimaa kaanoo yufsidoon
- Wa yawma nab’asu fee kulli ummmatin shaheedan ‘alaihim min anfusihim wa ji’naa bika shaheedan ‘alaa haaa’ulaaa’; wa nazzalnaa ‘alaikal Kitaaba tibyaanal likulli shai’inw wa hudanw wa rahmatanw wa bushraa lilmuslimeen (section 12)
- Innal laaha ya’muru bil ‘adli wal ihsaani wa eetaaa’i zil qurbaa wa yanhaa ‘anil fahshaaa’i wal munkari walbagh-i’ ya’izukum la’allakum tazakkaroon
- Wa awfoo bi Ahdil laahi izaa ‘aahattum wa laa tanqudul aimaana ba’da tawkeedihaa wa qad ja’altumul laaha ‘alaikum kafeelaa; innal laaha ya’lamu maa taf’aloon
- Wa laa takoonoo kallatee naqadat ghazlahaa mim ba’di quwwatin ankaasaa; tattakhizoona aimaanakum dakhalam bainakum an takoona ummatun hiya arbaa min ummah; innnamaa yablookumul laahu bih; wa la yubaiyinanna lakum yawmal Qiyaamati maa kuntum feehi takhtalifoon
- Wa law shaaa’al laahu laja’alakum ummmatanw waahidatanw wa laakiny yudillu many-yashaaa’u wa yahdee many-yashaaa’; wa latus’alunna ‘ammaa kuntum ta’maloon
- Wa laa tattakhizooo aimaanakum dakhalam bainakum fatazilla qadamum ba’da subootihaa wa tazooqus sooo’a bima sadattum ‘an sabeelil laahi wa lakum ‘azaabun ‘azeem
- Wa laa tashtaroo bi ‘ahdil laahi samanan qaleelaa; innamaa ‘indal laahi huwa khairul lakum in kuntum ta’lamoon
- maa ‘indakum yanfadu wa maa ‘indal laahi baaq; wa lanajziyannal lazeena sabarooo ajjrahum bi ahsani maa kaanoo ya’maloon
- Man ‘amila saaliham min zakarin aw unsaa wa huwa mu’minun falanuhyiyannahoo hayaatan taiiyibatanw wa lanajzi yannnahum ajrahum bi ahsani maa kaanoo ya’maloon
- Fa izaa qara tal Quraana fasta’iz billaahi minashh Shai taanir rajeem
- Innahoo laisa lahoo sultaanun ‘alal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘alaa Rabbihim yatawakkaloon
- Innnamaa sultaanuhoo ‘alal lazeena yatawallawnahoo wallazeena hum bihee mushrikoon (section 13)
- Wa izaa baddalnaaa Aayatam makaana Aayatinw wal laahu a’lamu bimaa yunazzilu qaalooo innamaa anta muftar; bal aksaruhum laa ya’lamoon
- Qul nazzalahoo Roohul Qudusi mir Rabbika bilhaqqi liyusabbital lazeena aamanoo wa hudanw wa bushraa lilmuslimeen
- Wa laqad na’lamu annahum yaqooloona innamaa yu’allimuhoo bashar; lisaanul lazee yulhidoona ilaihi a’ja miyyunw wa haaza lisaanun ‘Arabiyyum mubeen
- Innal lazeena laa yu’minoona bi Aayaatil laahi laa yahdehimul laahu wa lahum ‘azaabun aleem
- Innamaa yaftaril kazibal lazeena laa yu’minoona bi Aayaatil laahi wa ulaaa’ika humul kaaziboon
- man kafara billaahi mim ba’di eemaanihee illaa man ukriha wa qalbuhoo mutmma’innum bil eemaani wa laakim man sharaha bilkufri sadran fa’alaihim ghadabum minal laahi wa lahum ‘azaabun ‘azeem
- Zaalika bi annahumus tahabbul hayaatad dunyaa ‘alal Aakhirati wa annal laaha laa yahdil qawmal kaafireen
- Ulaaa’ikal lazeena taba’al laahu ‘alaa quloobihim wa sam’ihim wa absaarihim wa ulaaa’ika humul ghaafiloon
- Laa jarama annnahum fil Aakhirati humul khassiroon
- Summa inna Rabbaka lillazeena haajaroo mim ba’dimaa futinoo summma jaahadoo wa sabaroo inna Rabbaka mim ba’dihaa la Ghafoorur Raheem (section 14)
- Yawma taatee kullu nafsin tujaadilu ‘an nafsihaa wa tuwaffaa kullu nafsim maa ‘amilat wa hum laa yuzlamoon
- Wa darabal laahu masalan qaryatan kaanat aaminatam mutma’innatany yaaateehaa rizquhaa raghadam min kulli makaanin fakafarat bi an’umil laahi fa azaaqahal laahu libaasal joo’i walkhawfi bimaa kaanoo yasna’oon
- Wa laqad jaaa’ahum Rasoolum minhum fakazzaboohu fa akhazahumul ‘azaabu wa hum zaalimoon
- Fakuloo mimmaa razaqa kumul laahu halaalan taiyibanw washkuroo ni’matal laahi in kuntum iyyaahu ta’budoon
- Innamaa harama ‘alai kumul maitata waddama wa lahmal khinzeeri wa maaa uhilla lighairil laahi bihee famanid turra ghaira baaghinw wa laa ‘aadin fa innal laaha Ghafoorur Raheem
- Wa laa taqooloo limaa tasifu alsinatukumul kaziba haaza halaalunw wa haazaa haraamul litaftaroo ‘alal laahil kazib; innal lazeena yaftaroona ‘alal laahil kaziba laa yuflihoon
- Mata’un qaleelunw wa lahum ‘azaabun aleem
- Wa ‘alal lazeena haadoo harramnaa ma qasasnaa ‘alaika min qablu wa maa zalamanaahum wa laakin kaanoo anfusahum yazlimoon
- Summma inna Rabbaka lillazeena ‘amilus sooo’a bijahaalatin summa taaboo mim ba’di zaaalika wa aslahoo inna Rabbaka mim ba’dihaa la Ghafoorur Raheem (section 15)
- Inna Ibraaheema kaana ummatan qaanital lillaahi Haneefanw wa lam yakuminal mushrikeen
- Shaakiral li an’umih; ijtabaahu wa hadaahu ilaa Siraatim Muustaqeem
- Wa aatainaahu fid dunyaa hasanah; wa innahoo fil Aakhirati laminas saaliheen
- Summma awhainaa ilaika anit tabi’ Millata Ibraaheema haneefaa; wa maa kaana minal mushrikeen
- Innnamaa ju’ilas Sabtu ‘alal lazeenakhtalafoo feeh; wa inna Rabbaka la yahkumu bainahum Yawmal Qiyaamati feemaa kaanoo feehi yakhtalifoon
- Ud’u ilaa sabeeli Rabbika bilhikmati walmaw ‘izatil hasanati wa jaadilhum billatee hiya ahsan; inna Rabbaka huwa a’almu biman dalla ‘an sabeelihee wa Huwa a’lamu bilmuhtadeen
- Wa in ‘aaqabtum fa’aaqiboo bimisli maa ‘ooqibtum bihee wa la’in sabartum lahuwa khairul lissaabireen
- Wasbir wa maa sabruka illaa billaah; wa laa tahzan ‘alaihim wa laa taku fee daiqim mimmaa yamkuroon
- Innal laaha ma’al lazeenat taqaw wal lazeena hum muhsinoon (section 16) (End Juz 14)
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
- The commandment of Allah will come to pass, so seek not ye to hasten it. Glorified and Exalted be He above all that they associate (with Him).
- He sendeth down the angels with the Spirit of His command unto whom He will of His bondmen, (saying): Warn mankind that there is no Allah save Me, so keep your duty unto Me.
- He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth. High be He Exalted above all that they associate (with Him).
- He hath created man from a drop of fluid, yet behold! he is an open opponent.
- And the cattle hath He created, whence ye have warm clothing and uses, and whereof ye eat;
- And wherein is beauty for you, when ye bring them home, and when ye take them out to pasture.
- And they bear your loads for you unto a land ye could not reach save with great trouble to yourselves. Lo! your Lord is Full of Pity, Merciful.
- And horses and mules and asses (hath He created) that ye may ride them, and for ornament. And He createth that which ye know not.
- And Allah’s is the direction of the way, and some (roads) go not straight. And had He willed He would have led you all aright.
- He it is Who sendeth down water from the sky, whence ye have drink, and whence are trees on which ye send your beasts to pasture.
- Therewith He causeth crops to grow for you, and the olive and the date-palm and grapes and all kinds of fruit. Lo! herein is indeed a portent for people who reflect.
- And He hath constrained the night and the day and the sun and the moon to be of service unto you, and the stars are made subservient by His command. Lo! herein indeed are portents for people who have sense.
- And whatsoever He hath created for you in the earth of divers hues, lo! therein is indeed a portent for people who take heed.
- And He it is Who hath constrained the sea to be of service that ye eat fresh meat from thence, and bring forth from thence ornaments which ye wear. And thou seest the ships ploughing it that ye (mankind) may seek of His bounty and that haply ye may give thanks.
- And He hath cast into the earth firm hills that it quake not with you, and streams and roads that ye may find a way.
- And landmarks (too), and by the star they find a way.
- Is He then Who createth as him who createth not? Will ye not then remember?
- And if ye would count the favour of Allah ye cannot reckon it. Lo! Allah is indeed Forgiving, Merciful.
- And Allah knoweth that which ye keep hidden and that which ye proclaim.
- Those unto whom they cry beside Allah created naught, but are themselves created.
- (They are) dead, not living. And they know not when they will be raised.
- Your Allah is One Allah. But as for those who believe not in the Hereafter their hearts refuse to know, for they are proud.
- Assuredly Allah knoweth that which they keep hidden and that which they proclaim. Lo! He loveth not the proud.
- And when it is said unto them: What hath your Lord revealed? they say: (Mere) fables of the men of old,
- That they may bear their burdens undiminished on the Day of Resurrection, with somewhat of the burdens of those whom they mislead without knowledge. Ah! evil is that which they bear!
- Those before them plotted, so Allah struck at the foundations of their building, and then the roof fell down upon them from above them, and the doom came on them whence they knew not;
- Then on the Day of Resurrection He will disgrace them and will say: Where are My partners, for whose sake ye opposed (My guidance)? Those who have been given knowledge will say: Disgrace this day and evil are upon the disbelievers,
- Whom the angels cause to die while they are wronging themselves. Then will they make full submission (saying): We used not to do any wrong. Nay! Surely Allah is Knower of what ye used to do.
- So enter the gates of hell, to dwell therein for ever. Woeful indeed will be the lodging of the arrogant.
- And it is said unto those who ward off (evil): What hath your Lord revealed? They say: Good. For those who do good in this world there is a good (reward) and the home of the Hereafter will be better. Pleasant indeed will be the home of those who ward off (evil) –
- Gardens of Eden which they enter, underneath which rivers flow, wherein they have what they will. Thus Allah repayeth those who ward off (evil),
- Those whom the angels cause to die (when they are) good. They say: Peace be unto you! Enter the Garden because of what ye used to do.
- Await they aught say that the angels should come unto them or thy Lord’s command should come to pass? Even so did those before them. Allah wronged them not, but they did wrong themselves,
- So that the evils of what they did smote them, and that which they used to mock surrounded them.
- And the idolaters say: Had Allah willed, we had not worshipped aught beside Him, we and our fathers, nor had we forbidden aught without (command from) Him. Even so did those before them. Are the messengers charged with aught save plain conveyance (of the message)?
- And verily We have raised in every nation a messenger, (proclaiming): Serve Allah and shun false gods. Then some of them (there were) whom Allah guided, and some of them (there were) upon whom error had just hold. Do but travel in the land and see the nature of the consequence for the deniers!
- Even if thou ( O Muhammad) desirest their right guidance, still Allah assuredly will not guide him who misleadeth. Such have no helpers.
- And they swear by Allah their most binding oaths (that) Allah will not raise up him who dieth. Nay, but it is a promise (binding) upon Him in truth, but most of mankind know not,
- That He may explain unto them that wherein they differ, and that those who disbelieved may know that they were liars.
- And Our word unto a thing, when We intend it, is only that We say unto it: Be! and it is.
- And those who became fugitives for the cause of Allah after they had been oppressed, We verily shall give them goodly lodging in the world, and surely the reward of the Hereafter is greater, if they but knew;
- Such as are steadfast and put their trust in Allah.
- And We sent not (as Our messengers) before thee other than men whom We inspired – Ask the followers of the Remembrance if ye know not! –
- With clear proofs and writings; and We have revealed unto thee the Remembrance that thou mayst explain to mankind that which hath been revealed for them, and that haply they may reflect.
- Are they who plan ill-deeds then secure that Allah will not cause the earth to swallow them, or that the doom will not come on them whence they know not?
- Or that He will not seize them in their going to and fro so that there be no escape for them?
- Or that He will not seize them with a gradual wasting? Lo! thy Lord is indeed Full of Pity, Merciful.
- Have they not observed all things that Allah hath created, how their shadows incline to the right and to the left, making prostration unto Allah, and they are lowly?
- And unto Allah maketh prostration whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth of living creatures, and the angels (also) and they are not proud.
- They fear their Lord above them, and do what they are bidden.
- Allah hath said: Choose not two gods. There is only One Allah. So of Me, Me only, be in awe.
- Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth, and religion is His for ever. Will ye then fear any other than Allah?
- And whatever of comfort ye enjoy, it is from Allah. Then, when misfortune reacheth you, unto Him ye cry for help.
- And afterward, when He hath rid you of the misfortune, behold! a set of you attribute partners to their Lord,
- So as to deny that which We have given them. Then enjoy life (while ye may), for ye will come to know.
- And they assign a portion of that which We have given them unto what they know not. By Allah! but ye will indeed be asked concerning (all) that ye used to invent.
- And they assign unto Allah daughters – Be He Glorified! – and unto themselves what they desire;
- When if one of them receiveth tidings of the birth of a female, his face remaineth darkened, and he is wroth inwardly.
- He hideth himself from the folk because of the evil of that whereof he hath had tidings, (asking himself): Shall he keep it in contempt, or bury it beneath the dust. Verily evil is their judgment.
- For those who believe not in the Hereafter is an evil similitude, and Allah’s is the Sublime Similitude. He is the Mighty, the Wise.
- If Allah were to take mankind to task for their wrong-doing, he would not leave hereon a living creature, but He reprieveth them to an appointed term, and when their term cometh they cannot put (it) off an hour nor (yet) advance (it).
- And they assign unto Allah that which they (themselves) dislike, and their tongues expound the lie that the better portion will be theirs. Assuredly theirs will be the Fire, and they will be abandoned.
- By Allah, We verily sent messengers unto the nations before thee, but the devil made their deeds fairseeming unto them. So he is their patron this day, and theirs will be a painful doom.
- And We have revealed the Scripture unto thee only that thou mayst explain unto them that wherein they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe.
- Allah sendeth down water from the sky and therewith reviveth the earth after her death. Lo! herein is indeed a portent for a folk who hear.
- And lo! in the cattle there is a lesson for you. We give you to drink of that which is in their bellies, from betwixt the refuse and the blood, pure milk palatable to the drinkers.
- And of the fruits of the date-palm, and grapes, whence ye derive strong drink and (also) good nourishment. Lo! therein is indeed a portent for people who have sense.
- And thy Lord inspired the bee, saying: Choose thou habitations in the hills and in the trees and in that which they thatch;
- Then eat of all fruits, and follow the ways of thy Lord, made smooth (for thee). There cometh forth from their bellies a drink divers of hues, wherein is healing for mankind. Lo! herein is indeed a portent for people who reflect.
- And Allah createth you, then causeth you to die, and among you is he who is brought back to the most abject stage of life, so that he knoweth nothing after (having had) knowledge. Lo! Allah is Knower, Powerful.
- And Allah hath favoured some of you above others in provision. Now those who are more favoured will by no means hand over their provision to those (slaves) whom their right hands possess, so that they may be equal with them in respect thereof. Is it then the grace of Allah that they deny?
- And Allah hath given you wives of your own kind, and hath given you, from your wives, sons and grandsons, and hath made provision of good things for you. Is it then in vanity that they believe and in the grace of Allah that they disbelieve?
- And they worship beside Allah that which owneth no provision whatsoever for them from the heavens or the earth, nor have they (whom they worship) any power.
- So coin not similitudes for Allah. Lo! Allah knoweth; ye know not.
- Allah coineth a similitude: (on the one hand) a (mere) chattel slave, who hath control of nothing, and (on the other hand) one on whom we have bestowed a fair provision from Us, and he spendeth thereof secretly and openly. Are they equal? Praise be to Allah! But most of them know not.
- And Allah coineth a similitude: Two men, one of them dumb, having control of nothing, and he is a burden on his owner; whithersoever he directeth him to go, he bringeth no good. Is he equal with one who enjoineth justice and followeth a straight path (of conduct)?
- And unto Allah belongeth the Unseen of the heavens and the earth, and the matter of the Hour (of Doom) is but as a twinkling of the eye, or it is nearer still. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.
- And Allah brought you forth from the wombs of your mothers knowing nothing, and gave you hearing and sight and hearts that haply ye might give thanks.
- Have they not seen the birds obedient in mid-air? None holdeth them save Allah. Lo! herein, verily, are portents for a people who believe.
- And Allah hath given you in your houses an abode, and hath given you (also), of the hides of cattle, houses which ye find light (to carry) on the day of migration and on the day of pitching camp; and of their wool and their fur and their hair, caparison and comfort for a while.
- And Allah hath given you, of that which He hath created, shelter from the sun; and hath given you places of refuge in the mountains, and hath given you coats to ward off the heat from you, and coats (of armour) to save you from your own foolhardiness. Thus doth He perfect His favour unto you, in order that ye may surrender (unto Him).
- Then, if they turn away, thy duty ( O Muhammad) is but plain conveyance (of the message).
- They know the favour of Allah and then deny it. Most of them are ingrates.
- And (bethink you of) the day when we raise up of every nation a witness, then there is no leave for disbelievers, nor are they allowed to make amends.
- And when those who did wrong behold the doom, it will not be made light for them, nor will they be reprieved.
- And when those who ascribed partners to Allah behold those partners of theirs, they will say: Our Lord! these are our partners unto whom we used to cry instead of Thee. But they will fling to them the saying: Lo! ye verily are liars!
- And they proffer unto Allah submission on that day, and all that they used to invent hath failed them.
- For those who disbelieve and debar (men) from the way of Allah, We add doom to doom because they wrought corruption,
- And (bethink you of) the day when We raise in every nation a witness against them of their own folk, and We bring thee (Muhammad) as a witness against these. And We reveal the Scripture unto thee as an exposition of all things, and a guidance and a mercy and good tidings for those who have surrendered (to Allah).
- Lo! Allah enjoineth justice and kindness, and giving to kinsfolk, and forbiddeth lewdness and abomination and wickedness. He exhorteth you in order that ye may take heed.
- Fulfil the covenant of Allah when ye have covenanted, and break not your oaths after the asseveration of them, and after ye have made Allah surety over you. Lo! Allah knoweth what ye do.
- And be not like unto her who unravelleth the thread, after she hath made it strong, to thin filaments, making your oaths a deceit between you because of a nation being more numerous than (another) nation. Allah only trieth you thereby, and He verily will explain to you on the Day of Resurrection that wherein ye differed.
- Had Allah willed He could have made you (all) one nation, but He sendeth whom He will astray and guideth whom He will, and ye will indeed be asked of what ye used to do.
- Make not your oaths a deceit between you, lest a foot should slip after being firmly planted and ye should taste evil forasmuch as ye debarred (men) from the way of Allah, and yours should be an awful doom.
- And purchase not a small gain at the price of Allah’s covenant. Lo! that which Allah hath is better for you, if ye did but know.
- That which ye have wasteth away, and that which Allah hath remaineth. And verily We shall pay those who are steadfast a recompense in proportion to the best of what they used to do.
- Whosoever doeth right, whether male or female, and is a believer, him verily we shall quicken with good life, and We shall pay them a recompense in proportion to the best of what they used to do.
- And when thou recitest the Qur’an, seek refuge in Allah from Satan the outcast.
- Lo! he hath no power over those who believe and put trust in their Lord.
- His power is only over those who make a friend of him, and those who ascribe partners unto Him (Allah).
- And when We put a revelation in place of (another) revelation, – and Allah knoweth best what He revealeth – they say: Lo! thou art but inventing. Most of them know not.
- Say: The holy Spirit hath delivered it from thy Lord with truth, that it may confirm (the faith of) those who believe, and as guidance and good tidings for those who have surrendered (to Allah).
- And We know well that they say: Only a man teacheth him. The speech of him at whom they falsely hint is outlandish, and this is clear Arabic speech.
- Lo! those who disbelieve the revelations of Allah, Allah guideth them not and theirs will be a painful doom.
- Only they invent falsehood who believe not Allah’s revelations, and (only) they are the liars.
- Whoso disbelieveth in Allah after his belief – save him who is forced thereto and whose heart is still content with the Faith – but whoso findeth ease in disbelief: On them is wrath from Allah. Theirs will be an awful doom.
- That is because they have chosen the life of the world rather than the Hereafter, and because Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk.
- Such are they whose hearts and ears and eyes Allah hath sealed. And such are the heedless.
- Assuredly in the Hereafter they are the losers.
- Then lo! thy Lord – for those who became fugitives after they had been persecuted, and then fought and were steadfast – lo! thy Lord afterward is (for them) indeed Forgiving, Merciful.
- On the Day when every soul will come pleading for itself, and every soul will be repaid what it did, and they will not be wronged.
- Allah coineth a similitude: a township that dwelt secure and well content, its provision coming to it in abundance from every side, but it disbelieved in Allah’s favours, so Allah made it experience the garb of dearth and fear because of what they used to do.
- And verily there had come unto them a messenger from among them, but they had denied him, and so the torment seized them while they were wrong-doers.
- So eat of the lawful and good food which Allah hath provided for you, and thank the bounty of your Lord if it is Him ye serve.
- He hath forbidden for you only carrion and blood and swineflesh and that which hath been immolated in the name of any other than Allah; but he who is driven thereto, neither craving nor transgressing, lo! then Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
- And speak not, concerning that which your own tongues qualify (as clean or unclean), the falsehood: “This is lawful, and this is forbidden,” so that ye invent a lie against Allah. Lo! those who invent a lie against Allah will not succeed.
- A brief enjoyment (will be theirs); and theirs a painful doom.
- And unto those who are Jews We have forbidden that which We have already related unto thee. And We wronged them not, but they were wont to wrong themselves.
- Then lo! thy Lord – for those who do evil in ignorance and afterward repent and amend – lo! (for them) thy Lord is afterward indeed Forgiving, Merciful.
- Lo! Abraham was a nation obedient to Allah, by nature upright, and he was not of the idolaters;
- Thankful for His bounties; He chose him and He guided him unto a straight path.
- And We gave him good in the world, and in the Hereafter he is among the righteous.
- And afterward We inspired thee (Muhammad, saying): Follow the religion of Abraham, as one by nature upright. He was not of the idolaters.
- The Sabbath was appointed only for those who differed concerning it, and lo! thy Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that wherein they used to differ.
- Call unto the way of thy Lord with wisdom and fair exhortation, and reason with them in the better way. Lo! thy Lord is Best Aware of him who strayeth from His way, and He is Best Aware of those who go aright.
- If ye punish, then punish with the like of that wherewith ye were afflicted. But if ye endure patiently, verily it is better for the patient.
- Endure thou patiently ( O Muhammad). Thine endurance is only by (the help of) Allah. Grieve not for them, and be not in distress because of that which they devise.
- Lo! Allah is with those who keep their duty unto Him and those who are doers of good.
[From Holy Quran Translation by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall]
اَتٰٓى اَمْرُ اللّٰهِ فَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلُوْهُ ۭ سُبْحٰنَهٗ وَتَعٰلٰى عَمَّا يُشْرِكُوْنَ
The Name of the Surah
This Surah has been called Al-Nahl, that is, the honey bee because it mentions it as a unique Divine marvel. Another name for this Surah is Surah Al-Ni` am. (Qurtubi) The word Ni’am is the plural of Ni’mah (bless¬ing) because the great blessings of Allah Ta’ ala have been particularly mentioned in this Surah.
The Surah begins without any particular introduction with a direct, stern and awesome note of warning. The reason behind it was the saying of the polytheists that Muhammad (al-Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)) keeps warning them of the day of Qiyamah and the punishment of Allah and telling them that Allah Ta’ ala has promised victory for him and punish¬ment for his opponents. All this, they challenged, they do not see coming upon them. In reply, it was said: أَتَىٰ أَمْرُ اللَّـهِ فَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلُوهُ (The command of Allah is bound to come. So, do not ask for it to come sooner – 1).
Here, the expression: أَمْرُ اللَّـهِ (amrullah : the command of Allah) means the promise Allah has made to His Rasul – that his enemies will be made to surrender, and that Muslims will be blessed with victory and honour. In this verse, it is in a distinctly awesome tone that Allah Ta’ ala has said: أَتَىٰ أَمْرُ اللَّـهِ (ata amrullah: translated here as ‘the command of Allah is bound to come’ ). Literally (the nuance of the original expression remaining untranslatable), the sense is that issued is the command of Al¬lah, that is, it is bound to come which you will soon see.
Some commentators say that ‘the command of Allah’ here means the day of Qiyamah. The sense of its being ‘bound to come’ is that it is going to come soon. And if we were to look at it in the frame of the life of the entire world itself, its being close, or its actual coming does not remain much distant. (Al-Bahr Al-Muhit)
As for the second sentence in the first verse where it is said that Allah Ta’ ala is free of Shirk (the ascribing of partners to Him), it means that the act of these people who are belying the promise of Allah Ta’ ala is itself an act of Kufr (infidelity) and Shirk. Allah Ta’ ala is absolutely free from it. (Al-Bahr Al-Muhit)
The essential message of the first verse is to call people to believe in the Oneness of Allah (Tauhid) through a stern warning. The second verse carries an affirmation of Tauhid through a reported proof, the substance of which is that every Rasul or messenger of Allah, from Sayyidna Adam (عليه السلام) to the Last of the Prophets (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، who has come in different parts of the world at different times, has but preached this belief in the Oneness of Allah – though, none of them knew anything about the life and work of each other because of obvious causes. Just imagine if at least one hundred and twenty thousand blessed wise men who are born in different ages, countries and regions, and believe in and adhere to one single principle, then, one is naturally compelled to accept that their saying so cannot be false. In order to have faith, this single proof is sufficient.
The word: رُوح (ruh: spirit) as used in this verse, according to Sayyidna ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، means Wahy (revelation); and according to some commentators, it means Hidayah (guidance). (Al-Bahr Al-Muhit) After having presented the reported proof of Tauhid in the second verse, the same belief has been proved rationally by turning the focus on the blessings of Allah Ta` ala as it follows next in verses 3-8.
وَالْاَنْعَامَ خَلَقَهَا ۚ لَكُمْ فِيْهَا دِفْءٌ وَّمَنَافِعُ وَمِنْهَا تَاْكُلُوْنَ
After human beings, mentioned there was the creation of things which were made specially for their benefit. Since the first addressees of the Qur’an were Arabs and their economic life depended on domestic cat¬tle like camels, cows and goats, therefore, these were taken up first: وَالْأَنْعَامَ خَلَقَهَا (As for the cattle, He created them – 5).
Then, out of the benefits received by human beings from the cattle, two were particularly mentioned. (1) لَكُمْ فِيهَا دِفْءٌ (having warmth for you), that is, they use wool from them to make clothings which keep them warm during winters.
(2) The second benefit was mentioned in: وَمِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ (and of them you eat), that is, they can slaughter these animals and eat from their meat; and, when alive, they procure milk from them which is fine food indeed. Included here are butter, yogurt, butter-oil and everything else which fall under dairy products.
For the rest of benefits derived from them, only one word: مَنَافِعُ (manafi`: other benefits) was considered sufficient. It signifies that there are countless benefits tied to the meat, skin, bone and hair of animals. It is within the framework of this brevity, even ambiguity, that a hint has been given towards all modern innovations in the processing and use of food, dress, medicine and domestic articles, innovations which have been made to date, or will be made right through the Last Day.
After that, identified there is yet another benefit of these cattle – though, in terms of the contemporary Arab taste of the time – when it was said that these cattle make things look good for them particularly when they return home from their grazing grounds in the evening, or when they are sent out to graze in the mornings. The reason is that these cattle at that time become silent spokesmen of the strength and pride of their owners.
Finally, mention has been made of another important benefit which comes from these animals. They carry heavy loads to far out places, places which could not be reached ‘without putting yourselves into hardship.’ Out of the animals, camels and oxen have been particularly har-nessed into this service of man at a large scale. Even during our day of trains, trucks and cargo planes, human beings cannot universally claim to have become free of their need. There are places in the world where none of our modern means of transportation can work. Consequently, one is compelled to borrow their services.
وَّالْخَيْلَ وَالْبِغَالَ وَالْحَمِيْرَ لِتَرْكَبُوْهَا وَزِيْنَةً ۭ وَيَخْلُقُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُوْنَ
Since mention was made of ‘an am’ that is, camels and oxen, it was appropriate that mention be made of quadrupeds which have been creat¬ed exclusively for purposes of draft and ride. One does not benefit by their milk or meat because, according to religious law, they are the cause of moral diseases, hence prohibited. It was said: وَالْخَيْلَ وَالْبِغَالَ وَالْحَمِيرَ لِتَرْكَبُوهَا وَزِينَةً ‘And (He created) horses, mules and donkeys so that you may ride on them (which includes loading as a corollary) and (they were also created so that) they may look good – 8.’ The word: زِینَۃُ (zinah) used here means the same favourable quality of life which, as commonly recognized, is the pleasing possession of these animals by their owners.
Railroads, Automobiles and Aero planes in the Qur’an!
In the last sentence of verse 8, after having mentioned three animals particularly used for riding, that is, horses, mules and donkeys, what was said about other kinds of rides appears in the future tense as follows:
وَ یَخلُقُ مَا لَا تَعلَمُون
And He creates [ or, will create ] what you do not know (yet).
Thus, under this very statement, included there are all newly invent¬ed transport facilities which did not exist in the past, nor was there any precise idea of what they shall be. For instance, there are railroads, auto-mobiles and aero planes. Apart from these means of transport which have been invented to date, included here are all other ways and means which will be invented and used in the future. The reason is that the creation of all these things is really nothing but the act of the Absolute Creator. In it, the role of science, whether classical or modern, is no more than utilizing the God-given intelligence and understanding when han¬dling metallic or other components also created by the same Power, go through experimentations, find appropriate combinations and construct working components. Then, it can go and generate energy from the Di¬vinely endowed treasures of air, water, heat etc. No science, classical or modern, even both combined, can create iron and copper, or lighter metals, nor can it create wood, nor air, nor water. None of these come under its power or control. Science does no more than learn the art of using what has been created by Divine power. All inventions of the world are simply the detail of this usage. Therefore, with a little delibera¬tion, one is left with no choice but to accept and declare that all our new inventions (for which we seem to be so fond of congratulating our own selves! ) are invariably the creation of the Absolute Creator.
In view of its importance, let us keep in mind that the text has used the past tense: خَلَقَ (khalaqa : He created) while mentioning the creation of things earlier. However, after the mention of animals commonly used for riding, the tense used: یَخلُقُ (yakhluqu : He will create, or creates) is that of future. This change clearly indicates that the word so used is for means of transport and other things which have not yet come into exis¬tence. But, Allah Ta’ ala has it in His Knowledge as to what modes of travel and other things are to be created in times to come. All this was said in this small sentence here.
It was also possible that Allah Ta` ala would have mentioned all new inventions to come into being in the future by name. But, the mention of words signifying railroads, automobiles and aero planes would have brought no benefit except that it would have left people bewildered in mental confusion – because the very conceptualization of such things at that time was not easy, nor were such words in use for such things any-where so that people could make some sense out of them.
My respected father, Hadrat Maulana Muhammad Yasin (رح) said:, Our teacher, Hadrat Maulana Muhammad Ya` qub Nanautawi (رح) ، the great teacher of teachers, used to say: ‘The rail (railway, rail-road) has been mentioned in the Holy Qur’ an .’ For proof, he quoted this verse. Cars, though invented, were not common in those days, while the aero planes were not invented yet. Therefore, he found it sufficient to mention the ‘rail.’
- The Qur’ an first mentioned al-an am, that is, the camel, cow and goat. Then, out of their benefits, one such benefit was declared to be the eating of their meat. Then, as separate from it, it was said: وَالْخَيْلَ وَالْبِغَالَ وَالْحَمِيرَ (and horses, mules and donkeys). When pointing out to their bene¬fits, definite mention was made of their use for riding, and that they may look good by having them. But, the eating of their meat has not been mentioned here. This provides the proof that the meat from horse, mule and donkey is not Halal. As for the meat from mule and donkey is concerned, the majority of Fuqaha (Muslim jurists) agree upon its meat being Haram – and in a Hadith on the subject, its unlawfulness has been clearly stated. But, in the case of horse meat, there are two conflicting narrations of Hadith. One of them puts it as Halal, while the other, as Haram. Therefore, sayings of the Fuqaha of the Muslim community be-came divided on this religious issue. Some declared it to be Halal while others called it Haram. It was because of these conflicting arguments that Imam Abu Hanifah (رح) ، did not call horse meat حَرَام Haram like the meat of a donkey or mule, but he did call it Makruh (reprehensible). (Ahkam al-Qur’ an by Al-Jassas).
- From verse 6 and 8, it appears that beauty and embellishment are allowed – though, pride and arrogance are Haram (prohibited). The differ¬ence is that the outcome of beauty and embellishment is that it makes one happy with himself, or that it shows the blessing of Allah openly. When this happens, neither does one nurse the idea in his heart that he is deserving of this blessing, nor does he take others to be low and con¬temptible. Instead, such a person keeps the fact, that all good things of life given to him are but the gift and blessing of Allah Ta’ ala, foremost in his mind. Contrary to this is pride and arrogance under which one takes himself to be deserving of this blessing while taking others to be low. That is Haram (forbidden). (Bayan a1-Qur’an)
وَعَلَي اللّٰهِ قَصْدُ السَّبِيْلِ وَمِنْهَا جَاۗىِٕرٌ ۭ وَلَوْ شَاۗءَ لَهَدٰىكُمْ اَجْمَعِيْنَ
Presented in the previous verses was a description of the great bless¬ings of Allah Ta` ala as rational proof of His Oneness. This description of Divine blessings continues later on as well.
In between these two, the present verse (9) has been introduced par¬enthetically for the purpose of warning that Allah Ta’ ala, pursuant to His standing promise, has taken it upon Himself that He makes the straight path which takes its follower to Allah Ta’ ala clear and explicit. Therefore, the objective of the presentation of Divine blessings is to dem¬onstrate proofs of the Being and Oneness of Allah Ta` ala.
But, counter to this, people have preferred to go by other crooked ways. It is unfortunate that, despite having clear signs and open proofs, they do not benefit by them. Instead, go on straying endlessly.
After that it was said that Allah Ta’ ala, if He had so willed, would have made all of them to (compulsively) be on the right path. Had He done so, it was within His power. But, wisdom and expedient considera¬tions required that there be no compulsion. Let the two paths be before everyone. Whoever elects to take whichever path should be free to take it. Everyone goes his or her way. The Straight Path (al-Sirat al-Mustaqim) will take people to Allah Ta’ ala and Jannah (Paradise). As for other crooked ways, they will take people to Jahannam (Hell). Human beings have been given the power to choose whichever path they wish to take.
وَهُوَ الَّذِيْ سَخَّرَ الْبَحْرَ لِتَاْكُلُوْا مِنْهُ لَحْمًا طَرِيًّا وَّتَسْتَخْرِجُوْا مِنْهُ حِلْيَةً تَلْبَسُوْنَهَا ۚ وَتَرَى الْفُلْكَ مَوَاخِرَ فِيْهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوْا مِنْ فَضْلِهٖ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُوْنَ
After the description of things created in the heavens and the earth, and the benefits human beings derive from them, the text now turns to the high seas wherein Divine wisdom has placed many more benefits for them. Verse 14 which begins with the words: هُوَ الَّذِي سَخَّرَ الْبَحْرَ لِتَأْكُلُوا (And He is the One who has subjugated the sea so that you may eat) which points out to the excellent arrangement whereby they get their supply of sea food, fresh white meat from the fish.
By calling the fish, fresh meat, in the sentence which follows immedi¬ately, that is: لِتَأْكُلُوا مِنْهُ لَحْمًا طَرِيًّا (so that you may eat fresh meat there from – 14), a hint has also been placed within the statement that it is free of any condition of slaughtering necessary with other animals. That is, as if, meat made ready, without having to do so. This was the first benefit.
The second benefit is indentified in the sentence appearing immediately next: وَتَسْتَخْرِجُوا مِنْهُ حِلْيَةً تَلْبَسُونَهَا (and may take out from it ornaments you wear – 14), that is, divers would dive in it and take out what the text calls: حِلْيَةً (hilyah: translated as ornaments). The literal meaning of hil¬yah’ is زیِنَۃ zinah, that which beautifies, embellishes, adorns or ornaments. Thus, the reference here is to pearls and precious coral stones which are taken out of the sea. Women wear it as necklaces or earrings. Though these ornaments are worn by women, yet the Holy Qur’ an has used the word in the masculine gender: تَلْبَسُونَهَا talbasunaha), that is, ‘you wear.’ What has been hinted here is that the wearing of ornaments by women is, in reality, in the interest of men. That woman looks good is, in reality, the right of man. He can even compel his wife to wear dress and orna¬ments which look good on her. Other than that, men too can use precious stones on their rings.
The third benefit of the sea appears in: وَتَرَى الْفُلْكَ مَوَاخِرَ فِيهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِهِ (And you see the boats cleaving through it and so that you may seek His bounty – 14). The word: فُلْكَ (fulk) means boat, and: مَوَاخِرَ (mawakhir) is the plural of مَاخِرَہ : makhirah. Makhr (مَخَر) means to cleave or plough through the water. The reference is to boats and ships which traverse the sea cleaving through the waves of the waters.
The sense of the verse (14) is that Allah Ta’ ala has made the sea one of the means of reaching distant countries. Thus, He has made it easy for human beings to travel by sea and bring in or send out their commer¬cial goods. The text also declares it to be an excellent means of seeking the bounty of Allah, that is, their rizq or sustenance – because, trading through the sea routes is most economical and beneficial.
وَاَلْقٰى فِي الْاَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ اَنْ تَمِيْدَ بِكُمْ وَاَنْهٰرًا وَّسُبُلًا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُوْنَ
In Verse 16, it was said: وَأَلْقَىٰ فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ (And He placed mountains on the earth, lest it should shake with you). The word: رَوَاسِيَ (rawasiya) is the plural of رَاسیۃ (rasiyah) which denotes a huge mountain. The word: تَمِیدَ (tamida) is a derivation from the verbal noun: مِيدَ (mayd) which means to shake or swing or sway from side to side (due to loss of balance).
The sense of the verse is that Allah Ta’ ala has not made the sphere of the Earth from components which are not solid and balanced, therefore, it is heavier on one side and lighter on some other. Its necessary outcome was that the Earth was to be taken as stationary, as commonly held by early thinkers; or, taken to be orbitally moving, as determined by some early and most modern scientists. Under both these views, this phenomenon would have caused terrestrial turbulence which is iden¬tified as shaking, swinging or swaying from side to side. To stop this tur¬bulence and to provide a balance for the terrestrial composition, Allah Ta` ala placed on the Earth the weight of mountains so that it would not shake. As for its orbital movement like all planets which is the common¬ly held view from Pythagoras to modern scientists made more explicit through contemporary experiments, it is something which the Holy Qur’ an neither affirms nor rejects. In fact, this possible turbulence which has been stopped through the use of mountains should be more condu¬cive to this orbital movement which is credited to the Earth like other planets. Allah knows best.
وَعَلٰمٰتٍ ۭ وَبِالنَّجْمِ هُمْ يَهْتَدُوْنَ
In the last verse (16), it was said: وَعَلَامَاتٍ ۚ وَبِالنَّجْمِ هُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ ‘And (He created) signs. And through stars they find the right path.’ Since trade-orient¬ed travel was mentioned above, it was considered appropriate that conveniences which Allah Ta’ ala has provided in the heavens and the earth designed to help travellers cover distances and reach destinations be mentioned alongside. Therefore, it was said: وَعَلَامَاتٍ (wa ` alamat), that is, ‘We have set up many signs in the form of mountains, rivers, trees, homes and things like that in order to help people find their way on the earth.’ It is obvious that, had the earth been flat, there was no way man would stray around in his effort to reach his destination.
As for the last statement in the verse: وَبِالنَّجْمِ هُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ that is, the way travellers know their bearing through territorial signs, quite similarly, they also find out their orientation through stars as well. The modality of the address here seems to hint that the initial purpose of the creation of the stars is, for that matter, something else – however, along with it, their additional benefit is that they help in the charting of one’s course when travelling.
وَاِذَا قِيْلَ لَهُمْ مَّاذَآ اَنْزَلَ رَبُّكُمْ ۙ قَالُوْٓا اَسَاطِيْرُ الْاَوَّلِيْنَ
It will be recalled that, after describing the blessings of Allah and proving that He was unique in the creation of the universe, the text made a pointed reference to how the polytheists chose to stick to their own ways of error. In the present verses, the text describes how they, not content with their own straying, tried that others should also go astray like them. The punishment they would get for doing that has also been stated here. Earlier to that (24), there is a question about the Qur’ an, and the addressees of the question, at this place, are the polytheists. It is their haughty and ignorant answer which has been mentioned here along with a warning of consequences for this attitude. Then, after five verses (30), the same question has been addressed to believers who fear Allah which is followed by their answer, and where a promise of reward for it has been mentioned.
The Holy Qur’an does not explicitly say as to who asked the question. Therefore, commentators have expressed different views in this matter. Some say that the question was asked by disbelievers. Others say that it was asked by Muslims. Still others take one question to have been asked by the polytheists while the other by Muslims. But, the Holy Qur’ an has kept it ambiguous. This is to indicate that there is no need to are as to where the question came from. What has to be seen is the answer and, more importantly, its ultimate consequence – which, the Qur’ an has it-self chosen to describe.
The essence of the answer given by the polytheists is that they simp¬ly refused to acknowledge that there was any word of Allah really revealed from Him. In fact, they dismissed the Qur’an as nothing but tales of people from early ages. Thereupon, the Qur’ an admonished those unjust people for disinforming people about the Qur’an by telling them that it was nothing but the tales of the ancient whereby they make oth¬ers too go astray like them. As for the consequences, these they shall have to face. It means that the total curse of their sins has to fall on them anyway on the Day of Judgment, but part of the curse of the evil consequences of their role in misguiding others will also fall on them. Then it was said that the burden of sins which these people are piling up on their shoulders is a terribly evil burden.
وَقَالَ الَّذِيْنَ اَشْرَكُوْا لَوْ شَاۗءَ اللّٰهُ مَا عَبَدْنَا مِنْ دُوْنِهٖ مِنْ شَيْءٍ نَّحْنُ وَلَآ اٰبَاۗؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمْنَا مِنْ دُوْنِهٖ مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۭ كَذٰلِكَ فَعَلَ الَّذِيْنَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ فَهَلْ عَلَي الرُّسُلِ اِلَّا الْبَلٰغُ الْمُبِيْنُ
The first doubt expressed by these disbelievers was: If Allah does not like our Kufr and Shirk and other unlawful deeds, why would He not stop us from doing so by force?
The absurdity of this doubt was all too evident. Therefore, instead of answering it, just saying words of comfort for the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was considered sufficient, so that he does not feel sad about such senseless questions. The reason why their doubt was absurd is also obvious. Allah Ta` ala has set up the system of this world on the basic arrangement that human beings have not been kept under compulsion totally. A kind of power to choose was given to them. If they use this choice in obedience to Allah, they have their reward for it; and if they use it to disobey Him, then, there stands His promise of punishment. That there will be a day of Judgment when the dead shall be resurrected and called to account for their deeds are the consequential outcome of this early warning. If Allah Ta’ ala had decided that He would force everyone to obey Him, who then would have dared to remain outside the fold of obedience to Him? But, His wisdom so required that such compulsion was not appropriate. Therefore, choice was given to human beings. Now, if the disbelievers were to say – had Allah disliked our ways, why would He not stop us by force? – It is an absurd and hostile question.
وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِيْ كُلِّ اُمَّةٍ رَّسُوْلًا اَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللّٰهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوْتَ ۚ فَمِنْهُمْ مَّنْ هَدَى اللّٰهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَّنْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ الضَّلٰلَةُ ۭ فَسِيْرُوْا فِي الْاَرْضِ فَانْظُرُوْا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِيْنَ
Has a Rasul of Allah appeared in India and Pakistan too?
From verse 36 in the present Surah: وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّسُولًا (And We did raise a messenger among every people), as well as from verse 24 of Surah Fatir: وَإِن مِّنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خَلَا فِيهَا نَذِيرٌ (And there is no group of people among whom there has not been a warner – 35:24), it outwardly appears that messen-gers may have also been sent to areas now known as India and Pakistan – whether residents of the area, or located in another country whose de¬puties or emissaries had reached there. Then, there is the verse of Surah Al-Qasas: لِتُنذِرَ قَوْمًا مَّا أَتَاهُم مِّن نَّذِيرٍ (so that you may warn a people unto whom came no warner – 28:46). The sense released by the verse is that no war¬ner had come before him to the people unto whom the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was sent. This can be answered by saying that this obviously refers to the people of Arabia who became the first addressees of the prophetic mission of Sayyidna Muhammad al-Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) – the fact being that no prophet since Sayyidna Ismail (عليه السلام) had appeared among them. Therefore, the title given to these people in the Holy Qur’an was “Ummiyyin” (the unlettered ones). This does not necessarily imply that no prophet came before him in the rest of the world as well. Allah knows best.
وَالَّذِيْنَ هَاجَرُوْا فِي اللّٰهِ مِنْۢ بَعْدِ مَا ظُلِمُوْا لَنُبَوِّئَنَّهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَـنَةً ۭ وَلَاَجْرُ الْاٰخِرَةِ اَكْبَرُ ۘ لَوْ كَانُوْا يَعْلَمُوْنَ
The verb: هَاجَرُوا (hajaru) is a derivation from hijrat (pausal : hijrah) which literally means to leave one’s homeland. The leaving of one’s home-land done for the sake of Allah is an act of great obedience and worship in Islam. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: اَلھِجرۃ تَھدَمُ مَا کَانَ قَبلَھَا (‘Hijrah demol¬ishes all sins that were before it’ ).
This Hijrah is Farcl (obligatory) and Wajib (necessary) under some situations while it is recommended as desirable and better (Mustahabb) under some others. Related injunctions have appeared in details under comments on verse 97 of Surah An-Nisa’ أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّـهِ وَاسِعَةً (Was not the earth of Allah wide enough that you might have sought refuge in it? – 3:97) [ Ma` ariful-Qur’an, Volume II ] Mentioned here at this place are particular promises which Allah Ta’ ala has made to Muhajirin, those who do Hijrah, that is, leave their homeland for His sake.
How does Hijrah bring Better Life in the Present World?
In the verses cited above, two great promises have been made to Mu¬hajirin subject to some conditions: (1) To give them a good place right here in this world, and (2) To bless them with the greater reward of the Hereafter which is limitless. The expression: ‘a good place in the world’ is highly comprehensive. It includes a good residence for the Muhajir (one who does Hijrah) as well as neighbours who are good. It also in¬cludes extended means of living, supremacy over hostile enemies, recog¬nition and fair name among people, and honour which continues through the family, and progeny. (Qurtubi)
The background of the revelation of the verse is basically the first Hij¬rah which the noble Companions made to Ethiopea. Then, the probabil¬ity that it may include the Hijrah to Ethiopea as well as the Hijrah to al-Madinah al-Munawwarah which came after that. Mentioned here in this verse are the same Muhajirin to Ethiopea, or the Muhajirin to Madinah. Therefore, some scholars have said that this promise was for these blessed Sahabah (رض) only, that is, those who had made their Hijrah to Ethiopea, or those who had later done it to Madinah. As for the promise of Allah, it stood already fulfilled within the present world, something witnessed openly. Everyone saw how Madinah was made for them the real good place to live.
Instead of hostile neighbours, they lived among those who were sympathetic, sharing and sacrificing. Enemies were con¬quered and subdued. Within a short period of time since their Hijrah, doors of ample sustenance were thrown open for them. The poor and needy of yester years became wealthy citizens of the day. Many coun¬tries of the world came under their sway. Such were their achiements in moral greatness and beauty of conduct that they remain receiving words of praise from friends and foes alike even to this day. Allah Ta` ala blessed them with great honour, and their generations as well. These were things that were to take place in this world, which they did. Now, the promise of the Hereafter shall also be fulfilled. But, says Abu Hayy¬an in his Tafslr Al-Bahr Al-Muhit:
وَالَّذِینَ ھَاجَرُوا عَام فِی المُھَاجِرِینَ کَایٔنا مَّا کَانُوا فَیَشمَلُ اَوَّلَھُم وآخِرَھُم
The expression: الَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا (And those who migrated) is general and inclusive of all those who leave their homeland whatever their country or time. Therefore, this includes all Muhajirin, from the very first ones down to the last among them who do their Hijrah for the sake of Allah right upto the Last Day, the day of Al-Qiyamah. (v. 5, p. 492)
This is also as required by the general exegetic rule under which a commentator relies on the general sense of the word, even though there be a particular event or group as the prime cause of the revelation of the verse. Therefore, included in this promise are Muhajirin of the whole world and of all times – and the fulfillment of both these promises for all Muhajirin is certain.
A similar promise has been made for Muhajirin in the following verse of Surah An-Nisa’ وَمَن يُهَاجِرْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ يَجِدْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُرَاغَمًا كَثِيرًا وَسَعَةً [ And whoever migrates in the way of Allah he shall find many a place to settle and wide dimension (of resources) – 4:100] particularly promised wherein are spatial abundance and extensive means. But, along with these pro¬mises, the Holy Qur’an has also put forth some qualifications of Muhaji¬rin and some conditions of Hijrah as well. Therefore, those deserving of the fulfillment of these promises can only be the Muhajirin who possess these qualifications and who have satisfied the desired conditions.
الَّذِيْنَ صَبَرُوْا وَعَلٰي رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُوْنَ
Out of these, the very first condition is that of: فِی اللہِ (fil-lah: for the sake of Allah) which means that the purpose of doing Hijrah should only be to please Allah Ta` ala and that, in it, there be no selfish motives of material gains such as business or employment. The second condition is that these Muhajirin be victims of injustice as stated in: مِن بَعْدِ مَا ظُلِمُوا (after they were oppressed). The third qualification is that they stay patient against initial disadvantages and difficulties showing steadfastness and fortitude as pointed out in: الَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا (those who kept patient). The fourth qualification is that they, even while utilizing all available material means, make it a point to place their trust in Allah alone for every ulti¬mate success comes from Him alone, as described in: وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ (and who place trust in their Lord).
This tells us that there are initial difficulties in everything undertak¬en. However, should a Muhajir fail to find the promised good place and favourable condition, then, instead of doubting the promise of the Qur’ an , he better assess his intention, sincerity and conduct on which these promises have been made. Once this is done, he will discover that it was but his own fault, may be the intention was not pure, or there was a lack of endurance and trust.
Migration and Hijrah : Different Kinds and Their Injunctions
At this point, Imam Al-Qurtubi has given details about migration and Hijrah highlighting their difference along with some related injunctions. This is being reproduced here in view of its relevant usefulness.
Quoting Ibn al-Arabi, Al-Qurtubi says that going out of the home-land and travelling through the earth is either to run from something and find a safe haven, or to seek and get something. The first kind of trip which is to escape and be safe from something is called Hijrah which is of six kinds:
- Going from Dar al-Kufr (Abode of Disbelief) to Dar al-Islam (Abode of Islam): This kind of journey was obligatory (Fard) even during the days of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and it shall remain obligatory, subject to capability and ability, right through the day of the Qiyamah (when there is no security of life, property and honour, or that it is not possible to fulfill religious obligations, the Fara’id of Din). If one continues to stay in Dar al-Harb (technically an enemy country of disbelievers at war with Mus¬lims), one will be considered a sinner.
- To get out of Dar al-Bid’ah (Abode overtaken by deviation from es¬tablished religion): Ibn Qasim says that he had heard from Imam Malik (رح) that it is not Halal for any Muslim to stay at a place where the early righteous elders of the Muslim community (al-Salaf-al-Sali¬hun) are criticised and maligned. After reporting this statement, Ibn al-Arabi writes that it is totally correct – because, should you be unable to eradicate the practice of what is forbidden, then, it becomes necessary for you that you should remove your own self from that place, and have nothing to do with it. This is as commanded by Allah Ta` ala in the Qur’an: وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ الَّذِينَ يَخُوضُونَ فِي آيَاتِنَا فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ (And when you see those who indulge in Our verses adversely, turn away from them – 6:68).
- To get out of a place overtaken by what is Haram: This is because the quest for what is I1alal is obligatory (Fard) on every Muslim.
- To move out in order to avoid being subjected to physical pain: This kind of journey is permissible. In fact, it is a blessing from Allah that one should leave a place where danger exists that he will be physi¬cally hurt by enemies. So, this is his way out of that danger. This fourth kind of journey was first made by Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) . It was to seek deliverance from the pain inflicted on him by his people. When he left ` Iraq for Syria, he had said: إِنِّي مُهَاجِرٌ إِلَىٰ رَبِّي (I am a muhajir [ emigrant ] unto my Lord – 29:26). After him, Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) made a similar journey from Egypt to Madyan: فَخَرَجَ مِنْهَا خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ (he got out from there, fearing, watching – 28:21).
- To move out due to unsuitable climate or likely diseases: This is the fifth kind of journey which has also been permitted by Islam as the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had advised some shepherds to settle by the grooves outside Madinah because the climate of the city did not suit them. Similarly, Sayyidna ` Umar al-Faruq (رض) had sent an executive order to Sayyidna Abu ` Ubaidah (رض) that he should should shift the provincial capital from Jordan to some site located on a higher altitude where the climate is not bad.
But, this is on condition that there be no plague or other epidemic diseases affecting the area. And if, an epidemic does spread out in an area, it is governed by another rule, that is, those who are already pre-sent there do not have to get out from that area. As for those who are outside it, they should not go in there – as it happened with Sayyidna ` Umar al-Faruq* during his journey to Syria. When he reached the bor¬ders of Syria, he was told that a plague has spread throughout that coun¬try. Hearing that, he hesitated from entering that country. He went into repeated consultations with the Sahabah (رض) to resolve this problem. The resolution came only after Sayyidna ` Abd Al-Ralhman ibn Al-` Awf nar¬rated a Hadith in which the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had said:
عَنْ أُسَامَةَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ذَكَرَ الطَّاعُونَ، فَقَالَ: بَقِيَّةُ رِجْزٍ، أَوْ عَذَابٍ أُرْسِلَ عَلَى طَائِفَةٍ مِنْ بني إسرائيل، فَإِذَا وَقَعَ بِأَرْضٍ وَأَنْتُمْ بِهَا فَلاَ تَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا، وَإِذَا وَقَعَ بِأَرْضٍ وَلَسْتُمْ بِهَا فَلاَ تَهْبِطُوا عَلَيْهَا. سنن الترمذي ت بشار (1065)
When plague spreads in an area where you are present, do not go out from there; and when it spreads in an area where you are not already present, do not go in there (after having heard of plague). (This Hadith has been reported by Tirmidhi who calls it Hasan Sahih)
At that time, Sayyidna ` Umar al-Faruq (رض) ، in obedience to the com¬mand of the Hadith, proclaimed that the whole caravan shall turn back and go home.
Some ` U1ama have pointed out that this Hadith has a particular ele¬ment of wisdom in it, that is, the people staying in an area affected by some epidemic are most likely to be infected by its germs. If they were to run away from there, the one who is infected dangerously is not going to survive anyway, but he would infect others wherever he goes. Hence, the wise decision.
- To secure personal property and possessions: When someone feels the danger of being hit by thieves and robbers at a certain place, he should move away from there. The Shari` ah of Islam has permitted doing this as well because the property and possessions of a Muslim are as sacrosanct as his or her life.
These six kinds belong to migration undertaken to run for safety against something. Then, there is the journey undertaken to seek and get something. It has nine kinds:
- The journey for moral self-correction: It means touring and travell¬ing through Allah’s earth for the particular purpose of witnessing the creation of Allah Ta’ ala, the manifestations of His most perfect power, and having a spot observation of the sad end of past peoples in order to learn one’s essential lesson in how to live sensibly and confidently. The Holy Qur’an has exhorted people to embark on such trips, for instance in: أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ (Have they not travelled around the earth and seen how was the end of those before them? – 35:44). ` Ulama have identified the journey undertaken by Sayyidna Dhul-Qarnain as a journey of this kind, while some of them suggest that his journey through the earth was to establish Divine Law on it.
- The journey of Hajj: That it is an Islamic duty subject to some con¬ditions is well known.
- The journey of Jihad: All Muslims know that it is also either oblig¬atory (fard), or necessary (wajib), or recommended (mustahabb).
- The journey for employment: If a person cannot find economic sup-port for his needs in his homeland, it is incumbent on him that he travels elsewhere and look for an employment opportunity there.
- The journey for trading: It means travelling to acquire wealth in excess to the measure of need. According to Islamic legal norms, this too is permissible. Allah Ta’ ala says: لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُوا فَضْلًا مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ : ‘There is no sin on you that you seek the bounty of your Lord (by trading) – 2:198.’ Here, by ‘seeking of bounty’ in this verse, the reference is to trading. When Allah Ta’ ala has allowed trading even during the Hajj trip, then, undertaking a journey for the sole purpose of trading becomes permis¬sible in the first degree.
- The journey for education: That it is an absolute duty in terms of religious need, and that it is an obligation of sufficiency (fard al-kifayah: an obligation which, if discharged by some, would suffice for others) in terms of what is more than needed, is widely known and amply recog¬nized.
- The journey to a place believing it to be sacred and blessed: This is not correct and proper except for the three Masajid and they are: (1) A1-Masjid Al-Haram (The Sacred Mosque of Makkah al-Mukarramah) (2) Al-Masjid An-Nabawiyy (The Mosque of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، in Al-Madinah al-Munawwarah) (3) Al-Masjid Al-Agsa (Baytul-Maqdis). [ This is the view of Al-Qurtubi and Ibn al-Arabi. Other revered scholars of early Islam and their successors have also allowed the undertaking of travel to visit places generally considered blessed – Muhammad Shafi’].
- The journey undertaken to guard Islamic frontiers: This is known as Ribat. There are many Hadith reports which commend it strongly. (For details on Ribat, please see our comments under Verse 200 of Surah ‘Al-` Imran in Ma’ ariful-Qur’an, Volume II)
- The journey to visit relatives and friends: This too has been classed as an act deserving of return and reward. A Hadith of Sahih Muslim mentions the prayer of angels in favour of those who undertake a journey to visit relatives and friends (which is valid only when the purpose of meeting them is to seek the pleasure of Allah Ta ale and not to seek any material gains). Allah knows best. (Qurtubi, p. 349-351, v. 5, Surah An-Nisa’ )
وَمَآ اَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ اِلَّا رِجَالًا نُّوْحِيْٓ اِلَيْهِمْ فَسْـــَٔـلُوْٓا اَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ اِنْ كُنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُوْنَ
According to Ruh al-Ma’ ani, it was after the revelation of the first verse cited above that the Mushrikin of Makkah sent their emissaries to the Jews of Madinah to find out if it was true that all earlier prophets had always been from the genus of men.
Though, included under the Qur’anic expression: أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ (Ah¬ludh-Dhikr) were the people of the Book and believers all together, but it was obvious that the Mushrikin (disbelievers) were to be satisfied only by the statement of non-Muslims – because they themselves were not satisfied with what the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was telling them. So, how could they accept the statement of other Muslims?
The word: ذِکر (dhikr) in the combination of: أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ [ Ahludh-Dhikr : translated here as ‘the people (having the knowledge) of the Message’] is used to carry more than one meaning. One of these is or knowledge. It is in this sense that the Holy Qur’ an has identified the Torah too as Dhikr: وَلَقَدْ كَتَبْنَا فِي الزَّبُورِ مِن بَعْدِ الذِّكْرِ ‘And verily We have written in the Zabur (Scripture, Psalms), after the Dhikr (the Message, Torah) ‘ – 21:105. Similar to this is the statement which follows next: أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ We sent down the Message (The Qur’an) to you – 16:44]. Here, the word: الذِّكْرِ (Adh-Dhikr) means the Qur’an. Therefore, ‘ahludh-dhikr’ literally means ‘the people of knowledge’ (as refined in the cited translation). And who are those referred to as Ahlul-` Ilm or ‘the people of knowledge’ at this place? As apparent in this case, they refer to the scholars among the people of the Book, the Jews and Christians. This is the view of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، Hasan and As-Suddiyy and others. Then, there are scholars who have taken ‘Adh-Dhikr’ at this place as well in the sense of AI-Qur’an, and thus explained ‘Ahludh-Dhikr’ in the sense of Ah¬lul-Qur’an. However, the clearest position taken in this matter is that of Rummani, Zajjaj and Azhari. They say:
المراد بأھل الذکر علماء أخبار الأمم السالفة کَایٔنا من کان فالذکر بمعنی الحفظ کانّه قیل أسألوا المطلعین الخبارا لام یعلموکم بذلک
‘Ahludh-Dhikr’ means authentic historians of past peoples based on this investigative position, this definition includes therein the people of the Book, the Jews and Christians, and the people of the Qur’ an, the Muslims as well.
The word: الْبَيِّنَاتِ (al-bayyinat) in verse 44 means clear signs and mira¬cles, the later being more aptly applicable here. The word: زُّبُر (zubur) is the plural form of: زُّبُرہ (zubarah) which means large pieces of iron as in: آتُونِي زُبَرَ الْحَدِيدِ (give me pieces of the iron – 18:96). Because of the relevance of putting pieces together, writing is called: زَبَر (zabar), and a written book is known as: الزِّبر (az-zibr) with its plural as: الزَّبُورِ (az-zabur). In short, at this point, it means the Book of Allah which includes Torah, Injil, Zabur and Qur’ an.
Non-Mujtahids must follow Mujtahid Imams: The Essence of Taqlid
Though, the sentence: [ So, ask the people (having the knowledge) of the Message, if you do not know – 43] has ap¬peared at this place in relation with a particular subject, but its words are general and are inclusive of all other matters of concern. Therefore, given the way Qur’ an has with words, this is really an important rule of procedure based on reason and revelation both, that is, those who do not know injunctions revealed for them ask those who do, and act according¬ly. It is as simple as that. So, it is the duty of those who do not know that they should act in accordance with what they are told by those who do. This is what Taqlid (to follow in trust) is. Not only that it is an explic¬it command of the Qur’ an, there is just no other way the mass practice of religion can be achieved, even if it was to be argued rationally.
This rule has been in practice throughout the Muslim community right from the age of the noble Sahabah to this day without any division or difference. Even those who disavow Taqlid do not reject the kind of Taqlid under which those who are not ` Alim (knowledgable in religion) should take Fatwa from the ` Ulama’ and act accordingly. And it is obvious that, even if the ` Ulama’ were to give proof of their view from the Qur’an and Sun-nah to masses of people who are unaware, they would still accept these arguments and proofs on the authority of, and trust and confidence in the same ` Ulama’. They themselves do not have the ability to understand and assess arguments and proofs presented. And Taqlid is nothing but that one who does not know places his trust and confidence in some-one who knows and accepts the injunction in question as the injunction of the Shari’ ah, and acts accordingly. This is one Taqlid the justification of which – in fact, the necessity of which, leaves no room for any difference.
However, as for ` Ulama’ who themselves have the ability to under-stand Qur’an and Hadith and know the places where consensus (Ijma`) exists, they are free to act, in the case of such injunctions as have been clearly and explicitly mentioned in Qur’an and Hadith – and in which there exists no difference among the learned Sahabah and Tabi` in as well – in these they can act directly according to Qur’an, Hadith and Ij¬ma`. In these matters, ` Ulama’ need not follow (Taqlid) any Mujtahid. But, there are particular injunctions and rulings which have not been ex¬plicitly spelt out in Qur’an and Sunnah, or wherein there appears to be some contradiction in the ‘ayat (verses) of the Qur’an and the riwayat (narrations) of Hadith, or in which there has come up some difference among the Sahabah and Tabi’in in determining the meaning of Qur’ an and Sunnah – such rulings and injunctions are the object of Ijtihad. In the terminology of Islamic Fiqh (jurisprudence), these are called issues and problems in which Ijtihad is possible. The rule which governs this is that an ` Alien who does not possess the class and rank of Ijtihad, he too must follow one of the Mujtahid Imams in these issues. Just relying on personal opinion, preferring one verse or narration and going by it while dismissing another verse or narration as less weightier is something not permissible for him.
Similarly, there are particular injunctions not mentioned explicitly in the Qur’ an and Sunnah. To deduce these out employing the principles provided by the Qur’an and Sunnah, and to arrive at and determine their precise Islamic legal operative order (al-hukm ash-shari, is the functional prerogative of only those Mujtahids of the Muslim Ummah who occupy the highest station of expertise in the Arabic language, its lexicography, idioms and modalities (turuq) of usage, and who possess an additional mastery over all fields of knowledge related to Qur’an and Sunnah, and above all, who are credited with a conduct of life marked by exemplary piety and god-fearingness. Such people are no less than the great Imam Abu Hanifah, Shafi` i, Malik, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, or Awza` i, jurist Abu Al-Laith رحمۃ اللہ علیہم and others like them. These were people Allah Ta’ ala had specially blessed. They lived closer to the age of prophethood, and that of the Sahabah and the Tabi’in. Under the canopy of this barakah, Allah Ta’ ala had bestowed upon them a very special taste of understand¬ing the principles and objectives of the Shari’ ah and an equally special expertise of extracting textually non-prescribed (ghayr mansus) laws from the laws already prescribed in the sacred texts (mansus) by using the methodology of analogical deduction (qiyas). Now, in such issues and problem where Ijtihad efforts have been exhausted at the highest con-ceivable level, it is necessary even for the ` Ulama’ at large that they must follow one of the Mujtahid Imams. Going by any new opinion contrary to that of the Mujtahid Imams is error.
This is why great men of learning, ` Ulama’, Muhaddithin and Fuqaha’ like Imam al-Ghazali, Razi, Tirmidhi, Tahawi, Ma’zini, Ibn Hu¬mam, Ibn Qudamah and hundreds and thousands of early and later men of learning of the same standard, despite their high expertise in fields of Arabicism and Islamic Religious Law, have always remained voluntarily restricted to following Mujtahid Imams invariably. They never consi¬dered it permissible to give a Fatwa following their own opinion, contrary to all Mujtahid Imams.
Nonetheless, these blessed souls did have that standard ranking in learning and piety that they assessed the sayings of the Mujtahid Imams on the anvil of proofs from the Qur’ an and Sunnah, after which they would go by the saying of the Imam which they found, out of the sayings of the Mujtahid Imams, closest to the Qur’an and Sunnah. But, they never thought it to be permissible either to depart from the approach taken by Mujtahid Imams or to hold some opinion contrary to all of them. The essential reality of Taqlid is no more than what has been stated here.
After that, came a gradual decline in the standards of knowledge and what was originally based on Taqwa and godliness came to be contami¬nated with personal interests and preferences. Under such conditions, given the kind of liberty that people could go by the saying of any one Imam in a religious problem of their choice and opt for the saying of some other Imam in some other problem they choose, the inevitable outcome would be that people would start following their worldly desires in the name of following the Shari’ah by opting for the saying of an Imam which is more conducive to the fulfillment of their worldly desire. This is, as obvious, no following of a religion or Shari’ah. In fact, this would be the following of one’s own interests and desires – which is Haram by the consensus of the entire Muslim Ummah. In Muwafqat, Allamah Shatibi has dealt with this subject in great details. And Ibn Taymiyyah too, de-spite his opposition to Taqlid at large, has rated this type of following in his Fatawa as being Haram by the consensus of the Muslim Ummah.
Therefore, later day jurists of Islam considered it necessary that all those who act according to the precepts of the Shari’ah should be made to follow only one of the Mujtahid Imams. From here began what was to be known as ‘personal following’ (Taqlid Shakhsi) which, in reality, is a functional operative order to keep the system of religion in tact so that people do not succumb to following their own desires under the cover of religion. This is precisely what Sayyidna ` Uthman al-Ghani (رض) did with the total agreement of the noble Sahabah when he restricted the seven versions (سبعَہ احرف) of the Quran to only one version – though all seven versions were reading of the Quran and were revealed through angel Ji¬bra’il as wished by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . But, when the Holy Qur’an spread all over non-Arab countries, the danger that it might be altered or interpolated because of its seven readings became acute. So, it was by a total agreement of the Sahabah that Muslims were instructed to write and recite the Qur’an in one version only.
Sayyidna ` Uthman al-Ghani (رض) arranged to have all copies of the Quran written according to this one version which he dispatched to various parts of the world. The entire Muslim Ummah follows this Quran even to this day. This never means that other versions were not true or authentic. The fact is that this one version was taken to in the interest of a better management of religious affairs and so that the Quran stays protected against any pos¬sible alterations or interpolations.1 Similarly, all Mujtahid Imams are true. When one of them is chosen to be followed, it never means that other Imams are not worthy of being followed. Far from it, it is only a functional arrangement. One decides for himself in terms of his conveni-ence he has in following a particular Imam. But, while doing so, he also considers other Imams as worthy of the same respect.
- All this discussion is based on the theory of Allamah Ibn Jarir (رح) about the “Seven Versions” (سَبعَة أحرف). For a detailed treatment of the subject, please see my introduction at the beginning of volume I. (Muhammad Taqi Usmani)
This is totally similar to a situation where it is considered necessary that only one of the many physicians present in town be chosen and assigned particularly for the treatment of a sick person. The reason is that it is not advisable for the patient that he goes about following his personal opinion in using the prescription of one physician at some time and that of another physician at some other time. Such a method of seeking solutions to one’s medical problem is patently fatal. It should be understood that the choice of a specific physician made by the patient for his treatment never means that other physicians are no experts, or lack the capability of proper treatment.
The reality of the different juristic schools Hanafi, Shafi’ i, Maliki and Hanbali that emerged in the Muslim Ummah was no more than what has been stated. As for giving it the touch of sectarianism and fac¬tionalism or increasing the heat of mutual confrontation and dissention is concerned, it is no valid mission of the revealed religion, nor have the discerning and far-sighted ` Ulama’ ever considered it good. That which happened was that scholarly debate and research by some ` Ulama’ became coloured with polemics which later reached the level of blames and satirical remarks. Then came ignorance-based confrontation which brought people to the outer limit where this state of affairs became the very indicator of being religious!
فإلی اللہ المشتکی ولا حول ولا قوۃ اللہ باللہ العلي العظیم
So, before Allah is the complaint and there is no strength and there is no power except with Allah, the High, the Great.
Note of Caution
What has been written here on the religious question of Taqlid and Ij¬tihad is only a very brief summary of the subject, which is sufficient for Muslims at large. As for scholarly research and details of the subject, they are present in books of Usul al-Fiqh. Worth mentioning are: (1) Kitab al-Muwafqat by Allamah Shatibi, v. IV, Bab Al-Ijtihad; (2) Kitab Ihkam al-Ahkam by Allamah Saifuddin al-‘Amidi, v. III, al-Qa` idah ath-thalitha fi al-mujtahidin; (3) Hujjatullahil-Balighah and ` Iqd al-Jid by Hadrat Shah Waliyyullah Ad-Dihlawi; and (4) Kitab al-Iqtisad fi at-Taqlid wa al-Ijtihad by Hadrat Maulana Ashraf All Thanavi. Inter¬ested scholars may wish to refer back to them.
بِالْبَيِّنٰتِ وَالزُّبُرِ ۭ وَاَنْزَلْنَآ اِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ اِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُوْنَ
Hadith is Necessary to Understand Qur’an : The Rejection of Hadith is Really the Rejection of the Qur’an
The word: اَلذِّکر (adh-dhikr) in verse 44: وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ : “And We sent down the Message (adh-dhikr: The Qur’ an) so that you explain to the people,” means, by consensus, the Holy Qur’ an – and, in this verse, the Holy Prophet has been given the assignment of explaining the meaning of verses revealed to him before people. Herein lies an open proof that the correct understanding of the realities, insights and injunc¬tions of the Holy Qur’an depends on the statement of the Prophet of Islam, Muhammad al-Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . If everyone, by simply acquiring the knowledge of Arabic language and literature, were to become capable of understanding the injunctions of the Qur’ an as Divinely intended, then, the mission of explaining assigned to the Holy Prophet would have been rendered meaningless.
In Al-Muwafqat, Allamah Shatibi has provided detailed proof that the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، the whole of it, is the explanation of the Book of Allah because the Qur’ an has said about the Holy Prophet وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَىٰ خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ : (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) (And surely you are at the height of a sublime nature – 68:4) and which was explained by Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) by saying: کَانَ خُلُقُہُ القُرآن (The Qur’an was his sublime nature). Thus, the outcome is that every word and deed which provenly issued forth from the Holy Prophet is nothing but what was said by the Qur’ an. Some of these are the explanation of a verse of the Holy Qur’ an in express and obvious terms, while in some cases there appears no express mention about them in the Holy Qur’ an, but they are nonetheless based on some kind of revelation, though it was not made part of the Holy Qur’an. Thus, that too, in a certain way, comes under the operative purview of the Qur’an itself. This is because according to the clarification of the Qur’ an nothing that he says is prompted by his personal desire, instead of which, it is a Wahy (revelation) from Allah Ta’ ala: وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَىٰ , (and nor does he talk from desire. It is nothing but a revelation revealed – 53:3-4). This tells us that all acts of worship, dealings with people, personal morals and habits of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) were, all of them, through Divine revelation and have the same authority as that of the Qur’ an. Then, there are occasions when he has done something as based on his Ijtihad in which case it is ultimately – either through Divine revelation or through an absence of any restraining order – corrected and supported. Therefore, that too stands empowered with the authority of Wahy (revelation).
To sum up, it can be said that this verse has declared that the pur¬pose for which the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was sent is the explaining of the Qur’an. This purpose of his mission in this world has also been men¬tioned in several verses of Surah Al-Jumu` ah, and elsewhere too, where it has been referred to as the Ta` lim of Al-Kitab or Teaching of the Book. Now turn your attention to the great treasure of Hadith which one of the most talented and intellectually peerless people of our community, right from the Sababah and Tabi` in all the way to the Muhaddithin of the later period, have guarded more than their lives and delivered it to the Muslim Ummah as fait accompli. These were people who spent their whole lives sifting through this treasure and went on to establish the cat¬egories of Hadith narrations. As for narrations which they did not find matching enough in authority for the purpose of basing Islamic legal in-junctions on them, these they have separated from the treasure of Hadith. Instead, they have simply written standard books based exclu¬sively on these narrations, which have proved correct and reliable after life-long criticisms and researches.
If today a person calls this treasure of Hadith unreliable under one or the other pretext or artifice, it plainly means that the Holy Prophet acted against this Qur’ anic injunction when he did not explain what the Qur’ an had said; or, that he had explained it but his explanation did not remain preserved for posterity. Under either of the two conditions, it is being suggested that the Qur’ an has not remained protected as to its meaning – the responsibility of protecting which has been undertaken by Allah Ta’ ala Himself: وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ [ We, Ourselves, have sent down the Dhikr (the Qur’an) and We are there to protect it – 15:9]. This claim or in¬ference of such a person is contrary to this textual authority (nass) of the Qur’ an. From here it stands proved that a person who refuses to accept the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet as a binding authority of Islam is, in reality, a denier of the Qur’an itself. Na ‘udhubillah: May Allah protect us from it.
اَفَاَمِنَ الَّذِيْنَ مَكَرُوا السَّيِّاٰتِ اَنْ يَّخْسِفَ اللّٰهُ بِهِمُ الْاَرْضَ اَوْ يَاْتِيَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَشْعُرُوْنَ
In verses appearing previously: ثُمَّ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُخْزِيهِمْ (Then, on the day of Judgment, He will put them to disgrace – 27), disbelievers were warned against the punishment of the Hereafter. In the present verses, they have been further warned that it is also possible that they are caught in the punishment from Allah right here in this world much before the pun-ishment of the Hereafter, may be you are sunk into the earth you are sit¬ting on, or you are seized by the punishment of Allah coming from a di¬rection totally inconceivable for you. This is how it happened during the Battle of Badr when they received a punishment at the hands of some ragtag Muslims arrayed against their thousand strong armed young-men, something they would have never perceived as possible. Or, it was also probable that they be seized by some Divine punishment while roaming about freely, such as, they be hit by a fatal disease, or that they run into an accident by falling down from some height, or simply die by colliding against some hard object. Also possible is yet another form of punishment when punishment may not come all of a sudden, but a gener¬al decrease sets in causing wealth, health, fitness, means of sustenance and comfort and peace go on shrinking so much so that the day comes when the people so punished disappear from the face of the earth for/good.
The word: تَخَوُّفٍ (takhawwuf) appearing in verse 47 is obviously a deri¬vation from: خَوف (khawf: fear, apprehension). Some commentators have explained this verse in terms of this very sense by saying that one group of people be seized in punishment so that the second group gets appre¬hensive. Similarly, the second group is seized in punishment which makes the third group become apprehensive. Finally, struck with dread sequentially, comes the end for all of them.
But, the early exegete of the Qur’ an, Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) and Mujahid and other Imams of Tafsir have taken the word: تَخَوُّفٍ (takhawwuf) in the sense of: تَنَقُّص (tanaqqus). So, it is in accordance with this Tafsir that it has also been translated in the later sense of ‘reducing or decreasing gradually.’
The noble tabi i Sa’id ibn al-Musaiyyab says: When Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) also faced some hesitation about the sense of this word, he addressed the Sahabah from the Minbar and asked them as to what they understood to be the meaning of ‘takhawwuf? The audience at large remained silent. But, a person from the tribe of Hudhayl submitted: 0 Commander of the Faithful, this is a particular idiom of our tribe. We use this word in the sense of tanaqqus, that is, to decrease gradually. Sayyidna ` Umar asked: Do the Arabs use this word in the sense of tanagqus in their poetry? He said that they do, and cited a couplet by Abu Kabir al-Hudha¬li, a poet from his tribe, in which this word was used in the sense of decreasing gradually. Thereupon, Sayyidna ` Umar said: 0 people, learn about the poetry of Jahiliyyah because there lies the key to the explana¬tion of your Book and the sense of your speech.
For the Understanding of Qur’an, a Passing Knowledge of Arabic is Not Sufficient
The first thing the report referred to above proves is that the ability to speak and write the Arabic language is not enough for the understand¬ing of Qur’an. Rather, necessary for this purpose is a level of effeciency and awareness which could help one understand the classical work done during the early period of the Arabs of Jahiliyyah – because the Qur’ an has been revealed in that language and idiom. Learning Arabic litera¬ture on that level is incumbent on Muslims.
Reading Poets from Jahiliyyah is Permissible, Even if Full of Pagan Absurdities
This also tells us that, in order to understand the Qur’an and to understand the Arabic language and its usage during the period of Jahi¬liyyah, it is permissible to read and teach the poetry of that period. Though, it is obvious that such poetry will be full of pagan themes and customs highlighting pagan sayings and doings counter to Islam. But, such was the need to understand the Qur’ an that reading and teaching it was declared to be permissible.
اَوْ يَاْخُذَهُمْ عَلٰي تَخَــوُّفٍ ۭ فَاِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ لَرَءُوْفٌ رَّحِيْمٌ
Even the Punishment of the World is Mercy in Disguise
In the verses cited above, after having mentioned various punish¬ments which could seize disbelievers within this world, it was said in the end: فَإِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ لَرَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ (So, indeed your Lord is Very Kind Very Merciful).
First of all, by using the word: رَبّ (Rabb: Lord) here, the hint given is that all these punishments which overtake human beings in this world are there to warn them as part of the dictates of Divine mercy. After that, by introducing the word: رَءُوفٌ(Ra uf: Kind) headed by the intensify¬ing particle lam) that is, the lam of ta’kid), and thus by placing stress on the fact that Allah Ta’ ala was Very Kind and Very Merciful, the hint given was that warnings sent during the life of the world were, in real¬ity, called for by His intrinsic Kindness and Mercy so that heedless men and women would learn from the warning and correct their deeds (before comes ‘the last spasm of mass extinction’ they themselves are talking about at the closing of the twentieth century, but are still not ready to learn, believe and correct).
لِلَّذِيْنَ لَا يُؤْمِنُوْنَ بِالْاٰخِرَةِ مَثَلُ السَّوْءِ ۚ وَلِلّٰهِ الْمَثَلُ الْاَعْلٰى ۭ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيْزُ الْحَكِيْمُ
Also at the end of the third verse (60), in: وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ (And He is the Mighty, the Wise), there is a hint that taking the birth of a baby girl to be nuisance and disgrace, and hiding from people because of it, amount to challenging Divine wisdom – as the creation of male and female among the created is the very requisite of wisdom. (Ruh a1-Bayan)
Clear indications are visible in these verses that taking the birth of a girl in the family to be a disaster or disgrace is not permissible under Islam. This is done by disbelievers. Quoting Shr’ah (شرعہ ) Tafsir Ruh al-Bayan also says that a Muslim should be happier at the birth of a girl in the family so that it becomes a refutation of the act of the people of Ja-hiliyyah. Says a Hadith: Blessed is the woman who gives birth to a girl in her first pregnancy. That the Arabic word: اِنَاث (inath: females) has been made to precede the word for ‘males’ in the verse of the Qur’ an: وَيَهَبُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ الذُّكُورَ (He bestows on whomsoever He wills females and bestows on whomsoever He wills males – 42:49) indicates that the birth of a girl from the first pregnancy is better.[
In another Hadith, it is said: Whoever finds any of such girls en-trusted to his care, and he treats them fairly and favourably, then, these girls will stand as a curtain between him and Hell. (Ruh al-Bayan)
To sum up, it can be said that taking the birth of a girl to be bad is a detestable custom of the pagan period. Muslims must abstain from it. In fact, they should be pleased and satisfied with the promise of Allah against it. Allah knows best.
وَاِنَّ لَكُمْ فِي الْاَنْعَامِ لَعِبْرَةً ۭ نُسْقِيْكُمْ مِّمَّا فِيْ بُطُوْنِهٖ مِنْۢ بَيْنِ فَرْثٍ وَّدَمٍ لَّبَنًا خَالِصًا سَاۗىِٕغًا لِّلشّٰرِبِيْنَ
The pronoun in: بُطُونِہٖ (butunihi: their bellies) reverts back to: (al-an am: cattle). Since the word al-an’ am is plural in the feminine gender, it required that the word used for it should have been: بُطُونِھَا (butuniha), as it appears in Surah Al-Mu’minun: نُّسْقِيكُم مِّمَّا فِي بُطُونِهَا (We provide you, out of what there is in their bellies – 23:21).
Al-Qurtubi explains this by saying that consideration has been made of the meaning of the plural in Surah Al-Mu’minun where the pronoun has been used in the feminine gender. And, in Surah Al-Nahl, the pronoun has been used in the masculine gender in consideration of the plu¬ral word as such. Examples of this usage abound in Arabic where a sin¬gular pronoun is made to revert to a plural word.
As for bringing out pure milk from between feces and blood, Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbss (رض) said: When the fodder eaten by an ani¬mal settles in its stomach, the stomach heats it up as a result of which the waste by-product from the fodder settles down leaving milk above with blood being on top of it. Then, nature has entrusted the next job with the liver. It separates the three and directs them to where they be-long. Blood goes to veins. Milk goes to the udder of the animal. Now, left in the stomach is waste which is excreted as feces or dung.
- From this verse we learn that eating good food is not against Zuhd (the way of life marked by not inclining towards worldly enjoyments for the sake of maintaining an ideal state of spiritual purity) specially when it has been acquired with Halal (lawful) means and provided that no ex¬travagance has been made in it. This is as stated by Hadrat Hasan al-Basri (رح) . (Al-Qurtubi)
- The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said: When you eat something, say: اللھم بارک لٰنا فیه وَ اَطعِمنَا خَیراً مِّنہُ Y Allah, bless it for us and have us eat better than it.
And he said: When you drink milk, say اللھم بارک لٰنا فیہ وَ زِدنَا مِنہُ Allah, bless it for us and give us more of it.
In the second prayer, he did not ask for something ‘better than it’ (as in the first prayer) for, in human cuisine, there is no nutrient better than milk. Therefore, nature has made milk the very first food given to every man and animal through breast-feeding by mothers. (Al-Qurtubi)
وَمِنْ ثَمَرٰتِ النَّخِيْلِ وَالْاَعْنَابِ تَتَّخِذُوْنَ مِنْهُ سَكَرًا وَّرِزْقًا حَسَـنًا ۭ اِنَّ فِيْ ذٰلِكَ لَاٰيَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يَّعْقِلُوْنَ
Described in the previous verses were blessings of Allah Ta’ ala which manifest the stunning marvel of Divine power and creativity. Of these, the first to be mentioned was milk which nature has gifted human be¬ings with after having made it go through its own processing in the bel¬lies of animals separating it from feces and blood and delivering it as a finished product, pure and pleasant, food and drink in one. No subse¬quent human effort or artifice is needed here. Therefore, the word used in the text is: n نُسقِیکُم (nusqikum: We provided you with milk to drink).’ The stress is self-explanatory.
After that it was said that human beings do make things from some fruits of the date-palms and grape-vines as well, which serve them as food, and other benefits. The hint ingrained here is that there is some intervening role played by human ingenuity, innovation and artifice in making the fruits from date-palms and grape-vines yield what they eat or benefit from in other ways. As a result of the factor of intervention, two kinds of things were made. The first is what intoxicates, the com¬mon form of which is liquor. The second is: Rizq Hasan, that is, good provision, like dates and grapes which everyone is welcome to use as fresh food, or dry it and store it for later use. The purpose is that Allah Ta’ ala, in His perfect power, has given to human beings fruits like dates and grapes, and along with it, He also gave human beings the choice to make things they eat and drink out of them. Now the option is theirs. Let them make what they would: Make what intoxicates and knocks their re¬ason out, or make food out of them and get strength and energy!
According to this tafsir, this verse cannot be used to prove the lawfulness of that which intoxicates, that is, liquor.` This is because the purpose here is to state the nature of Divine blessings and the different forms they could take when used. It goes without saying that these remain the Divine blessings they are under all conditions. Take the example of foods, drinks and many things of benefit. People use them.
Some also use them in ways which are not permissible. But, the incidence of someone using things wrongfully would not stop a blessing from remaining the blessing it is. Therefore, this is no place to go into details as to which of the uses is lawful and which is otherwise and unlawful. Nevertheless, not to be missed here is the delicate hint given by setting up “rizq Hasan” (good provision) in contrast with “sakar” (intoxicant) which tells us that “sakar” is not a good provision. According to the majority* of commentators, “sakar” means what intoxicates. (Ruh al-Ma ani, Qurlubi, Jassas)
These verses are Makki by consensus. As for the unlawfulness of liqu¬or, it came after that in Madinah. Though liquor was lawful at the time of the revelation of this verse and Muslims used to drink openly, yet, even at that time, a hint was given in this verse towards the fact that drinking of liquor was not good. After that, came the specific injunctions of the Qur’ an which made liquor Haram (unlawful) clearly, emphatically and categorically. (Condensed from Al-Jassas and Al-Qurtubi)
وَاَوْحٰى رَبُّكَ اِلَى النَّحْلِ اَنِ اتَّخِذِيْ مِنَ الْجِبَالِ بُيُوْتًا وَّمِنَ الشَّجَرِ وَمِمَّا يَعْرِشُوْنَ
* Some ` Ulama have also taken it to mean vinegar, or non-intoxicating wine (nabidh) [ Jassas & Qurlubi ] but it is not necessary to report details about this element of difference.
The first word: أَوْحَىٰ (awha) in the first sentence of verse 68 has not been used here in its technical sense of Way or Revelation. Instead, it appears here in its literal sense which happens when the speaker com¬municates to the addressee something particular, secretly, in a way that the other person remains unable to understand that which has been com-municated. Hence, its translation as ‘revealed’ is also in a literal sense.
As for the next word: اَلنَّحل (an-nahl), it is well-established that the honey bee is a distinct entity among non-human life forms particularly in terms of its intelligence and management. Therefore, the way it has been addressed by Allah Ta` ala shows a distinct elegance of its own. For the rest of the creation, particularly for life forms in the animal and insect kingdom, it was said: أَعْطَىٰ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلْقَهُ ثُمَّ هَدَىٰ (He gave everything its form, then provided it with guidance – Taha, 20:50), something stated as a universal law for all of them. But, for this tiny creature, it was specially said: أَوْحَىٰ رَبُّكَ (And your Lord revealed) which has been designed to indi¬cate that it has a prominent status among other life forms by virtue of its intelligence, sense and functional insight.
The intelligence of the honey bees can be gauged fairly well by their system of governance. The system of this tiny flier’s life operates on the principles of human politics and government. All management rests with one big bee which is the ruling head of all bees. It is her managerial skill and efficient distribution of work which helps run the whole system soundly and safely. Certainly so unique is her system and so established are its rules and regulations that human mind has but to marvel at the phenomena of the bee.
This ‘queen’ itself lays six to twelve thousand eggs in a period of three weeks. By its size, physique and demeanor, it is distinguishable from other bees. This ‘queen’, following the principle of division of labour, appoints its subjects to handle different matters. Some of them serve on guard duty and do not allow some unknown outsider to enter into the hive. Some stand to protect eggs. Some nurture and train baby bees. Some serve as architects and engineers. The compartments of most roofs made by them range between twenty to thirty thousand. Some bees collect and deliver wax to architects which build homes. They procure this wax material from a whitish powder settled upon vegetation. This material is commonly visible on sugarcane. Some of them sit on different kinds of fruits and flowers and suck their juices which turns into honey while in their bellies. This honey is their food and the food of their children. And the same is, for all of us too, the essence of taste and nutrition, and the prescription of medicine and remedy.
These different parties discharge their assigned duties very enthu¬siastically and obey the command of their ‘queen’ most obediently. If one of them happens to perch on filth, the guards of the hive stop the unwary worker on the outside gate and the ‘queen’ kills it. One can only wonder about this system and the performance of its managers and workers. (Al-Jawahir)
The first instruction given through: أَوْحَىٰ رَبُّكَ (your Lord revealed) appears in the next sentence: أَنِ اتَّخِذِي مِنَ الْجِبَالِ بُيُوتًا (Make homes in the moun¬tains) which mentions the making of homes. At this point, it is worth not¬ing that every animal makes some sort of a sheltered arrangement to live anyway, then, why is it that bees have been particularly commanded to build ‘homes’ and that too with such considered attention? Further-more, the word used here is that of: بُیُوت (buyut) which is generally used for the places where human beings live, their homes. By doing this two hints have been given. The first hint is towards the fact: Since bees have to prepare honey, therefore, they should first make a safe home. The sec-ond hint is toward another fact: The homes they make will not be like the homes of common animals, instead, their design and construction will be extraordinary. As such, their homes are highly distinct, far differ¬ent from those of other animals, virtually mind-boggling. Their homes are hexagonal in shape. Measuring them with a pair of compasses and rulers will hardly spell out a difference. Other than the hexagonal shape, they never choose any shape such as that of a square, pentagon or any others as some of their corners turn out to be functionally useless.
Allah Ta’ ala did not simply order the bees to make homes, He also told them as to where they should be located, that is, it should be at some altitude because such places help provide fresh, clean and al¬most-filtered air flow for the production of honey. Thus, honey stays pro¬tected from polluted air as well as from incidences of breakage or dam-age to the hives. So, it was said: مِنَ الْجِبَالِ بُيُوتًا وَمِنَ الشَّجَرِ وَمِمَّا يَعْرِشُونَ. (Make homes in the mountains, in the trees and in the structures they raise) so that honey could be prepared in a hygienically safe way. This was the first instruction.
ثُمَّ كُلِيْ مِنْ كُلِّ الثَّمَرٰتِ فَاسْلُكِيْ سُبُلَ رَبِّكِ ذُلُلًا ۭ يَخْرُجُ مِنْۢ بُطُوْنِهَا شَرَابٌ مُّخْتَلِفٌ اَلْوَانُهٗ فِيْهِ شِفَاۗءٌ لِّلنَّاسِ ۭ اِنَّ فِيْ ذٰلِكَ لَاٰيَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يَّتَفَكَّرُوْنَ
The second instruction appears in: ثُمَّ كُلِي مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ (Then, eat from all the fruits) where the bee is being commanded to suck juices from fruits and flowers as it desires and likes. No doubt, what is said here is: مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ (from all the fruits). But, obviously, the word: کُلّ (kull) used here does not mean the fruits and flowers of the whole world. Instead of that, it means those within easy reach, and which serve the desired purpose. This word: کُلّ (kull) has also appeared in relation to the event concerning the queen of Saba’ where it was said: وَأُوتِيَتْ مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ (she has got everything – An-Naml, 27:23). It is obvious that ‘all’ or ‘every’ in this sense do not denote totality without exception to the limit that the queen of Saba’ be required to have a personal aeroplane, Rolls Royce and palace train! What is meant here is what she needed to have as complement to her function as the ruler of the time. So, here too, the expression: مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ (from all the fruits) means nothing but this. As for the bee sucking juices from fruits and flowers, it can be said that the molecular composi¬tion of juices she sucks is extremely refined and precious, the extraction of which in identical measure through mechanical means even in our ad¬vanced scientific age cannot be accomplished as efficiently.
Then comes the third instruction: فَاسْلُكِي سُبُلَ رَبِّكِ ذُلُلًا (and go along the pathways of your Lord made easy for you). When the bee goes to suck juices from fruits and flowers to places far away from home, then, obvi¬ously enough, its return to home base should have been difficult. But, Allah Ta’ ala has made flight routes easy for it. Thus, it goes miles away and returns home without straying or getting lost. Allah Ta’ ala has made for it flying routes in the air because in going by the circuitous pathways on land, there is the likelihood of going astray. So, it can be said that Allah Ta’ ala has subjugated the air space for this humble bee so that it can go home without any let or hindrance.
After that, the real outcome of this revealed command was stated in the following words: يَخْرُجُ مِن بُطُونِهَا شَرَابٌ مُّخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَانُهُ فِيهِ شِفَاءٌ لِّلنَّاسِ (From their bellies comes out a drink of various colours in which there is cure for peo¬ple – 69). The difference in colour is caused by the difference of climate and by what they suck from. This is the reason why a particular area with abundance of particular kinds of fruits and flowers does leave its ef¬fect and taste on the honey produced in that area. Since honey comes in the form of a liquid substance, therefore, it was called ‘sharab’ (drink). Even in this sentence, present there is a decisive proof of the Oneness and Power of Allah Ta’ ala. Is it not that this tasty and blissful drink comes out from the belly of a tiny animal which, in itself, is armed with poison? The emergence of antidote from poison is really a unique exhibit of the most perfect power of Allah Ta’ ala. Then, such is the staggering working of nature that milk from milch animals does not turn red or yel¬low under the effect of different climates and foods while honey from the bee does take different colours.
As for the oft-quoted statement: فِيهِ شِفَاءٌ لِّلنَّاسِ (in which there is cure for people), it can be said that honey is, on the one hand, an energy-giving food as well as a delicacy in terms of taste and flavor, while on the other hand, it serves as a remedial prescription for diseases too. And why not? This delicate mobile machine which goes about extracting pure and pow-erful essences from all kinds of fruits and flowers after which it returns home to store them in its safe compartments specially designed, con¬structed and guarded for a purpose. Now, if natural herbs and plants contain ingredients which have medicinal and curative properties, why would everything disappear from their essences? Honey is used as medi¬cine directly in phlegmatic diseases while in other diseases it is recom¬mended in combination with other ingredients. Expert physicians in the Greco-Arab medical tradition include it specially as a binder in their me¬dicinal electuaries. Another property of honey is that it does not get spoiled itself and, on top of it, it helps preserve other things as well for a long time. This is the reason why eastern physicians have been using it as an alternate of alcohol for thousands of years. Honey is laxative and proves efficient in expelling unhealthy substances from the stomach.
A Sahabi mentioned the sickness of his brother before the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . He advised him to give his brother a drink of honey. He returned the next day and reported that his brother was still sick. He re¬peated his advice. On the third day, when he again said that there was no change in his condition, he said: صَدَقَ اللہُ وَ کَذ۔ بَ بَطنُ اَخیِکَ (The word of Allah is true. The stomach of your brother is a liar). The sense was that there is nothing wrong with the suggested remedy. It was the particular temperamental condition which had caused delay in the actual effect of the remedy. When the treatment with honey was repeated after that, the patient got well.
At this place in the Holy Qur’ an, the word: شِفَاءً (shifa’: remedy, cure, bliss) appears as common noun (nakirah) in the context of an affirmative sentence. That it is shifa’ for every disease is not apparent on this basis.
But, the nunnation (tanwin) of ‘shifa” which carries the sense of great¬ness does necessarily prove that the shita’ in honey is of a great and dis¬tinct nature. Then there are those spiritually valiant servants of Allah who just have no doubt about honey being a cure for any disease what¬soever. So firmly convinced they are with their staunch belief in the very outward meaning of this statement of their Rabb that they would treat an abscess or an eye with honey, not to mention other diseases of the body. According to reports about Sayyidna Ibn ` Umar (رض) ، even if an ab¬scess showed up on his body, he would treat it by applying honey on it. When some of the people asked him as to why would he do that, he said in reply: Is it not that Allah Ta’ ala has said about it in the Holy Qur’ an: ~t.17 ~I a ; (In it, there is cure for people). (Al-Qurtubi)
Allah Ta’ ala deals with His servants in harmony with the belief they have about their Rabb. It was said in Hadith Qudsi*:
اَنَا عِندَ ظَنِّ عَبدي بِي
I am with the belief of My servant in Me.
* Al-Hadith Al-Qudsi: The Sanctified Hadith: A technical term for what has been com¬municated to the Holy Prophet by his Rabb. Its meanings are from Allah which He reveals for His Rases, through inspiration or dream, while its words are from the Rasul of Allah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) .
In the last sentence of verse 69: إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ (Surely, in that there is a sign for a people who ponder), Allah Ta’ ala has, after having given examples of His perfect power mentioned above, invited human be¬ings once again to look into them and think about them. Allah Ta’ ala, by causing rains to come down, gives new life to dead lands. Winding through the impurities of feces and blood, He makes pipelines of pure and pleasant milk flow for you. On date-palms and grape-vines, He grows sweet fruits from which you make all sorts of syrups and pre-serves. Through a tiny little living creature with a poisonous bite, He pro-vides for you what is an excellent combination of food, drink, taste, fla¬vor, and cure.
Would you still keep calling gods and goddesses of your making? Would your worship and fidelity still remain detached from your real Creator and Master and attached to lifeless idols of stone and wood? Would your reason still keep looking for escape from truth by suggesting that this whole phenomena is some charismatic working of blind, deaf and inert matter? Face truth, think, realize. These countless masterpieces of Divine creativity, marvels of wisdom and design, and the finest of decisions based on absolute intelligence are the loudest of heralds an¬nouncing that our Creator is One, unique and wise, sole object of wor¬ship, obedience and fidelity. He alone is the remover par excellence of all difficulties and He alone deserves gratitude and glorification as due.
- The verse tells us that, beside human beings, there is conscious¬ness and intelligence in other living creatures too: وَإِن مِّن شَيْءٍ إِلَّا يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِهِ (There is nothing which does not recite His praises – Al-Isra, 17:44). How-ever, the degrees of intelligence are different. The intelligence of human beings is more perfect than those of any other living creatures. This is the reason why they have been obligated with the precepts and injunc¬tions of the Shari` ah. Again, this is the reason why a man or woman who does not remain rational due to insanity, does not remain so obligated very much like other creatures.
- Another distinction of the honey bee is that the Hadith mentions its superiority. The Holy Prophet said: اَلذَّبانُ کُلُّھا فِی الںَّار یَجعَلُھَا عَذَاباً لِّاَھلِ النَّارِ اِلَّاالنَّحل
All bees will go to Hell (like other hurting creatures). They will be made a punishment for the people of Hell, except the honey bee (which will not go to Hell) – (Nawadir al-Usul with reference to Al-Qurtubi)
According to another Hadith, he has prohibited its killing Abu Dawud.
- Traditional physicians doubt that honey is the excretion or saliva of the bee. Aristotle had placed bees in a hive made of glass and had closed it. He wished to find out their working system. But, these bees first mounted a curtain made with wax and mud on the inner side of the glass cage and did not start their work until such time that they became certain of having become totally veiled from sight.
Giving an example of the lowness of worldly life, Sayyidna Ali (رض) said:
أشرَف لِبَاس بَنِي آدَمَ فِیه لُعَابُ دُدَۃِ وَّ اَشرفُ شَرَابِه رَجِیعُ نَحلَۃِ
The finest dress of the progeny of Adam is saliva from a tiny in-sect and the finest of his drinks is the excrement of a bee.
- From the statement: فِيهِ شِفَاءٌ لِّلنَّاسِ (in which, there is cure for people) we also find out that treating diseases with medicine is permissible because Allah Ta` ala has mentioned it as a reward and blessing.
Elsewhere it has been said: وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ مَا هُوَ شِفَاءٌ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ. and We send down from the Qur’an what is cure and mercy for believers – Al-Isra , 17:82). Hadith induces people to go for treament of diseases and use medicines. Some Companions asked the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) : Should we use medicine? He said: Why not? Do take advantage of treatment because for every disease Allah has created, He has also created a matching medicine. But, there is no cure for one disease. They asked: Which disease is that? He said: Extreme old age. (Abu Dawud & Tirmidhi from Al-Qurtubi)
There is yet another narration from Sayyidna Khuzaymah (رض) . He says: Once I asked the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) that the practice of blowing on the sick and seeking to cast off diseases which we are used to, or treat ourselves with medicines are the kind of arrangements we make to stay safe against diseases. Can these change the destiny determined by Allah Ta` ala? He said: These too are nothing but the very forms of Divinely-ap¬pointed destiny.
To sum up, there is consensus of all ` Ulama’ on the justification of seeking treatment and using medicine. Many Ahadith and reports from the Sahabah are available in support. If one of the children of Sayyidna Ibn ` Umar (رض) was stung by a scorpion, he would give him an antidote and seek to help the child to get well through the benediction of supplica¬tory recitations. He treated a person suffering from partial paralysis by branding. (Al-Qurtubi)
It has been reported about some Muslim mystics (Sufiya’ ) that they did not like being medically treated. This is also evident from the reported behaviour of some of the Sahabah as well. For instance, according to a report, Sayyidna Ibn Mas۔ ud (رض) fell sick. Sayyidna ` Uthman (رض) came to visit him and asked him: What is it that ails you? He replied: I am worried about my sins. Sayyidna ` Uthman (رض) said: Then, do you wish to have something? He said: I wish to have the mercy of my Rabb. Sayyidna ` Uthman (رض) said: If you like I can call a physician? The answer he gave was: Believe me, it is the ‘Physician’ Himself who has put me down (on the sick bed).
But, occurrences of this nature do not go to prove that these blessed souls took medical treatment to be reprehensible (makruh). May be, at that time, it was not upto their personal taste and inclination. There-fore, it was because of their inability to accept it temperamentally that they did not favour to go by it. This is a transitory phase of psyche when one comes under the overwhelming logic and effect of the state one is in, and which cannot be used as an argument to prove that medical treat¬ment is either impermissible or reprehensible. The very request made to Sayyidna Ibn Masud (رض) by Sayyidna ` Uthman (رض) that he be allowed to bring a physician for him is, in itself, a proof of the fact that treatment is permissible – rather, there are situations when doing so becomes manda¬tory as well.
وَاللّٰهُ خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ يَتَوَفّٰىكُمْ ڐوَمِنْكُمْ مَّنْ يُّرَدُّ اِلٰٓى اَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ لِكَيْ لَا يَعْلَمَ بَعْدَ عِلْمٍ شَـيْــــًٔـا ۭاِنَّ اللّٰهَ عَلِيْمٌ قَدِيْرٌ
Mentioned previously were various states of water, vegetation, cattle and honey bee through which Allah Ta’ ala had reminded human beings of His perfect power of creation and of His blessings for the created. Now, through the words of the present verse, they have been invited to ponder over the very state they are in. Human beings were nothing. Allah Ta’ ala blessed them with existence. Then, by sending death when He willed, He terminated that blessing. As for some others, they are, much before their death, carried to such a stage of extreme old age that their senses do not work, they lose the strength of their hands and feet. They understand nothing, nor can they remember what they do. This change in their world-view and self-view proves that knowledge and power reside in the exclusive domain of the One who is the Creator and Master.
The expression مِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ (and there are some among you who are carried back to-the worst part of the age) gives a hint that man has seen a time of weakness earlier too. This was the early stage of child-hood marked by its lack of understanding and physical strength, and de¬pendence on others in eating, drinking, getting up and sitting down. Then came youth, the time to prosper and move ahead. Then, gradually, man is carried to a stage of the same age of helplessness as it was in early childhood.
The expression أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ (translated as ‘the worst part of the age’ ) means the extreme old age when all physical and mental faculties become weak and confused. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) always prayed: اللھُمَّ اِنِّی اَعُوذُبِکَ مَن سُوءِ العُمَرِ مِن اَن اُرَدَّ اَلٰی اَرذَلِ العُمرِ
‘0 Allah, I seek refuge with You from the evil of age’
and according to another narration:
اللَّھُمَّ اِنِّی اَعُوذُ بِکَ مِن اَن اَرُدَّ اِلٰی اَرذَلِ العُمِرُ
‘0 Allah, I seek refuge with you from that I be carried to the worst part of the age.’
The definition of: أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ (the worst part of the age) remains undeter¬mined. However, the definition appearing above seems to be weightier, something to which the Qur’ an too has alluded by saying: لِكَيْ لَا يَعْلَمَ بَعْدَ عِلْمٍ شَيْئًا (that he knows nothing after having knowledge) that is, the age in which he is in, senses do not remain active as a result of which a person forgets everything he knows.
This ‘worst part of the age’ أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ has been defined variously. Some say it is the age of eighty years while some others say it is ninety. Also reported from Sayyidna Ali (رض) ، there is a statement which puts it at seventy five. (Sahilhayn as quoted by Mazhari)
After that appears the tersely-phrased sentence also mentioned above: (that he knows nothing after having knowledge). This is about the phenomena of old age (which, in our time, has given birth to the study of gerontology). When one is made to reach its extreme stage, one is left with no functional strength, neither physical nor rational. What he knows now, he may not know moments later. All information he has, he may forget and become like a child born yesterday who has no knowledge or awareness or understanding or intelligence. Hadrat ` Ikrimah (رض) says: ‘This state will not prevail upon the reciter of the Qur’ an.’
In the last sentence of the verse, it was said: إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلِيمٌ قَدِيرٌ (Surely, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Powerful). It means that from knowledge He knows everyone’s age, and from power He does what He wills. If He wills, He can have a strong young man be overtaken by the signs of the worst part of old age, and should He so will, even a hundred-year old aged man could remain a strong youngman. All this lies within the power of that sole Being in whose divinity there is no partner or associate.
وَاللّٰهُ فَضَّلَ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلٰي بَعْضٍ فِي الرِّزْقِ ۚ فَمَا الَّذِيْنَ فُضِّلُوْا بِرَاۗدِّيْ رِزْقِهِمْ عَلٰي مَا مَلَكَتْ اَيْمَانُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِيْهِ سَوَاۗءٌ ۭ اَفَبِنِعْمَةِ اللّٰهِ يَجْحَدُوْنَ
In the previous verses, by referring to major manifestations of His knowledge and power and blessings which descend on human beings, Allah Ta` ala has the natural proof of His Oneness (Tauhid). By looking at it, even a person of ordinary commonsense would not accept that any created being can hold a share with Allah Ta’ ala in His attributes of knowledge and power, or in any of the others. In the present verse, this very subject of Tauhid has been brought into focus by citing the example of a case in mutual dealing.
It is being said here that Allah Ta’ ala has not, in His infinite wis¬dom, and in view of His consideration for human good, made all human beings equals in terms of rizq or provision. Instead, He has given some of them preference over some others establishing different degrees therein. Someone was made so rich that he owns a lot of things, keeps a staff of all sorts of servers, spends as he wishes, and his servers too benefit through him. Then, someone was made to work for others who, far from spending on others, was cut out to receive his own expenditure from oth¬ers. Then, someone was made to be somewhere in the middle, neither so rich as to spend on others, nor so poor and needy as to be dependent upon others even in the necessities of life.
Everyone is aware of the outcome of this natural distribution that he who was given preference in provision and made rich and need-free would never accept to distribute his wealth among his slaves and ser¬vants in a way that they too become his equals in wealth.
Understand the drive of this argument by applying this example on polytheists. They too accept that the idols and other created things they worship are, after all, created and owned by Allah Ta’ ala. If so, how can they suggest that the created and the owned become equals to their Crea¬tor and Master? Do such people see all these signs and hear all these words, yet go on to ascribe partners and equals to Allah, the necessary result of which is that they reject the blessings given by Allah? Because, if they had admitted that all these blessings have been given by Allah Ta` ala without the intervention of any self-carved idol, icon, human being and Jinn, then, how could they have equated these things with Allah Ta` ala?
The same subject has been taken up in the following verse of Surah Ar-Rum: كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ مِنكُمْ We have given for you an example from your own people. Have those who are your subjects become sharers with you in the provision given to you by Us whereby you are equal in it? (30:28)
The outcome of this too is: When you do not like to let your servants and your slaves whom you own become equal to yourself, how can you like for Allah that He, and things created and owned by Him, become equal to Him?
The Difference in Degrees of Economic Status is Mercy for Mankind
This verse makes it clear that the presence of different degrees economic status among human beings – that someone is poor, another rich and yet another somewhere in the middle – is not accidental. It is as dic¬tated by the wisdom of Allah Ta’ ala, as required by considerations for human good, and is mercy for mankind. If this state (of human society) were not to prevail and if all human beings were to become equal in wealth and possessions, it would have caused a breach of function in world order. Therefore, since the time the world became populated, all human beings have never been equal in terms of wealth and property, in any period, or age, nor can they be. Should such an equality were to be created compulsorily, it will take only a few days when disruption and disorder become openly visible through the entire spectrum of human dealings. Allah Ta’ ala has created human beings with varying degrees of temperaments as conditioned by intelligence, strength and functional ability. They have been further classified as low, high and average, a fact which cannot be rejected by any reasonable person. Similarly, it is also inevitable that there be different degrees in wealth and property as well so that every single person is rewarded in terms of individual capability. If the capable and the incapable were made equal, it wi11 discou¬rage the capable. When the capable person has to stay at par with the in-capable in economic pursuits, what other motivation would compel him to go on striving and achieving excellence? The necessary outcome of such an approach will be no other but the demise of excellence acquired through functional capability.
Qur’anic Injunctions Against Concentration of Wealth
Whereas the Creator of the universe gave preference to some over others in physical and rational faculties, and established variance in pro-vision, wealth and property, subject to it, He has also established a strong system of economic equilibrium which aims that no particular group or party or a few individuals take over the treasures of wealth and centers of economic activity. This system also guards against the conse¬quences of such a takeover which dries up the very field where capable people could thrive by utilizing their physical, intellectual and technical capabilities and advance economically. For this purpose, it was said in the Holy Qur’ an: كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ مِنكُمْ. It means: (We made the law of distribution of wealth,) so that wealth does not come to be revolving among the rich from among you – Al-Hashar, 59:7.
The widespread turbulence being experienced in the economic systems of the modern world is directly the result of bypassing this wise law given to us by Divine wisdom. On the one hand, there is the capitalist system in which some individuals or groups virtually take over the nerve centers of wealth through the medium of interest and gambling and go on to enslave the entire creation of Allah economically. They are rendered so helpless that they have no escape route left but to serve like slaves and work like dogs in order to get what they can to eke out a liv¬ing, no matter how miserable. In a situation so sordid, it is a far cry that they would ever be able to step into the field of industry or trade despite having the best of capabilities for this purpose.
As a reaction to this tyranny of capitalists, there rises a counter system in the name of socialism or communism. Their slogan is the re¬moval of disparity between the rich and poor and the creation of equality between all. Masses of people already harassed by the injustices of the capitalist system go after the slogan. But, very soon, they discover that the slogan was nothing but deception. The dream of economic equality never came true. The poor person, despite poverty and hunger, had a cer¬tain human dignity, a certain right to do what he wished, but even that human dignity was snatched away by the system. In the communist system, the worth of a human person is no more than a part of its machines. Private ownership of property is simply out of question there. The factory worker owns nothing, not even the spouse and children. Everyone is a part of the state machine. When the machine starts, they have no choice but to start working on their jobs. Other than the so-called objectives of the state, the worker has no conscience or voice. The slightest grievance against the tyranny of the state and that unbear¬able labour on the job is counted as rebellion against the state the pun¬ishment for which is death. In short, hostility towards God and religion and adherence to bland materialism is the basic principle of communism.
These are facts no communist can deny. The writings and doings of their commissars are proofs of this assertion for compiling relevant refer¬ences to these amounts to making a regular book out of them.
The Holy Qur’an has provided a system in between the two extremes of tyrannical capitalism and Quixotic communism keeping it free from excess and deficiency so that no individual or group could, despite there being a naturally placed dissimilarity in provision and wealth, go on to make the creation of Allah at large their slaves only to condemn them to ever rising prices of commodities and virtual famines. By declaring inter¬est and gambling to be unlawful, it has demolished the foundations of il¬legitimate capitalism. Then, by making a categorical statement that the poor and needy have a right in the wealth of every Muslim, they were ad¬mitted as sharers, which is not supposed to be some favour done to them. In fact, it is the fulfillment of a duty. The verse: فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ مَّعْلُومٌ. (in their wealth, there is a known right for the asking and the deprived – Al-Ma’ arij, 70:24) proves it. After that, by distributing the en-tire property of a deceased person over individual inheritors of the fami¬ly, it has eliminated the concentration of wealth. Natural streams, high seas and the self-growing produce of mountain forests were declared to be the common capital of the entire creation of Allah. No individual or group can take possession over them as something owned by them. This is not permissible. Contrary to this, in a capitalist system, these bless-ings are handled as something owned by capitalists only (under one or the other pretext).
Since diversity and difference in intellectual and practical capabil¬ities is a natural phenomena, and the pursuit of economic gains through them also depends on these very capabilities, therefore, diversity or dis¬similarity in the ownership of wealth and property is also a dictate of wisdom. Whoever has the least sense of how things work in this world would find it hard to deny this truth. Even the champions of the slogan of equality could not go far enough with it. They had to abandon their claim of flat equality and were left with no choice but to introduce dissim¬ilarity and incentive-oriented policy in national economy. On May 5, 1960, speaking before the Supreme Soviet, Nikita Khurshev said:
‘We are against the movement to eliminate difference in wages. We are openly against the efforts to establish equality in emolu¬ments and to bring them at par. This is the teaching of Lenin. He taught that material motivations will be given full consider¬ation in a socialist society.’ (Soviet World, p.346)
That the dream of economic equality had translated itself into its ab¬sence since the very early stages, but it did not take much time to wit¬ness that this absence of equality and the disparity between the rich and the poor in the communist state of Russia had gone much beyond the general run of capitalist countries. Lyon Sidov writes:
‘Perhaps, there is no developed capitalist country where the dis¬parity in the wages of workers is as high as in Soviet Russia.’
These few examples from the contemporary scene show how deniers were themselves compelled to confirm the truth of the verse: كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ مِنكُمْ (And Allah has given some of you preference over others in provision – 71) and that (Allah does what He wills). As for comments under this verse, the purpose was limited to pointing out that the dissimilarity in provision and wealth is very natural and very much in accordance with considerations for human good. That which remains is the discussion of the Islamic Principles of Distribution of Wealth and how they distinctly differ from capitalism and communism both. Insha’ Allah, this will appear under comments on: نَحنُ قَسَمْنَا بَيْنَهُم مَّعِيشَتَهُمْ (We have distributed among them their livelihood – Al-Zukhruf, 43:32) appearing in Ma` ariful-Qur’ an, Volume VII. An independent treatise on this subject entitled: ‘Islam Ka Nizam-e-Taqsim-e-Daulat’ written by this humble writer should also be sufficient for this purpose. [ This is also available in its Engish translation made by Professor Hasan Askari under the title: DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH IN ISLAM from the publishers, Maktaba-e-Darul-Uloom, Korangi, Karachi, Pakistan ]
وَاللّٰهُ جَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِّنْ اَنْفُسِكُمْ اَزْوَاجًا وَّجَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِّنْ اَزْوَاجِكُمْ بَنِيْنَ وَحَفَدَةً وَّرَزَقَكُمْ مِّنَ الطَّيِّبٰتِ ۭ اَفَبِالْبَاطِلِ يُؤْمِنُوْنَ وَبِنِعْمَةِ اللّٰهِ هُمْ يَكْفُرُوْنَ
In verse 72: جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا (Allah has created spouses from among you), a special blessing has been mentioned in that Allah Ta’ ala has created spouses from the same genus so that they remain mutually familiar and their distinction and nobility inherent in the human species also remains stable through generations.
Given here, there may be another hint towards the fact that spouses belong to each other’s genus and, as such, their needs and feelings are common to both, therefore, mutual consideration is but necessary for them.
The next sentence of the verse: وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَزْوَاجِكُم بَنِينَ وَحَفَدَةً has been translated as: ‘and created for you from your spouse’ s sons and grandsons.
‘Though children are born to father and mother both, yet in this verse, their birth has been identified with mothers only. The indication given here is suggestive of the fact that the role of the mother in the birth and the creational formation of the child is more pronounced that that of the father. The father contributes only a lifeless drop. The locale where this drop goes through different kinds of stages from the transfor¬mation into human form and shape to becoming alive, and where all these inimitable achievements of nature take place, is a place no other than the womb of the mother. Therefore, in the Hadith, the right of the mother has been made to precede the right of the father.
There is yet another hint visible in this sentence which mentions grandsons along with sons, that is, the real purpose behind creating spouses is the procreation and survival of human race so that they have children, then, their children have their children. What else would this be, if not the survival of human species?
After that, by saying: وَرَزَقَكُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ (and gave you provision from good things), mention was made of things which guarantee personal sur¬vival. In other words, once a human child is born, food is needed for its personal survival. That too was provided by Allah Ta’ ala. The real mean¬ing of the word: حَفَدَةً – (hafadah) in this verse is that of one who helps and serves. That this word has been used for children suggests that children should always be at the service of their father and mother. (Qurtubi)
وَاللّٰهُ اَخْرَجَكُمْ مِّنْۢ بُطُوْنِ اُمَّهٰتِكُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُوْنَ شَـيْـــًٔـا ۙ وَّجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْاَبْصَارَ وَالْاَفْــِٕدَةَ ۙ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُوْنَ
The Divine statement: لَا تَعْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا (when you knew nothing – 78) indi¬cates that knowledge is not an ingrained personal excellence of man. When born, man has no knowledge or skill. Then, in proportion to grow¬ing human needs, man is made to absorb some knowledge, bit by bit, directly from Allah Ta’ ala in which no role is played by the parents or teachers. First of all, man was taught to cry. This one qualification alone provides all he needs at that time. Hungry or thirsty, he cries. Feels hot or cold, he cries. If some other discomfort bothers him, he would still cry. Nature has poured a special kind of love in the hearts of the father and the mother for the needs of the infant, because of which, when they hear the sounds made by the child, they become all too eager to find out what is bothering the baby, and all too willing to remove the problem. If the child was not inducted into this act of crying as part of his or her early education from a side no less than that of Allah Himself, who else could have trained the child to employ this skill and start crying like that as and when there be some need.
Along with it, Allah Ta’ ala also taught the child, inspiration-wise, that he or she should use gums and lips to suck milk, the child’s energy food, from the breast of the mother. If this edu¬cation and training was not natural and direct, no teacher anywhere could dare make this newborn learn to pout and move the mouth right and suck nipples on the breast. Thus, with the increase in the needs of the child, nature took care of teaching its charge directly without the intermediary link of the father and mother, in a manner almost sponta¬neous and self-regulating. After the passage of some time, the child starts learning a little by hearing parents and others around say what they do, or pick up a few tips by seeing a few things around. This, then, creates in the child the ability to understand sounds heard and things seen.
Therefore, after: لَا تَعْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا (when you knew nothing) in the verse under comment, it was said: وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ (and He made for you ears, eyes and hearts). It means: Though, human beings knew noth¬ing about anything at the early stage of their birth, but nature had installed in their very frame of existence novel instruments to fulfill their need to learn. Out of these instruments, the first to be mentioned was سَمَع ‘sam’ a’, that is, the faculty of hearing which precedes perhaps for the rea¬son that the very first knowledge, and the most of it, comes through noth¬ing but ears. In the beginning, eyes are closed, but ears hear. Furthermore, if we were to think about it, we shall not fail to realize that the amount of information one acquires in a whole life time is mostly what has been heard with ears. Information collected visually is much less than that.
After these two, comes information which one deduces by deliberat¬ing into things heard and seen. According to the statements of the Qur’an, this is a function of the human heart. Therefore, stated at num¬ber three is: أَفْئِدَةَ (afidah) which is the plural of: فُواد fu’ ad which means the heart. Scientists identify the human brain as the center of understanding and reason. But, the statement of the Qur’an tells us that though the brain plays a role in this process of reasoning, yet the real center of knowledge and reason is the heart.
On this occasion, Allah Ta’a1a has mentioned the faculties of hearing, seeing and understanding. Speech was not mentioned because speech plays no role in the acquisition of knowledge. It is, rather, a source of the expression of knowledge. In addition to that, according to Imam Al-Qurtubi, the word: سَمَع ‘sam’ a” (hearing) is inclusive of نُطق nutq (speech) as a corollary, as experience bears out that a person who hears speaks as well. A person deprived of the power of speech remains deaf in the ears as well. Perhaps, the reason why a dumb person cannot speak lies in the person’s very inability to hear any sounds which could make learn¬ing to speak through hearing possible. وَاللہُ اَعلم Wallahu a` lam: ‘And Allah knows best’ is a standard appendage to conclusions where definite knowl¬edge about a subject in flux is not available or accessible or reliable. For a believer, this serves as a safety device against the possibility of having made any false statements, which may be a sin.
وَاللّٰهُ جَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِّنْۢ بُيُوْتِكُمْ سَكَنًا وَّجَعَلَ لَكُمْ مِّنْ جُلُوْدِ الْاَنْعَامِ بُيُوْتًا تَسْتَخِفُّوْنَهَا يَوْمَ ظَعْنِكُمْ وَيَوْمَ اِقَامَتِكُمْ ۙ وَمِنْ اَصْوَافِهَا وَاَوْبَارِهَا وَاَشْعَارِهَآ اَثَاثًا وَّمَتَاعًا اِلٰى حِيْنٍ
In the statement: وَاللَّـهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّن بُيُوتِكُمْ سَكَنًا (And Allah has made for you of your houses a place of comfort – 80), the word: بُيُوتِ (buyut) is the plural of bayt (بَیت) which means a house where night could be spent. Imam Al-Qurtubi says in his Tafsir:
کُلُّ مَا عَلَاکَ فَاَظَلَّکَ فَھُوَ سَقفُ وَّسَمَآُء وَ کُلُّ مَآ اَقَلَّکَ فَھُوَاَرضُ وَّ کُلُّ مَا سَتَرَکَ مِن جِھَاتِکَ الاَربَعِ فَھُوَ جِدَارُ فَاِذَا انتَظَمَت فَھُوَ بَیتُ
‘Whatever is above your head and provides shade for you is roof or sky, and whatever holds you atop is earth, and whatev¬er screens you out from all four sides are walls, and when (all these components are) put together properly, that is a house.
The real purpose of making a house is to have peace for body and heart
Here, by calling the human house a place of comfort and peace Allah Ta’ ala has made the logic and wisdom of making houses fully evident, that is, its real purpose is to have comfort of the body and peace of the heart. Customarily, the avenues of human work lie outside houses. Human work owes its existence to human movement and struggle. The real purpose of one’s house is to go there, when tired after moving around and doing things, and rest and enjoy peace – even though, there are times when one keeps moving around and doing things in one’s own house, but such instances are usually on the lower side.
This help us realize that peace is really the peace of mind and heart, something one finds in one’s home only. This also tells us that the high¬est qualification of human home is that it provides peace. The world of today is at the height of its building craze. Limitless expenditure is in¬curred on their superficial finishing. But, there are very few homes among them which would provide peace of mind and heart. In fact, the artificially imposed additions in them become the very agents which de¬stroy comfort and peace, and even in the absence of such material extrav¬agance, the kind of people one confronts in the house is a misfortune which sucks that peace away. When such elegant houses are compared with a modest hut, the dweller of the hut who is blessed with comfort and peace for his body and heart is certainly living in a better place.
The Qur’an manifests the ‘elan vital, the essence and the root of everything. Hence, peace was declared to be the real purpose of human home, and the greatest need indeed. Similarly, the real purpose of mari¬tal life was also determined to be peace as in: لِّتَسْكُنُوا إِلَيْهَا (so that you may enjoy peace with her – 30:21). A married life which fails to achieve this pur-pose remains deprived of the real benefit destined for it. Life in our day is infested with so many customs and formalities reaching the limits of absurdity in showing what you have through all sorts of artificial ven¬eers. To compound the problem further, the outpourings of Western cul¬tural and social norms and products have provided everything one needs to embellish personal surroundings with artificial decor – but, it has cer¬tainly made human beings become all deprived of what would be real comfort for their bodies and peace for their hearts.
The statement: مِّن جُلُودِ الْأَنْعَامِ (from the hides of the cattle – 80) and the statement: أَصْوَافِهَا وَأَوْبَارِهَا out of their wool and their fur and their hair 80) prove that it is Halal to use everything out of the hide, wool and hair of animals. Here, even the restriction that the animal be properly slaughtered or be a dead animal does not exist, nor is there any restriction as to their meat being Halal or Haram. It is perfectly Halal to use the hides of the animals of this kind by tanning them, and as for hair and wool, the death of the animal leaves just no effect on them. That remains halal and permissible without any specific technical treatment. This is the Madhab (creed) of the great Imam, Abu Hanifah. However, the hide of swine and all parts thereof are unclean and unfit for use under all conditions.
وَيَوْمَ نَبْعَثُ فِيْ كُلِّ اُمَّةٍ شَهِيْدًا عَلَيْهِمْ مِّنْ اَنْفُسِهِمْ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ شَهِيْدًا عَلٰي هٰٓؤُلَاۗءِ ۭوَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتٰبَ تِبْيَانًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَّهُدًى وَّرَحْمَةً وَّبُشْرٰى لِلْمُسْلِمِيْنَ
In verse 89, by saying: وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ تِبْيَانًا لِّكُلِّ شَيْءٍ the Qur’an has been credited as the exposition of everything. It means everything about the religion because the objective of Divine revelation and Prophetic mission concerns with these very things. Therefore, the very effort to cull out an¬swers to problems pertaining to economic sciences from the Qur’ an is an exercise in error. However, the appearance of some implied hint some-where there shall not be deemed contrary to this. Now remains the ques¬tion that the Qur’ an does not carry answers to all problems of the relig¬ion itself, how then, would it be correct to say that it is an exposition of everything’?
The answer is that the Qur’ an, does carry the basic principles con¬cerning all problems, and it is in their light that the Ahadith of the Rasul of Allah clarify these problems. Then, there are some details which are delegated to the principles of Ijma` (consensus) and Al-Qiyas (analogical deduction following the norms set by the Shari` ah of Islam). This tells us that the religious rulings deduced from the Ahadith of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، and from Ijma` and Qiyas are also, in a way, as stated by the Qur’ an itself.
اِنَّ اللّٰهَ يَاْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْاِحْسَانِ وَاِيْتَاۗئِ ذِي الْقُرْبٰى وَيَنْهٰى عَنِ الْفَحْشَاۗءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ ۚيَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُوْنَ
This is the most comprehensive verse of the Holy Qur’ an where the es¬sence of the entire range of Islamic teachings has been condensed into a few words. Therefore, from the blessed period of the most righteous eld¬ers upto this day, the practice has continued that this verse is recited at the end of the special Khutbah (address) of Jumu’ah and the two ‘Bids (‘Eid al-Fitr and ‘Bid al-Adha). Sayyidna ` Abdullaa ibn Masud (رض) says that the most comprehensive verse of the Holy Qurin appears in Surah An-Nahl and it is: إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ (16:90 cited above) [ Ibn Kathir ]
Then, there is the case of another Sahabi, Sayyidna Aktham ibn al-Saifi. He actually embraced Islam on the basis of this very verse. Imam Ibn Kathir, quoting Ma` rifatus-Sahabah, a book by Abu Ya` la, who was known as a Hafiz of Hadith (virtually a living data bank of Hadith in contemporary terms), has reported with sound authority that Aktham ibn al-Saifi was the chief of his people. When he learnt about the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، his claim to prophethood and his propagation of Islam, he de¬cided to visit the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) personally. But, his people suggested to him that he was their chief, the highest ranking person among them, therefore, his going there personally was not appropriate. Then, Aktham proposed the alternative that they should select two persons from the tribe who should go there, survey the situation and report back to him. These two people presented themselves before the Holy Prophet and submitted that they had come from Aktham ibn al-Saifi to find out two things. Aktham has two questions for you:
مَن اَنتَ و مَا اَنتَ
Who are you and what are you?’
He said: ‘The answer to the first question is that I am Muhammad ibn ` Abd Allah, and the answer to the second question is that I am a ser¬vant of Allah and His Rasul (messenger) ‘. After that, he recited this verse of Surah An-Nahl which begins with: إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَأْمُرُ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ (90). The two emissaries requested him to recite those sentences to them once again. He kept reciting the verse before them until the verse was commit¬ted to their memory.
The emissaries returned to Aktham and reported that by asking the first question their intention was to find out his lineage. But, he did not give much attention to this. He simply considered it sufficient to give the name of his father. Yet, when they checked on his lineage with others, they found out that he was very high in lineage and nobility. Then, they told Aktham that the Holy Prophet also recited some words before them which they would narrate to him.
When the emissaries recited the verse under reference to Aktham ibn al-Saifi, he promptly said: ‘This tells us that he bids morals which are high and forbids morals which are low. Let all of you embrace his re¬ligion as soon as possible so that you stay ahead of other people, and not lag behind as camp followers.’ [ Ibn Kathir ]
Similarly, Sayyidna ` Uthman ibn Maz` un (رض) says: ‘At the initial stage, I had embraced Islam because people around said so. But, Islam had not taken roots in my heart. Then, there came a day when I was pre-sent in the blessed company of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . All of a sudden, signs associated with the descent of revelation on him became apparent, and after some strange things had transpired, he said: “The emissary of Allah Ta` ala came to me and this verse was revealed upon me”. Sayyidna ` Uthman ibn Maz` un (رض) says that once he saw this event and heard this verse, his faith became all firm and fortified in his heart and the love for Rasulullah (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) came to be settled there for good’. [ After reporting this event, Ibn Kathir has said that it is supported by strong and authentic chain of transmitting authorities ]
Likewise, when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) recited this verse before Walid ibn Mughirah, he went to report his impression before his people, the Quraish of Makkah, in the following words:
وَاللہ إنّ له لحلاوۃ و إنَّ علیه لطلاوۃ وإنَّ أصله لمورق وأعلاۃ لمثمر وما ھو بقول بشر.
By God, in it, there is a special sweetness and, above it there is a unique hallow of light, and leaves are going to sprout out from its roots and fruits are going to show up on its branches – and this can never be the speech of any human being.
The Command To Do Three Things And Not To Do Three
Allah Ta’ ala bids three things in this verse. These are: (1) To do jus¬tice, (2) to be good, (3) to give relatives (their due). Then, He forbids three things. These are: (1) Shameful acts, (2) evil deeds, (3) transgres¬sion. The Islamic legal sense of these six words, and their limits, are being explained as follows:
Al-` Adl: الْعَدْلِ : The real and literal meaning of this word is to make equal. Pertinent to this, the equitable judgment of officials in the dis¬puted cases of people is called Al-‘Adl or justice. The statement: أَن تَحْكُمُوا بِالْعَدْلِ بِالْعَدْلِ (and that when you judge between people, judge with fairness – 4:58) in the Holy Qur’ an carries this very sense and, in view of this, the word Al-` Adl (justice) also refers to moderation (al-i’tidal) between the two ex¬tremes of excess (al-ifrat) and deficiency (at-tafrit). Then, very much in congruity with this sense, some Tafsir authorities have explained Al-` Adl at this place as the equality of the outward and the inward state of a per-son, that is, what one says or does through the obvious organs of his body should also be compatible with what he believes in and lives by. However, the truth of the matter is that the word Al-` Adl here has been used in its general sense which is inclusive of all these forms and shades reported from different Tafsir authorities. There is no contradiction or divergence in them.
And according to Ibn al-` Arabi, the intrinsic meaning of Al-` Adl is to make equal, then, different congruities go to make its sense different. For instance, one sense of Al-‘Adl or justice is that man should do justice between his Nafs (self) and his Rabb (Lord-God). If so, it would mean that he should give preference to the right of Allah Ta’ ala over the pleas¬ure of his self and make the seeking of His pleasure far more urgent and prior than the pursuit of his own desires and obey His commands and to-tally abstain from what He has forbidden.
Then, there is the second kind of justice which requires that one enter into a deal of justice with his own self, that is, protect his self from all such challenges which bring physical or spiritual destruction upon him, refuse to fulfill such desires of his self which are harmful for him in the end, be content and satisfied observing patience, and avoid putting unnecessary burden on his self without valid excuse.
The third kind of justice prevails between one’s own self and the rest of Allah’s creation. In this case, the essential sense is that one should deal with the whole creation in a cooperative spirit wishing well, doing good and having sympathy, never betray anyone with the slightest breach of trust in any transaction whether minor or major, demand from his self justice for everyone, and see to it that no human being is hurt by anything said or done by him whether apparent or concealed.
Similarly, there is the justice done when two parties bring one of their cases for adjudication before a person, then, it is the duty of that person that he must decide the case without any tilt towards anyone and in accordance with what is the truth. Then, it is also a form of justice when one leaves out the extreme options of excess and deficiency in all matters and takes to the path of moderation. This is the sense Abu ` Ab¬dullah al-Razi prefers when he says that the word Al-‘Adl (justice) is in¬clusive of moderation in belief, moderation in deed, moderation in mo¬rals, everything. [ Al-Bahr al-Mubit ]
Finally, Imam Al-Qurtubi who gives all these details to determine the sense of Al-` Adl also considers it good for the purpose. This also tells us that the one single word, Al-` Adl, in this verse encompasses in itself the adherence to all good morals and deeds and the avoidance of all bad morals and deeds.
Al-Ihsan : الْإِحْسَانِ : The real and literal meaning of Al-Ihsan is to make something good. It has two kinds: (1) that one makes deeds or mo¬rals and habits become good and perfect in one’s own person; (2) that one deals with the other person nicely, decently and favourably. To cover this second sense, Arabic usage takes:إِلَىٰ (ila) as the preposition after it, as it appears in a verse of the Qur’an: أَحْسِن كَمَا أَحْسَنَ اللَّـهُ إِلَيْكَ (be good as Allah has been good to you – 28:77).
Imam Al-Qurtubi has said that this word has been used in its gener¬al sense in the cited verse, therefore, it is inclusive of both kinds of Ihsan. Then, the first kind of Ihsan, that is, doing something well in its own right, is also general – for instance, to come out with acts of worship in their best possible form, to make efforts to improve upon personal deeds and morals and to seek betterment in dealings with others.
The meaning of Ihsan given by the Holy Prophet himself in the fa¬mous Hadith of Jibra’il relates to the quality of Ihsan in acts of ` Ibadah or worship. The gist of his blessed statement is: Worship Allah as if you are seeing Allah. And if you cannot imagine Divine presence at this lev¬el, then, each person must have at least this much certitude that Allah Almighty is, after all, seeing what he or she is doing. The reason is that it is a cardinal part of Islamic faith that not the minutest molecule of this universe can remain outside the reach of the knowledge and percep¬tion of Allah Ta’ ala.
To sum up, it can be said that the second command given in this verse is that of Ihsan. Included here is the Ihsan of ` Ibadah (the better¬ment of acts of worship) as explained by the Hadith. Also included here is the Ihsan or betterment of all deeds, morals and habits, that is, seeing that they come out right, good and authentic in the form and spirit de-sired. And also included here is to be good to the whole creation of Allah, whether believer or infidel, human or animal.
Imam Al-Qurtubi has said: The person in whose house his cat is not fed and taken care of and the birds in whose cage are not attended to as due, then, no matter how devoted to acts of worship he may be, he would still not be counted among the Muhsinin, those who are good to others.
In conclusion, the first command given in this verse is that of Al-` Adl or justice, then, that of Al-Ihsan or being good. Some Tafsir authorities have said that justice means that one should give the right of the other person in full and take what comes to him, neither less nor more; then, should someone hurt you, you hurt him only as much as he did, no more. And Ihsan or being good means that you give the other person more than his real due and, as for your own right, ignore it to the limit that you willingly accept even if it turns out to be less than due. Similarly, when someone hurts you physically or verbally, then, rather than inflict an equal retaliation against that person, you better forgive him, in fact, return the evil done by him with what is good for him. Thus, the com¬mand to do justice comes in the form of what is Fard and Wajib (obligato¬ry and necessary as duty) while the command to be good appears in the status of an act which is voluntary (Nafl) and is motivated by a well-meaning desire to contribute more in the way of what is good.
Give relatives (their due) إِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ. The third command given in this verse is to give relatives (their due). The word: إِيتَاءِ (‘i’ta’ ) used in the text means to give something – with the added sense of giving as gift or presentation in good grace. The word: الْقُرْبَىٰ (al-qurba) means relationship or kinship; and: ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ (dhil-qurba) means relatives or kin. Thus, the command: إِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ (ita’ dhil-qurba) comes to mean to give something to relatives. That which has to be given has not been spelled out here. But, there is another verse in the Qur’ an where the object does find men¬tion: وَآتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَىٰ – (give the relative his due – 17:26). As obvious, the same object applies here too, that is, relatives be given their due. Included under this ‘due’ is serving them financially, as well as serving them phys¬ically, and visiting them when sick, and taking care of them when in need, and the giving of verbal comfort and the expression of concern and sympathy too. Though, giving relatives their due was included under the spectrum of the word: Al-Ihsan, yet it has been mentioned separately in order to place stress on its added importance.
Given upto this point were three commands asserted positively. The other three asserted negatively, denoting prohibition and unlawfulness, are as follows:
“And forbids from shameless acts, evil deeds and transgression”: وَيَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ وَالْبَغْيِ : The first word: الْفَحْشَاءِ (al-fahsha’ ) translated as ‘shameful acts’, refers to such evil word or deed the evil of which is all too open and clear and which everyone considers bad. Then, الْمُنكَرِ (al-munkar) translated as ‘evil deeds’, denotes the word or deed the un¬lawfulness or impermissibility of which is agreed upon by the well-recog¬nized authentic exponents of the Shari` ah of Islam. Therefore, no side can be regarded as ‘munkar’ in their Ijtihad-based differences and, as for the word: الْمُنكَرِ ‘Al-Munkar’, it includes all sins whether outward or in-ward, done practically or committed morally. The real meaning of the third word: الْبَغْيِ (al-baghy) translated as ‘transgression’ is to cross the limit. The sense is that of injustice and excess. At this place, though the sense of the word: الْمُنكَرِ Al-Munkar (evil deeds) is inclusive of both Al-Fahsha’ (shameful acts) and Al-Baghy (transgression), but Al-Fahsha’ has been picked out as a separate entry, and made to appear first as well, because of its extreme evil and abomination. And the word: Al-Baghy has been taken up separately because its fallout is contagious. It affects others. Sometimes this transgression reaches the outer limits of mutual hostil¬ity, even armed confrontation, or it could go still further and cause international disorder.
According to a saying of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، there is no sin, except injustice, the retaliation against which and the punishment for which comes so quickly. From this we learn that the ultimate severe punish¬ment for injustice due in the Hereafter has to come anyway, however, much before that happens, Allah Ta` a1a punishes the perpetrator of in-justice in this mortal world as well – even though, he may fail to realize that the punishment he received was for a particular injustice commit¬ted by him and that Allah Ta’ ala promised to help the victim of injus¬tice.
The six commands, imperative and prohibitive, given in this verse are – if pondered upon – an elixir for the perfect prosperity of man’s indi¬vidual and collective life. May Allah bless us all with the ability of follow¬ing them.
وَاَوْفُوْا بِعَهْدِ اللّٰهِ اِذَا عٰهَدْتُّمْ وَلَا تَـنْقُضُوا الْاَيْمَانَ بَعْدَ تَوْكِيْدِهَا وَقَدْ جَعَلْتُمُ اللّٰهَ عَلَيْكُمْ كَفِيْلًا ۭ اِنَّ اللّٰهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَفْعَلُوْنَ
Breaking Pledges is Forbidden
The word: عَھد (‘ahd) is inclusive of all transactions, pacts and pledges the responsibility of which has been assumed verbally, whether one does or does not swear by it, and whether it relates to doing something or not doing it.
In fact, these verses are the explanation and conclusion of previous verses. The previous verses carried the command to do justice and to be good. The sense of justice there includes the fulfillment of pledges as well. [ Qurtubi ]
After having given a pledge or made a contract with someone, break¬ing it is a major sin. But, in the event it is broken, there is no Kaffarah (expiation) fixed for this purpose. Instead, it brings the punishment of the Hereafter on the offender. According to Hadith, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said that a flag shall be planted on the back of the pledge-breaker on the Day of Resurrection which will become the cause of his or her disgrace there.
Similarly, acting contrary to what one has sworn by is also a major sin. In the Hereafter, it is full of unimaginably evil consequences while in the present world too there are its particular situations in which Kaffarah (expiation) becomes necessary. [ Qurtubi ]
وَلَا تَكُوْنُوْا كَالَّتِيْ نَقَضَتْ غَزْلَهَا مِنْۢ بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ اَنْكَاثًا ۭ تَتَّخِذُوْنَ اَيْمَانَكُمْ دَخَلًۢا بَيْنَكُمْ اَنْ تَكُوْنَ اُمَّةٌ هِىَ اَرْبٰى مِنْ اُمَّةٍ ۭ اِنَّمَا يَبْلُوْكُمُ اللّٰهُ بِهٖ ۭ وَلَيُبَيِّنَنَّ لَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيٰمَةِ مَا كُنْتُمْ فِيْهِ تَخْتَلِفُوْنَ
In verse 92: أَن تَكُونَ أُمَّةٌ هِيَ أَرْبَىٰ مِنْ أُمَّةٍ (merely because a group is higher [ in number and wealth ] than the other), Muslims have been ordered that they should not break the pact they enter into with a group simply for the sake of worldly interests and gains. For example, they may come to think that the group or party with which they have entered into a pact is weak and few in numbers, or lacks financial backing, while the other group or party abounds in numbers and strength, or is wealthy. Now, if they are tempted to join the party having power and wealth in the hope of better gains from them, this breaking of the pledge given to the first party is not permissible. Rather than do something like that, one should stay by the pledge given and let all gains and losses rest with Allah Ta` ala. However, if the group or party with which one has entered into a pact commits or commissions acts contrary to the dictates of Islamic re¬ligious law, then, it is necessary to break that pledge – subject to the con¬dition that they be clearly forewarned that Muslims will not be bound by that pact anymore – as stated in the verse: فَانبِذْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَىٰ سَوَاءٍ (then, throw [ the treaty ] towards them being right forward – 8:58).
At the conclusion of the verse, the given situation has been identified as a device to test Muslims whereby Allah Ta’ ala tries them to deter-mine if they would obey the desires of their self and break the solemn pledge, or go on to sacrifice their selfish motives in obedience to the com-mand of Allah Ta’ ala.
وَلَا تَشْتَرُوْا بِعَهْدِ اللّٰهِ ثَـمَنًا قَلِيْلًا ۭ اِنَّمَا عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ اِنْ كُنْتُمْ تَعْلَمُوْنَ
Accepting Bribe is Sternly Forbidden as It Breaks the Covenant of Allah
Verse 95 which begins with the words: وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِعَهْدِ اللَّـهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا (And do not take a paltry price against the pledge of Allah) that is, ‘do not break the Covenant of Allah for a paltry price.’ Here, ‘a paltry price’ refers to worldly life and its gains. No matter how major they may be yet, as com¬pared with the gains of the Hereafter, even the entire world and its en-tire wealth is nothing but paltry. Whoever opts for the gains of the mor¬tal world at the cost of the far superior returns in the Hereafter has struck a deal which will bring nothing but utter loss – because, selling off a blessing which is supreme and a wealth which is everlasting in exchange for something fast perishing and intrinsically low is what no sensible person would ever elect to do.
Ibn ` Atiyyah said: If doing something is obligatory on a person, then, it is a Covenant of Allah due against him. He is responsible for it. And in the process of fulfilling this duty, the act of charging wages or something in return, and not doing what duty calls for without being first paid off in cash or kind, is what amounts to breaking the Covenant of Allah. Sim-ilarly, if not doing something is obligatory on a person, then, should that person do it against returns received from someone, that too will consti¬tute the breaking of the Covenant of Allah.
This tells us that all prevailing kinds of bribery are unlawful. For example, a government servant who receives a salary for what he does has virtually given a pledge to Allah that he would perform the job assigned to him against the salary he receives. Now, if he goes about asking for some sort of return from someone in order to do that job, and keeps hedg¬ing and postponing the required action until he has that return, then, this official is breaking the Covenant of Allah. Similarly, doing someth¬ing for which the department has not empowered him, even doing it by accepting bribe, is also a breach of pledge. [ A1.-Bahr al-Muhit ]
A Comprehensive Definition of Bribe
The statement of Ibn ` Atiyyah quoted above also accomodates a fairly inclusive definition of bribe (Rishwat) which, in the words of Tafsir Al-Bahr al-Muhit, is as follows:
أخَذ الأموال علی فعل ما یجب علی الاٰخذ فعله أو فعل ما یجب علیه ترکه.
Taking a return for not doing a job the doing of which is obliga¬tory on a person, or taking a return for doing a job not doing which is obligatory on a person, is what bribe is. [ A1-B4r al-Muhit, p. 533, v. 5]
hat the combined blessings of the whole world are paltry has been stated in the next verse (96) through the words: مَا عِندَكُمْ يَنفَدُ وَمَا عِندَ اللَّـهِ بَاقٍ that is, ‘what is with you (meaning worldly gains; is to end; and what is with Allah Ta’ ala (meaning the reward and punishment of the Hereaft¬er) is to last forever’.
مَا عِنْدَكُمْ يَنْفَدُ وَمَا عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ بَاقٍ ۭ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّ الَّذِيْنَ صَبَرُوْٓا اَجْرَهُمْ بِاَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوْا يَعْمَلُوْنَ
All Worldly Gains and States will Perish – Only their Outcome with Allah shall Remain
A casual look at the expression: مَا عِندَكُمْ (ma ` indakum: ‘what is with you’ meaning world gains) leads one to think of wealth and possessions only. My revered teacher, Maulana Sayyid Asghar Husain of Deoband, may the mercy of Allah be upon him, said that the word: مَا ma (what) is general lexically and there is nothing prohibiting us from taking it in a general sense, therefore, included under it are wealth and possessions of the present world as well as all states and matters that one experiences therein. These could be happiness and sorrow, pain and comfort, sick¬ness and health, gain and loss or someone’s friendship or enmity. These form part of it for all these are transitory and must perish. However, the after-effects of all these states and matters which are to bring reward or punishment on the Day of Judgment are destined to remain. So, any reckless pursuit of states and matters that must perish and to stake one’s life and its energies on this altar by becoming negligent of the eter¬nal reward and punishment is something no sane person should elect to do.
مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِّنْ ذَكَرٍ اَوْ اُنْثٰى وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهٗ حَيٰوةً طَيِّبَةً ۚ وَلَـنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ اَجْرَهُمْ بِاَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوْا يَعْمَلُوْنَ
What is ‘good life’?
According to the majority of commentators, the expression ‘good life’ used here means a pure and pleasing life in the present world while some Tafsir authorities have taken it to mean life in the Hereafter. And a closer look at the explanation given by the majority would also show that it does not mean that such a person will never encounter poverty or sickness. Instead, it means that a believer – even if he ever faces poverty or pain – has two things with him which shield him from becoming disturbed. First comes his habit of remaining content with the available (qa¬na’ ah), the hallmark of a simple life. This thing works in straitened circumstances as well. Secondly, there is this belief of his, the belief that he is going to receive the great and eternal blessings of the Hereafter in return for whatever poverty or pain he has suffered from. Poised counter to this is the condition of a disbeliever and sinner. If such a person faces poverty and pain, he has nothing to hold him together and give him solace and comfort. In this state, he is likely to lose his sanity, even think of committing suicide. And in case he was affluent, his greed would not let him sit peacefully. When the drive for more wealth makes him a millionaire, the dreams of becoming a billionaire would keep spoil¬ing his peace.
As for righteous believers, says Ibn ` Atiyyah, Allah Ta’ ala blesses them with a life full of pleasure, contentment and gracefulness right here in this world as well, something that never changes whatever the condition. That their life will be graceful while they enjoy health and ex-tended means is all too obvious, particularly so on the ground that they just do not have the greed to keep their wealth increasing unnecessarily, an urge that keeps harassing one under all circumstances. And even if they have to face lean days or sickness of some sort, they always have a strong support to fall back on. They are perfect believers in the promises made by Allah. They have strong hopes of seeing ease after hardship and comfort after pain. These strengths never let their life become grace-less. It is like the work of a farmer who has made his farm ready for crops. No matter how much pain he takes in working to see his crops grow, yet he welcomes all that for the sake of the comfort he is going to have. In a short time, he is certain, he is going to have the best of return for what he has done. A businessman or a wage earner would do the same. They would face all sorts of hardship in their job, even a little dis¬grace once in a while. But, they brave through everything and remain happy and hopeful. They believe that their business will bring profit and their job, a salary. The believer too believes that he is getting a return for every hardship and when comes the life of the Hereafter, his return for every hardship will come to him in the form of blessings that are great and everlasting. As for the life of the present world, it is not such a big deal as compared to that of the Hereafter. Therefore, a believer finds it easy to remain patient against worldly variations in living conditions.
Thus, these conditions never make a believer suffer from anxiety, appre¬hension and boredom. This is the ‘good life’ a believer is blessed with in cash, on the spot, right here in this world.
فَاِذَا قَرَاْتَ الْقُرْاٰنَ فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللّٰهِ مِنَ الشَّيْطٰنِ الرَّجِيْمِ
Sequence of Verses
Emphasis was laid in previous verses over the fulfillment of the cov¬enant with Allah following which stated there was the importance and desirability of acting righteously in one’s life. That one neglects to follow these commandments happens because of Shaitanic instigations. Therefore, this verse teaches us to seek protection against Satan, the accursed – something needed in every good deed. But, it will be noticed that it has been mentioned particularly with the recitation of the Qur’ an. One rea¬son for this particularization could also be that the recitation of the Qur’an is an act so unique that the Satan himself runs away from it. As said poetically:
دیوبگر یزدازاں قوم کہ قرآں خوانند
Shaitan bolts from people who recite the Qur’ an!
Then, there are specified Verses and Chapters which have been-tested and they produce the desired result in removing the traces of Shai¬tanic inputs particularly. That they are effective and beneficial stands proved from definite textual authorities (nusus) – Bayan al-Qur’an. Despite this factor, when came the command to seek protection from the Satan in conjunction with the recitation of the Qur’ an, it becomes all the more necessary with other deeds.
In addition to that, there is always the danger of Shai¬tanic instigations intruding into the recitation of the Qur’ an itself. For instance, one may-fall short in observing the etiquette due during the recitation or that it remains devoid of the essential spirit of deliberation, thinking, submis¬sion and humbleness. So, for this too, it was deemed necessary that pro¬tection from Shai¬tanic instigations should be sought (Ibn Kathir, Mazhari and others).
In the preface of his Tafsir, Ibn Kathir has said: Human beings have two kinds of enemies. The first ones come from their own kind, like the general run of disbelievers. The other kind is that of the Jinn who are di¬abolic and disobedient. Islam commands defence against the first kind of enemy through Jihad involving fighting and killing. But, for the other kind, the command is limited to the seeking of protection from Allah only. The reason is that the first kind of enemy happens to be homoge¬nous. Its attack comes openly, visibly. Therefore, fighting and killing in Jihad against such an enemy was made obligatory. As for the , enemy of the Satanic kind, it is not visible. Its attack on humankind does not take place frontally.
Therefore, as a measure of defence against such an ene¬my, the seeking of the protection of such a Being has been made obligato¬ry that no one is able to see, neither the humankind, nor the Satan. Then, there is that subtle expediency in entrusting the defence against Satan with Allah. Is it not that one who stands subdued by the Satan is actually rejected and deserving of punishment in the sight of Allah? Quite contrary to this is the case of the humanoid enemy of human be¬ings, that is, the disbelievers. If someone is subdued or killed while con-fronting them, he becomes a martyr (shahid), and deserving of reward from Allah (thawab) ! Therefore, when one confronts an enemy of human beings with all his strength, it turns out to be nothing but beneficial, no matter what the circumstances – either he would prevail over the enemy and put an end to his power, or would himself embrace shahadah (mar¬tyrdom in the way of Allah) and deserve the best of returns with Him.
Related Rulings (masa’il)
- The reciting of: اعوذ باللہ من الشیطان الرجیم (a udhu bil-lahi minash-shaita¬nir-rajim: I seek protection with Allah from Shaitan, the accursed) before initiating the recitation of the Qur’an stands proved from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) in order that the command given in this verse is carried out.
But, not doing it occasionally also stands proved from authentic (sahih) ahadith. Therefore, the majority of Muslim scholars have not classed this injunction as obligatory (wajib). Instead, they have declared it to be Sunnah, a position on which Ibn Jarir al-Tabari has reported a consen¬sus (ijma`) of the scholars of the Muslim community. As for Hadith narra¬tives carrying the word and deed of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، whether those of reciting: اعوذ باللہ (a’ udhu bil-lah) under most conditions or those of not reciting under some, all these have been mentioned exhaustively by Ibn Kathir at the beginning of his Tafsir.
- Should ta’awwudh (تَعَوُّذ) that is, اعوذ باللہ ‘a۔ udhu bil-lah’, be recited only at the beginning of the first raka’ah while in Salah, or should it be done at the beginning of every raka’ah? Views of leading Muslim jurists differ in this matter. According to the great Imam Abu Hanifah JI it should be recited only in the first raka’ah while Imam Shafi` i (رح) declares its recitation at the beginning of every raka’ah as commendable (mustahabb). Arguments given by both have been presented in Tafsir Mazhari with full elaboration. (p. 49, v. 5)
- While reciting the Qur’an – whether in Salah or out of it – the say¬ing of اعوذ باللہ ‘a`-udhu bil-lah’ is a Sunnah. The rule applies to both situations equally. But, after it has been said once, one may go on reciting as much as one wishes to, for the same single ta’awwudh (said at the beginning) is sufficient. Yes, if one abandons the recitation in the middle, gets busy with some mundane chore and then resumes it all over again, one should reinitiate the recitation by saying ‘a’ udhu bil-lah’ and ‘bismillah’ once again at that time.
- Saying ‘a’ udhu bil-lah’ before reading any word or book other than the Qur’an is not a Sunnah. There, one should recite only bismillah. (Al-Durr al-Mukhtar, Shami)
However, the Hadith teaches the saying of ta’awwudh during other things done and situations faced. For example, when someone gets very angry – so says the Hadith – the heat of the anger goes away by saying: اعوذ باللہ من الشیطان الرجیم (a`-udhu bil-lahi minash-shaitanir rajim: I seek pro¬tection with Allah from Shaitan, the accursed). (Ibn Kathir)
It also appears in Hadith that, before going to the toilet, saying:
اللھُمَّ اَعُوذُ باللہ مِن الخبُثِ وَ الخّبّایٔث
(Allahumma adhu bika minal-khubuthi wal-khabaith) 0 Allah, I seek protection with you from the foul and the impure is commendable (mustahabb). (Shami)
اِنَّهٗ لَيْسَ لَهٗ سُلْطٰنٌ عَلَي الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَعَلٰي رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُوْنَ
The way of Faith and Trust in Allah is the way of freedom from the power and control of the Shaitan
Verses 99 and 100 make it clear that Allah Ta’ ala has not given the Shaitan the kind of power which would disarm any human being and compel him to become helpless and take to evil. So, should one opt for not using his capability of choice and control because of sheer careless¬ness or some selfish motive, then, this would be his own fault. Therefore, it was said that people who have faith in Allah and who, rather than trust their will power in their states and actions, place their ultimate trust in Allah Ta’ ala for He is the One who gives us the ability to do everything good and also the One who shields us from everything evil. The Shaitan cannot possess and dictate such people. Of course, those who elect to befriend none but the Shaitan because of their selfish mo¬tives, particularly like things about him and go about associating others in the pristine divinity of Allah Ta` ala, then, the Shaitan is all over them, in possession, in control, and would not let them go towards anyth¬ing good while, in every evil, they are right in front.
The same subject has been taken up in verse 42 of Surah al-Hijr where Allah Ta’ ala has Himself refuted the claim of the Shaitan by say¬ing: إِنَّ عِبَادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانٌ إِلَّا مَنِ اتَّبَعَكَ (Surely, My servants [ are such that ] you have no power over them – except [ over ] the one who follows you from among the astray – 15:42).
مَنْ كَفَرَ بِاللّٰهِ مِنْۢ بَعْدِ اِيْمَانِهٖٓ اِلَّا مَنْ اُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهٗ مُطْمَـﭟ بِالْاِيْمَانِ وَلٰكِنْ مَّنْ شَرَحَ بِالْكُفْرِ صَدْرًا فَعَلَيْهِمْ غَضَبٌ مِّنَ اللّٰهِ ۚ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيْمٌ
From the first verse (106) comes the religious ruling about a person who has been compelled to utter a word of infidelity (kufr) under the threat that he would be killed if he did not do that. If he feels that, in all likelihood, the people threatening him have full capability of doing just that, then, this is a state of duress. If he were to utter some word of dis¬belief verbally – but, with a heart firm on Faith, a heart that shuns say¬ing what is false and evil – then, there is no sin on him, nor will his wife become unlawful for him. (Qurtubi, Mazhari).
This verse was revealed about the noble Sahabah who were arrested by the Mushriks. Their disbelieving captors had told them that they must return to infidelity failing which they would be killed.
Those so arrested were Sayyidna ` Ammar (رض) ‘ and his parents, Sayy¬idna Yasir and Sayyidah Sumayyah and Sayyidna Suhaib, Bilal and Khabbab (رض) . Out of these, Sayyidna Yisir and his wife, Sayyidah Su¬mayyah (رض) ، totally refused to utter any word of disbelief. Sayyidna Yasir (رض) was killed while Sayyidah Sumayyah (رض) ، was tied in between two camels who were made to run which tore her apart in two separate body parts. This was how she met her shahadah (martyr¬dom in the way of Allah). And these are the same two blessed souls who were the first to meet their shahadah for the sake of Islam. Similarly, Sayyidna Khabbab (رض) totally refused to utter any word of disbelief and it was in perfect peace that he accepted the fate of being killed by the disbelievers. Out of the remaining, Sayyidna ` Ammar (رض) went by making a mere verbal declaration of his disbelief in the face of such a danger to his life, but his heart was perfectly satisfied and firmly set upon his Faith. Once he was released by the enemy, he presented himself before the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and narrated this event with great pain. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) asked him, “when you were making this statement, what was going on in your heart?” He submitted, “As for my heart, it was at peace and firmly set on my Faith.” The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) put him at rest by telling him that he was not to face any punishment for that. It was in confirmation of this verdict by him that the present verse was revealed. (Qurtubi, Mazhari)
The Definition of ikrah or Compulsion
Literally, Ikrah means using threat or violence to force a person to act against his or her will. Then, it has two degrees. In the first degree of Ikrah, one is not willing by heart to do something, but is also not that de¬nuded of choice and volition to say no. In the terminology of Muslim jur¬ists, this is known as اِکراہ غیر ملجیء (ikrah ghayr mulji’: state of compulsion not forced actually). Under such duress, saying any word of disbelief (kufr) or doing something unlawful (haram) does not become permis¬sible. However, there are some supplementary injunctions which do re-lease some adverse effects even against this situation. Relevant details appear in Books of Fiqh. In the second degree of Ikrah, one is just sucked out of all choice so much so that should he fail to carry out the order of the perpetrators of this coercion (Ikrah), he would be killed or some of his organ is amputated. This, in the terminology of Muslim jur¬ists, is called Ikrah Mulji’ which means a compulsion which makes one totally choice-less and helpless. When under the state of such duress, the mere verbalization of the word of disbelief – subject to the condition that one’s heart is firm and at peace with Faith – is permissible. Similarly, short of killing another human being, should one be coerced to do some other unlawful deed, it will bring no sin to commit that unlawful act.
But, the concessions given in both kinds of Ikrah are subject to a con¬dition that the coercer threatening to do what he says he will do should actually be capable of doing just that, and the coerced should have the overwhelming likelihood that should he fail to oblige him, he would go ahead and definitely do what he is threatening to do.
There are two kinds of transactions. (1) Those in which the transac¬tion can be effected only by mutual consent and heartfelt willingness of the parties, like sale, gift, etc. There is the definitive authority of the Holy Qur۔ an to this effect. The Holy Qur’an says, لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنكُمْ “Do not eat up the wealth of others, unless there is a trade with mutual consent” (4:29) And then it appears in Hadith:
عَنْ أَبِي حَرَّةَ الرَّقَاشِيِّ، عَنْ عَمِّهِ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: ” لَا يَحِلُّ مَالُ امْرِئٍ مُسْلِمٍ إِلَّا بِطِيبِ نَفْسٍ مِنْهُ “. شعب الإيمان (5105)
The wealth and property of a Muslim does not become lawful unless it be with a whole-hearted pleasure from the person.
If such transactions were to be arranged and executed under duress (with Ikrah), they have no validity in the sight of the Shari` ah of Islam. In normal practice, once the person concerned comes out of the state of Ikrah (compulsion, duress), he will have the option to reassess the sale or gift done under duress and exercise his free will to retain or cancel it.
Then there are some transactions which depend on verbal commitment only. Here, the intention and the volition in the heart or pleasure and will are not the binding conditions of the transaction – such as, marriage, divorce, revocation of divorce, freedom of a slave etc. For such mat¬ters, it is said in Hadith:
عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: ” ثَلَاثٌ جَدُّهُنَّ جَدٌّ، وَهَزْلُهُنَّ جَدٌّ: النِّكَاحُ، وَالطَّلَاقُ، وَالرَّجْعَةُ “. (سنن أبي داود: 2194، سنن الترمذي: 1184)
“There are three things in which not only the serious words, but also the non-serious words are counted as serious”.
It means if two individuals go through the process of Offer and Accep¬tance in Marriage in accordance with attending conditions, or some hus¬band divorces his wife by pronouncing it verbally, or verbally revokes the divorce given by him earlier – whether that be in jest with no intention in the heart for marriage or divorce or revocation – still, by a mere saying of the respective words, the marriage will stand solemnized, the divorce will become effective, and the revocation will turn out right. (Mazhari)
According to Imam Abu Hanifah, al-Sha` bi, Zuhri, Nakha` i and Qatadah رحمۃ اللہ علیہم ، may the mercy of Allah be upon them, this very injunction ap¬plies to ‘divorce under duress’ طلاق مکروہ : Talaq Mukrah). It means that such a person being under duress was though not ready to divorce willingly and by heart yet, rendered helpless, he uttered the words of di¬vorce. Now, the actualization of divorce is connected with nothing but the pronouncing of the words of divorce. The intention and will of the heart is not a condition here – as proved from the Hadith cited above. Therefore, this divorce will become effective.
But, according to Imam Shafi` i, and Sayyidna and Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، the ‘divorce under duress’ (under the state of Ikrah) will not take effect because it appears in Hadith:
عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَفَا لِهَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ عَنِ الْخَطَإِ، وَالنِّسْيَانِ، وَمَا اسْتُكْرِهُوا عَلَيْهِ». المعجم الأوسط (8273)
Removed away from my Ummah are mistake, forgetting and what they are compelled to under coercion. (Reported by al-Tab¬arni from Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas)
According to Imam Abu Hanifah (رح) ، this Hadith is related to injunc¬tions of the ‘Akhirah (Hereafter), that is, something said or done contrary to the Shari` ah by mistake and forgetfulness or under duress will bring no sin. As for the rest of the injunctions pertaining to the mor¬tal world as well as the incidences of doing things like that therein are to occur as felt and sensed. It goes without saying that the vestiges and rul¬ings generated by this occurrence shall continue to bring their relevant ef¬fects. For example, someone killed someone else by mistake, then, there is no doubt that he will neither incur the sin of killing him nor face the punishment of the Hereafter, but the way the tangible effect of killing has occurred in the form of the victim’s loss of life, very similarly, its sub¬sequent Islamic legal effect will also follow: his wife will, after the period of Iddah, be able to enter a second marriage contract and the wealth and property left by him will be distributed in the form of inheritance to his legal heirs. Similarly, when words to the effect of divorce, marriage or rev¬ocation were said verbally, then, their consequential Islamic legal effect will also follow. (Mazhari, Qurtubi) وَ اللہُ سُبحَانه أعلم
ثُمَّ اِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِيْنَ هَاجَرُوْا مِنْۢ بَعْدِ مَا فُتِنُوْا ثُمَّ جٰهَدُوْا وَصَبَرُوْٓا ۙ اِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِنْۢ بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُوْرٌ رَّحِيْمٌ
Sequence of Verses
Warnings of punishment against disbelief (kufr) – whether original or apostacy (irtidad) – appeared in previous verses. After that, in the first (106) of the initial three verses cited above, it has been pointed clearly that ‘Iman or the declaration of faith is a wealth that could work won¬ders for a kafir (disbeliever) or murtadd (apostate) who – if he were to come up with an honest and true ‘Iman – all his past sins would stand forgiven.
In the second verse (107), the last day of Qiyamah was mentioned for the reason that all this phenomena of reward and punishment has to occur after that. In the third verse (108), it was said that the real punish¬ment of disbelief and sin will, though come after the Qiyamah, yet there are some sins the punishment of which is faced in a certain degree within the present world.
وَضَرَبَ اللّٰهُ مَثَلًا قَرْيَةً كَانَتْ اٰمِنَةً مُّطْمَىِٕنَّةً يَّاْتِيْهَا رِزْقُهَا رَغَدًا مِّنْ كُلِّ مَكَانٍ فَكَفَرَتْ بِاَنْعُمِ اللّٰهِ فَاَذَاقَهَا اللّٰهُ لِبَاسَ الْجُوْعِ وَالْخَوْفِ بِمَا كَانُوْا يَصْنَعُوْنَ
According to leading Tafsir authorities, the similitude mentioned in verse 112 is general and universal. It does not relate to a particular habi¬tation. However, there are others who connect it to what had happened in Makkah al-Mukarramah where people suffered from an acute famine for seven years so much so that they were compelled to eat animal car¬cass, dead dogs and filth. They were virtually gripped with the awe of Muslims. Then, the chiefs of Makkah came to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) with the plea that those who had committed disbelief and disobedience against his call were all grown-up men. Women and children were inno¬cent. Thereupon, the Holy Prophet arranged to have food supplies for them sent from Madinah al-Taiyyibah. (Mazhari)
And Abu Sufyn, while still in his state of kufr, requested the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) : You teach kindness to relatives and mercy and forgiveness. Here are your people standing on the brink of destruction. Please pray to Allah for the removal of this famine from us. Thereupon, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) prayed for them and the famine was gone. (Qurtubi)
As for the use of the word: لِبَاس (libas: garment) to carry the sense of giving a taste of hunger and fear towards the later part of verse 112, it will be noted that a garment is not a thing to be tasted. But, the word ‘garment’ standing for ‘libas’ has been used here with the force of a simi¬lie denoting something being wide-spread and all-enveloping. The sug¬gestion being conveyed here is that fear and hunger were cast over them in a manner of a garment or dress which becomes an integral part of the body. This was how hunger and fear were released and set all over them. (Mazhari)
فَكُلُوْا مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ اللّٰهُ حَلٰلًا طَيِّبًا ۠ وَّاشْكُرُوْا نِعْمَتَ اللّٰهِ اِنْ كُنْتُمْ اِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُوْنَ
Sequence and Explanation in Gist
Mentioned in the previous verses was that disbelievers will be pun¬ished for their ungratefulness to Allah whose blessings they had been en¬joying. In the cited verses, Muslims have been instructed to stay away from ungratefulness, rather be grateful for Halal things Allah has given to them. After that, they were told how the disbelievers and polytheists had become ungrateful by declaring what Allah had made Halal for them as Haram and what Allah had called Haram as Halal. Muslims were warned that they should never do that. Making things Halal and Haram is the exclusive right of their Creator. Doing this on your own amounts to interference in Divine prerogatives, in fact, amounts to at-tributing lies to Allah Ta` ala. Towards the end, it was also said that even those who have committed such evil deeds through ignorance should not lose hope in the mercy of Allah Ta’ ala. Should they repent and believe honestly and truly, Allah Ta’ ala will forgive all sins committed by them.
اِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنْزِيْرِ وَمَآ اُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ اللّٰهِ بِهٖ ۚ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَّلَا عَادٍ فَاِنَّ اللّٰهَ غَفُوْرٌ رَّحِيْمٌ
Nature of Prohibitions: The Correct View
The restrictive particle: اَنَّمَا (innama: only) appearing in verse 115 seems to give the impression that things Haram are no more than the four mentioned in the verse. This impression emerges more clearly in another verse: قُل لَّا أَجِدُ فِي مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيَّ مُحَرَّمًا (Say, I do not find, in what has been revealed to me, anything prohibited… – Surah a1-An` am, 6:145). It seems to be suggestive of nothing being Haram other than the things mentioned in the verse while the fact is that according to clarifications of the Qur’an and Sunnah and by the Consensus of the Muslim Ummah, there are many more things rated as Haram. The answer to this difficulty comes through deliberation into the context of these very verses which tells us that the purpose at this place is not to describe Halal and Haram as they are commonly understood. Instead, the purpose is to point out to what the mushrikin of the period of Jahiliyah had done. They had made many things Haram on their own although Allah Ta’ ala had never or¬dered them about their unlawfulness. It amounts to saying: Out of the things you have (arbitrarily) made out as Haram, only that which is real¬ly Haram is being mentioned here. A comprehensive explanation of this verse along with a detailed description of these four prohibitions has ap¬peared in the Commentary of Surah al-Baqarah, Ma` ariful-Qur’ an, Vo¬lume I, pages 424-438, under Verses 173-174. Those interested may see it there.
اِنَّ اِبْرٰهِيْمَ كَانَ اُمَّةً قَانِتًا لِّلّٰهِ حَنِيْفًا ۭ وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ
Sequence of Verses
Refuted in the previous verses was the root of Shirk and Kufr which is rejection of the reality of Allah’s Oneness and the rejection of the mandate given by Him to His prophet. Also refuted there were some off-shoots of Kufr and Shirk in the form of legalizing the illegal and illegalizing the legal, a virtual reversal of Divinely ordained arrangements. Since the Mushriks of Makkah who were the first direct addressees of the Holy Qur’ an and who, despite their infidelity and idol-worship, claimed that they were adherents of the great community of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) and that what they did was all in accordance with his teachings, it was also taken up as due. The rejection of their position came on the basis of what they already believed in.
So, in the first (120) of the five verses cited above, it was said that Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) was the foremost universal leader of nations with the high station of a prophet and messenger of Allah. This proves that he was a great prophet and messenger. Then, by saying: وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ (and he was not among the Mushriks…121) along with it, his being a torch bearer of the most perfect belief in the Oneness of Allah was confirmed.
And in the second verse (121), by saying that he was grateful to Allah and was on the straight path, a warning signal was given to his adversaries who claimed to be his followers – how could they, being as ungrateful as they were, had the cheek to call themselves his adherents and followers?
After that it was said in the third verse (122) that Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) was successful in Dunya and ‘Akhirah and then it was said in the fourth verse (123) that the prophetic mission of Sayyidna Muhammad al-Musta¬fa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was true and that he was truly committed to the ideal of the authentic community of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) . After having stated these two premises, the instruction given was: your claim cannot be correct without faith in and obedience to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) .
In the fifth verse (124): إِنَّمَا جُعِلَ السَّبْتُ (The Sabbath was appointed only for those…) the hint given is that good things you, on your own, have made unlawful for yourself were really not unlawful in the community of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) .
The word: اُمَّہ (ummah) has a few other meanings, but the well-known sense is that of community, nation, or group of people. At this place, this is what it means – as reported from Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) . The sense is that Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) is, in his person, a community, a nation, almost a compendium of their perfections and merits. There is another meaning of the word: اُمَّہ (ummah), that of the leader of a community, someone imbibing in his person many perfections. Some commentators have taken exactly this meaning of the word at this place. And the word: قَانِت (qanit) in verse 120 means obedient to the command (of his Creator). Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) has distinct status in these two qualities. As for being a leader, people from all famous Faiths of the world believe in him and consider it an honour to be the followers of his community. Of course, the Jews, the Christians and the Muslims revere him. Even the Mushriks of Arabia, despite their idol-worship, felt proud to believe in him and in (supposedly) following his way (the way of someone who was the foremost idol-breaker in human annals) ! As for the signal distinction of his being ‘qanit’ (obedient), it becomes crystal clear from the trials this ‘friend’ (khalil) of Allah has gone through. Imagine the fire of Namrud (Nimrod), the Command to go elsewhere leaving behind his family in a wilderness, and then, his being ready to sacrifice his very dear son. All these are singularities because of which Allah Ta’ ala has honoured him with such epithets.
ثُمَّ اَوْحَيْنَآ اِلَيْكَ اَنِ اتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ اِبْرٰهِيْمَ حَنِيْفًا ۭ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ
The Holy Prophet being on the way of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) : Understanding the Chemistry of Adherence
When Sayyidna Ibrahim I appeared, Allah Ta’ ala blessed him with a Shari’ah and its Injunctions. When the Last of the Prophets (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ap¬peared, his Shari’ah too – with the exception of some particular Injunc¬tions – was laid out in accordance with it. Though, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is preferred as more distinguished (afdal) of all blessed prophets and mes¬sengers, but at this place, there are two wise considerations in asking the preferred (afdal) to follow the one not so preferred (mafdul) in the present context. (1) Since that Shari’ah has come into the world earlier and is already known and recognized and as the last Shari’ah was also to be in accord with that, therefore, this similarity of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) to the way of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) was expressed through the word: اِتِّبَاع (ittiba’: following). (2) As said by ` Allamah al-Zamakhshari (au¬thor of Tafsir Al-Kashshaf), this command to follow too is a special tribute out of the many honours and tributes attributed to the ‘friend’ of Allah, Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) . That it is so special has been hinted through the use of the word: ثُمَّ (thumma: Then – 123). The sense being conveyed is: Certainly great are all those merits and perfections of the person of Sayy¬idna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) as they are, but the most superior of all these is the fact that Allah Ta’ ala has asked his preferred-most and the dearest rasul to follow his way.
اُدْعُ اِلٰى سَبِيْلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُمْ بِالَّتِيْ هِىَ اَحْسَنُ ۭ اِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ اَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ ضَلَّ عَنْ سَـبِيْلِهٖ وَهُوَ اَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِيْنَ
Sequence of Verses
In the previous verses, by attesting to the veracity of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) as prophet and messenger of Allah, the purpose was to induce his people to follow what he commanded them with and thus do their bounden duty towards their Divinely ordained rasul. In the verses cited above, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) himself is being taught how to fulfill the rights of his mission as a messenger of Allah and how to observe the related etiquette as due – the generality of which includes and covers all true believers.
Da’wah and Tabligh: Principles and Curriculum
Embedded in this verse (125) there lies a whole curriculum of Da’wah and Tabligh, its principles and rules of etiquette, within the frame of a few words. As in Tafsir al-Qurtubi, when Haram ibn Hayyan’s (رح) time of death came near, his relatives asked him for some wasiyyah (order, parting advice, will). In reply, he said, “Wasiyyah? That people make for مَال mal (wealth, property, inheritance), which I do not have. But, I would still make a wasiyyah, that of the ayat of Allah, particularly that of the last verses of Surah an-Nahl – and I order you to stand firm on them.” The verses mentioned here are the same as appear above.
Literally, دَعوَہ : da’wah, means to call. The first duty of the blessed prophets is to call people towards Allah. After that, what they teach as prophets and messengers are explanations of this Da’wah. The Qur’ an mentioning a special attribute of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has called him: (one who invites people towards Allah):
وَدَاعِيًا إِلَى اللَّـهِ بِإِذْنِهِ وَسِرَاجًا مُّنِيرًا
And one who invites towards Allah with His permission whilst being a lamp, lighted. (al-Ahz, 33:46)
يَا قَوْمَنَا أَجِيبُوا دَاعِيَ اللَّـهِ
O our people, respond to the Caller of Allah (Prophet Muhammad ). (al-Ahgaf, 46:31)
Calling people towards Allah دَعوَۃ اِلی اللہ : da’wah ilal-lah) has been made obligatory on the Muslim Ummah following in the footsteps of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . It was said in Surah ‘Al-` Imran:
وَلْتَكُن مِّنكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ
And there has to be a group of people from among you who call towards the good… (3:104)
And in another verse, it was said:
وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ قَوْلًا مِّمَّن دَعَا إِلَى اللَّـهِ
And who is better in utterance than the one who called (people) towards Allah. (Ha Mim as-Sajdah/Fussilat, 41:33)
While expressing the general sense, this word may take several forms, such as: دَعوَۃ اِلی اللہ (da’wah ilal-lah: Calling towards Allah), دَعوَۃ اِلی الخَیر (da’wah ila al-khair: Calling toward the good) and دَعوَۃ اِلی سَبِیلِ اللہ (da’wah ila sabilillah: Calling towards the way of Allah). However, the outcome is the same because calling towards Allah is actually calling towards His دین din and the Straight Path.
The next phrase:إِلَىٰ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ (ila sabili rabbik: to the way of your Lord) carries two nuances of expression. Here, by mentioning the special attrib¬ute of the Most Exalted Allah ۔ رَبّ ‘Rabb’ – and then by annexing it to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، a hint has been given that the work of Da’wah is con¬nected with the attribute of nurture, raising, training and education. Here, it is being suggested to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) that the way Allah Ta` ala has nurtured him, he too should invite people using the mores of nurture and education. It should be a Da’wah in which due consideration is given to the nature and attending circumstances of the addressee and the ultimate approach has to be such as would not weigh heavy on the recipient, rather, should be as effective as is possible. The word: adz (da’wah) itself imparts this sense in that the mission of a prophet is not simply limited to conveying the injunctions of Allah and making people hear them. Instead, his mission is to invite people to implement these in their lives. And it is obvious that no one inviting someone to Allah would present his submission in a manner which causes distraction and aver¬sion or in which the addressee has been maligned or mocked at.
The expression: بِالْحِكْمَةِ (bil-hikmah: with wisdom) which follows im¬mediately has been used in the Holy Qur’an for several meanings. At this place, some Tafsir authorities have taken: الْحِكْمَةِ (al-hikmah) to mean the Holy Qur’ an, some others explain it as the Qur’an and Sun-nah, still others call it the binding argument while Ruh al-Ma` ani has given the following Tafsir of ‘al-hikmah’ with reference to al-Bahr al-Muhit:
إنھا الکلام الصواب الواقع من النفس أجمل موقع.
It is sound speech which goes into one’s heart. (Ru , al-Ma` ani)
This Tafsir assimilates all above views. The author of Ruh al-Bayan has also carried almost the same sense in the following words:
“Al-Hikmah means the insight through which one finds out the dictates of circumstances and talks as appropriate relatively, chooses such time and occasion as would not put a burden on the addressee, employs lenience where lenience is called for and firmness where firmness is in order. And where he thinks the addressee would be embarrassed by saying something frank¬ly, there he should use hints to communicate, or employ a change of subject and approach in a way that neither embarrasses the addressee nor feeds him with the thought of sticking by his prejudice.”
The next word: الْمَوْعِظَةِ (al-maw` izah) or: وَعظ (wa’ z) literally means to say something in the spirit of wishing well in a manner that would make the heart of the addressee softened and arable, all tuned to accept it. Once this is done, it will be useful to talk about the reward and benefit of such acceptance, as well as, about the punishment and ill-effects of not accepting it. (Al-Qamus and a1-Mufradat of Raghib al-Isfahan)
Later, by saying: الْحَسَنَةِ (al-hasanah: good), the sense conveyed is that the subject and treatment of this counsel should be such as would satisfy the heart of the addressee, removing doubts and apprehensions whereby the addressee comes to realize that you have no personal motive behind your approach and that you are addressing him only in the interest of the addressee and for his or her good.
We may stay with the word: الْمَوْعِظَةِ (al-maw’ izah: counsel) for a while and say that it had already made it clear that this wishing well has to be in an effective manner. But, experience bears out that sometimes while wishing well for someone, the approach could become hurtful or insult¬ing for the addressee. (Ruh al-Ma’ ani). In order that people would leave this kind of approach, the word: الْحَسَنَةِ (al-hasanah: good) was added.
The word: جَادِلْ (jadil: argue) in the subsequent sentence: وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ (And are with them in the best of manners) has been derived from: مُجَادِلہ (mujadala). At this place, it means argumentation and debate and: بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ (And argue with them in the best of manners) means that should there be, in the process of Da’wah, the need to engage in debate or exchange of arguments, then, that discussion should also be in the best of manners. It appears in Ruh al-Ma` ani that good manners require a gentle and soft approach in mutual submissions, arguments have to be such as would be easily understood by the addressee, argu¬ments have to be supported by known premises so that they help remove the doubts of the addressee and shields him against falling into dogma¬tism. And there are other verses of the Qur’ an which bear witness to the fact that this approach of showing good manners in debate (al-ilhsan fi al-mujadalah) is not restricted to Muslims alone. About the people of the Book (Jews and Christians), the Qur’ an particularly says:
وَلَا تُجَادِلُوا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ إِلَّا بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ
And do not are with the People of the Book except in a man¬ner which is the best. (al ` Ankabut, 29:46)
And in another verse, by giving the instruction of: قُولَا لَهُ قَوْلًا لَّيِّنًا (speak to him in gentle words (‘Ta-Ha, 20:44) to Sayyidna Musa and Harun (عليهما السلام) ، it was also stressed that this was how they have to deal even with as rebellious an infidel as the Pharaoh.
Da’wah: Principles and Etiquette
To sum up, three things have been mentioned in verse 125 as neces¬sary for Da’wah:
- Al-Hikmah (Wisdom)
- Al-Maw` izah al-Hasanah (Good Counsel)
- Al-Mujadalah – ‘billati hiya alhsan’ (Debate in the Best of Manners)
Some commentators have said that these things are there because of three kinds of addressees. Inviting with wisdom is for people of knowl¬edge and understanding. Inviting with good counsel is for common peo¬ple. Argument and debate are for those who nurse doubts in their hearts, or simply refuse to accept anything said to them because of hostil¬ity and obstinacy.
My mentor and master, Maulana Ashraf Thanavi (رح) has said in his Tafsir Bayan al-Qur’ an that it is far out to deduce from the context of the verse that the addressees of these three things are groups of three different kinds, separate from each other.
In the light of the above what seems to be obvious here is that these rules of etiquette in Da’wah are to be used for everyone. The first thing to do in Da’wah is to wisely assess conditions surrounding the addressee and pick out the most appropriate thing to say in those terms. Then, what has to be said will certainly be said as a well-wisher, however, this empathy has to be strengthened by such evidences and proof as would satisfy the addressee. And the subject matter and the manner of presen¬tation has to be kept soft and affectionate so that the addressee becomes certain about whatever is being said and starts feeling that this person is saying it in his interest and for his benefit, and that the speaker’s pur¬pose is not to embarrass him or belittle his status.
However, the author of Ruh al-Ma’ani has made a subtle point at this place. According to him, the arrangement of the verse shows that there are really no more than two things in Da’wah: (1) Al-Hikmah (Wis¬dom) and (2) Al-Maw` izah (Good Counsel). The third thing: Al-Mujadalah (Argument, Debate) is just not included under the Principles of Da’wah. But, it can be conceded that it does come out handy once in a while in the path of Da’wah.
The author of Ruh al-Ma` ani proves his point by saying: If these three things were to be the Principles of Da’wah, the exigency of the situ¬ation required that all three should have been enumerated with the help of conjunctions as: بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَالجِدَال الاَحسَن But, the Holy Qu’ran has elected to say al-Hikmah (Wisdom) and al-Maw` izah (Good Counsel) with conjunctive words in one single arrangement while, for al-Mujadalah, it has chosen to have a separate sentence: جَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ (And argue with them in the best of manners). This tells us that argument in matters of knowledge is not a basic element or condition of the Call to Allah (da’wah ilal-lah). Instead, it is an instruction concerning matters that come up in the path of Da’wah – an example of which appears in the next verse where patience has been enjoined because it is inevitable to observe patience over pains inflicted by people while in the path of Da’wah.
In short, there are two principles of Da’wah – (1) Al-Hikmah (Wis¬dom) and (2) Al-Maw’izah (Good Counsel). No Da’wah – whether to the learned and the classes or to the masses of people – should remain with-out these two factors. However, one has to face the kind of people who are neck-deep into doubts and superstitions and more than ready to start a debate with the دَاعِی Da` i (the man of Da’wah), it is to meet such situations that a go ahead signal to engage in the exercise of Al-Mujadalah (argument, debate) has been given. But, by imposing the restriction of: بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ (in the best of manners) along with it, it was made very clear that the Mujadalah devoid of this condition has no place and status in the Shari’ ah.
The Prophetic Etiquette of Da’wah
Inviting people towards Allah is, in fact, the mission and station of the blessed prophets, may peace be upon them all. The rightly-guided ` Ulama’ of the Muslim community carry out this mission in their capac¬ity of being their deputies. So, it is incumbent on them that they should learn its etiquette and methodology from them alone. A da’wah that does not follow those methods faithfully does not remain what da` wah re¬ally is. Instead, it turns into عَداوۃ ` adawah (enmity) and becomes the cause of subsequent confrontations and wars.
An instruction of the Holy Qur’an given to Sayyidna Musa and Harun (عليهما السلام) in Surah Ta-Ha illustrates the principle observed by prophets in their Call: فَقُولَا لَهُ قَوْلًا لَّيِّنًا لَّعَلَّهُ يَتَذَكَّرُ أَوْ يَخْشَىٰ (Speak to him in gentle words, maybe he takes to the advice or fears – 20:44). This is a principle no Caller to Truth دَاعِی الی الحق (da i ila al-Haqq) should ever lose sight of. Let him al-ways bear in mind that the Pharaoh was an infidel (kafir) known for his rebellion, one whose death was to come, as in ultimate Divine knowl¬edge, while he was still a kafir. Now, when Allah Ta’ ala sends his man of the Call even to a disbelieving tyrant like the Pharaoh, He sends him with the instruction of talking to him gently. Today, the people we invite to Allah, to His Faith, they are not more astray than the Pharaoh. Then, none of us can claim to match Sayyidna Musa and Harun (عليهما السلام) as great guides and callers to the way of Allah. So, the right that Allah did not give to the two of his prophets – that they hurl hard talk on the ad¬dressee, throw taunts at him and insult him – where in the world did we get that right from?
The Holy Qur’ an is full of the Da’wah and Tabligh of the noble proph¬ets (عليهم السلام) and the contestations of disbelievers. Nowhere in there, we find that any messenger of Allah has ever responded with a single un¬pleasant word against those who threw taunts at them despite their being on the side of the Truth. Let us have a look at some relevant exam¬ples.
The words spoken by two prophets, Sayyidna Nuh and Sayyidna Hud (عليهما السلام) in response to the confrontation and sharp accusations of their people are worth noticing. These can be seen in the seventh section of Surah al-A’ raf from verses 59 to 67.
Sayyidna Nuh (عليه السلام) is the great prophet known for his high determi¬nation and long blessed years in this world. For nine hundred and fifty years he devoted his life to Da’wah, Tabligh, Reform and Enlightenment among his people. But, with the exception of a few, no one from among his people listened to him. Leave the rest, even his son and wife re¬mained on the side of disbelievers. Had a modern day Reformer been in his place, imagine how he would have talked to such a people! Just ima¬gine and then see what those people said in response to his Call in their interest and for their benefit. They said: إِنَّا لَنَرَاكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ “Indeed we see you in an obvious error” – al-A` raf, 7:60.
On the other side, there is a prophet of Allah. He skips the option of chastizing his evil and contumacious people and this is what he elects to say:
يَا قَوْمِ لَيْسَ بِي ضَلَالَةٌ وَلَـٰكِنِّي رَسُولٌ مِّن رَّبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
“O my people, there is no error in me, but I am a messenger from the Lord of the worlds” [ telling you what is good for you ] – al-A` raf, 7:61.
The other messenger of Allah who came after him was Sayyidna Hud (عليه السلام) . His people, despite having seen the messenger’s miracles, chose to remain hostile. They said, “you have yet to come up with a proof for your claim and we are not the kind of people who would abandon their objects of worship (idols) just because you say so. The fact is that you have been irreverent in respect of our idols and that is why you have gone crazy.”
Having heard all this, Sayyidna Hud (عليه السلام) responded by saying:
قَالَ إِنِّي أُشْهِدُ اللَّـهَ وَاشْهَدُوا أَنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِّمَّا تُشْرِكُونَ
“I make Allah my witness, and you witness that I have nothing to do with what you take as gods besides Him” – Hud, 11:54.
And as in Surah al-A` raf, to him his people said:
إِنَّا لَنَرَاكَ فِي سَفَاهَةٍ وَإِنَّا لَنَظُنُّكَ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ
“Indeed, we see you in foolishness, and we certainly believe you to be one of the liars” – 7:66.
In response to these heart-rending words used against him by his people, the messenger of Allah, Sayyidna Hud, blessings and peace on him, does not even think of some sharp repartee, some derogatory counter comment, or say anything which would bring into focus their waywardness and their ugly penchant for attributing lies to Allah. He does nothing of that sort. Yet, he gives the answer and what an answer! He simply said:
قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لَيْسَ بِي سَفَاهَةٌ وَلَـٰكِنِّي رَسُولٌ مِّن رَّبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
“0 my people, there is no foolishness in me, but I am a messen¬ger from the Lord of the worlds” – al-A` raf, 7:67.
Sayyidna Shu’aib (عليه السلام) ` invited his people to Allah in accordance with customary practice of prophets. They were addicted to the evil practice of weighing less and measuring short. When Sayyidna Shu’aib (عليه السلام) asked them to refrain from it, his people made fun of him and asked him in bit¬ing contempt:
قَالُوا يَا شُعَيْبُ أَصَلَاتُكَ تَأْمُرُكَ أَن نَّتْرُكَ مَا يَعْبُدُ آبَاؤُنَا أَوْ أَن نَّفْعَلَ فِي أَمْوَالِنَا مَا نَشَاءُ ۖ إِنَّكَ لَأَنتَ الْحَلِيمُ الرَّشِيدُ
They said, “0 Shu’aib, does your salah (prayer) command you that we should give up what our fathers used to worship or give up our free will in (spending) our wealth? You are proven¬ly the man of wisdom and guidance” – Ind, 11:87.
Here, they have said three things. They open with a taunt: This pray¬er that you make teaches you to do all those foolish things. Then they talk about their مَال mal – wealth, property, commercial interests: This is ours. We buy. We sell. at do you have to do with our financial mat¬ters? And for that matter, how does your God come into this? All this belongs to us and we have the right of spending it as we wish. The last sen¬tence they say is loaded with black humour and angry sarcasm – you are certainly wise, guided-right!
It seems as if the contemporary votaries of secular economy did not rise only in our time. They do have their forbears in the past whose theoretical assumptions were the same as is being dished out today by some Muslims carrying nothing but Muslim names. So, they would say that they were Muslims, they believed in Islam but when it comes to an eco¬nomic order, they adopt socialism (or capitalism) for, as they would like to believe, this area is out of bounds for Islam.
Returning to what his people said to Sayyidna Shu` aib (عليه السلام) let us now see how the messenger of Allah responds to the sarcastic remarks made by his unjust people:
قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِن كُنتُ عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّي وَرَزَقَنِي مِنْهُ رِزْقًا حَسَنًا ۚ وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُخَالِفَكُمْ إِلَىٰ مَا أَنْهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ ۚ إِنْ أُرِيدُ إِلَّا الْإِصْلَاحَ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُ ۚ وَمَا تَوْفِيقِي إِلَّا بِاللَّـهِ ۚ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَإِلَيْهِ أُنِيبُ
He said, “0 my people, tell me, if I am on a clear path from my Lord and He has provided me from Himself with a good provi¬sion, (should I still leave you unguided?) And I do not want to do in your absence what I prohibit for you. I want nothing but to set things right as far as I can. And what I am enabled to do is only with the help of Allah. In Him alone I have placed my trust and to Him alone I turn in humbleness” – Hud, 11:88
Despite that Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) ، when sent to the Pharaoh, had fully complied with the Divine instruction of talking to him gently, the response of the Pharaoh to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) came in the following words:
قَالَ أَلَمْ نُرَبِّكَ فِينَا وَلِيدًا وَلَبِثْتَ فِينَا مِنْ عُمُرِكَ سِنِينَ ﴿18﴾ وَفَعَلْتَ فَعْلَتَكَ الَّتِي فَعَلْتَ وَأَنتَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ
He said, ” (You! ) Did we not raise you among us as a child, and you stayed among us for years of your life? And you did your deed which you did, and you were of the infidels ” – ash-Shu` ara, 26:18, 19.
Here, the Pharaoh has reminded Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) of two favours done to him – that he raised him as a child and that he stayed with him for a number of years while older. Then he showed his displeasure over the incident in which a Copt got killed at the hands of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) ، though he had no intention of killing him. In his anger, he also said that he had become an infidel.
At this place, the expression: اَنتَ مِنَ الکَافِرِینَ (anta min al-kafirin) could be taken in the literal sense, that is, one who is ungrateful, which would mean: we did favours to you and you killed one of our men, a demonstra¬tion of ungratefulness to favours done.’ Then, it could also be given a technical meaning because the Pharaoh claimed to be god. So, whoever denied his godhead turned out to be a kafir (infidel).
Now, at this juncture, let us hear the answer given by Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) which is a masterpiece of prophetic manners and morals of Da’wah. Here, first of all, he goes ahead and makes a clean breast of what had happened to him. He had tried to disengage a Copt who was fighting an Israelite man. The punch he had employed to do that caused his death. So, this killing was not intentional. But, it was also not prompted by some religious exigency. In fact, even under the Law of Moses, that man was not deserving of being killed. Therefore, he began by confessing first and said:
قَالَ فَعَلْتُهَا إِذًا وَأَنَا مِنَ الضَّالِّينَ
I did it then, while I was of the astray (ignorant) ” – ash-Shu` ara, 26:20.
The sense is that the act had escaped him before he was blessed with the mission of a prophet and at a time when he was not aware of any Di-vine command about it. After that, he said:
فَفَرَرْتُ مِنكُمْ لَمَّا خِفْتُكُمْ فَوَهَبَ لِي رَبِّي حُكْمًا وَجَعَلَنِي مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
“So I fled from you when I feared you. Then my Lord bestowed wisdom on me and made me of His messengers” – 26:21.
After that, Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) took up the reality of favours the Pharaoh was harping on. He told him that he was not right in doing that because this whole matter of bringing him up was the result of his own cruelty and oppression in that it was he who had a standing order in force, the order to kill Israelite children. His mother was, therefore, com-pelled to put him into the river until came the time when he reached his home. He said:
وَتِلْكَ نِعْمَةٌ تَمُنُّهَا عَلَيَّ أَنْ عَبَّدتَّ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ
“And this is the favour you put on me – that you have enslaved the Children of Isra’il! – 26:22.
After that, when the Pharaoh asked: وَمَا رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ (“And what is the Lord of the worlds?” – 26:23), he replied by saying: رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا (“The Lord of the heavens and the earth and of whatever there is in between them” – 26:24). Thereupon, it was by way of mockery that the Pharaoh turned towards the audience and asked: … أَلَا تَسْتَمِعُونَ (“Do you not hear?” – 26:25) [ meaning: You hear him, don’t you? Hasn’t he gone out of his mind?] Thereupon, Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) added:
رَبُّكُمْ وَرَبُّ آبَائِكُمُ الْأَوَّلِينَ
“Your Lord and the Lord of your first forefathers” – 26:26
Irritated, the Pharaoh said:
إِنَّ رَسُولَكُمُ الَّذِي أُرْسِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ لَمَجْنُونٌ
“Indeed, your messenger (who claims to have been) sent to you is a mad man” – 26:27.
Even such a derogatory title given to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) did not lure him into a blow for blow response for he could have easily told the Pharaoh as to who was insane and who was sane. He just took no notice of it, in fact, went on to describe another attribute of Allah, the Lord of the worlds:
رَبُّ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
“Lord of the East and the West and of whatever there is in between them, if you were to comprehend” – 26:28.
This is a lengthy dialogue taking place in the court of the Pharaoh between him and Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) . It covers three sections of Surah ash-Shu` ara‘ (26). Look at this dialogue of Sayyidna Musa عليه السلام from the beginning to the end. No emotions are betrayed here. No reply has been given to his bad words, nor is his hard talk matched by counter hard talk. Instead of all that, there is a continuous flow of statements to the effect of Allah Ta` ala’s attributes of perfection along with the ongoing ef¬forts of Tabligh.
This is a brief sample of the confrontations in which the blessed prophets have stood up against their hostile and obstinate people. We can also say that it is a practical demonstration of ‘arguing with the best of manners.’
Besides argumentations, debates and intellectual confrontations when inevitable, models have been set by the blessed prophets in Da’wah and Tabligh on a standing basis. They have established wise principles in human communications as appropriate to different addres¬sees and different occasions with the added considerations as dictated by wisdom or beneficial expediency. In short, the way and method put in practice by the blessed prophets in order to invite people to Allah (da’wah ilal-lah) and make it popular, effective and abiding as well is, in reality, the essence and spirit of Da’wah. As for its details, these are spread all over in the teachings of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . Let us have a look at some of these as representative samples.
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was very particular about making sure that no burden is placed on the addressee whether in Da’wah and Tabligh or in good counsel and beneficial advice. As for the noble Sahabah, they held the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) very dear to their heart. About them, it could not be imagined that they would, God forbid, ever get bored with what he had to say. Yet, even for them, his customary practice was that he would not hold his teaching, counseling and advising sessions every day, rather lim¬ited it to some days of the week so that their occupation or business is not adversely affected or that it becomes some sort of burden on them.
According to a narration of Sayyidna ` Abdullh ibn Masud (رض) reported in the Sahih of al-Bukhari, “The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had his ‘wa` z’ sessions only on some days of the week lest we get bored – and he in¬structed others to do the same.”
Sayyidna Anas (رض) reports that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said:
یَسِّرُو ولا تُعَسِّرُوا وَ بَزشِّر ‘ وا ولا تُنَفِّرُوا
Make (things) easy and do not make (things) difficult and give (people) the good news (of mercy from Allah) and do not disap¬point or alienate (them) – Sabih al Bukhari, Kitab al-` Ilm.
Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) says, ‘you should become Rabbani, the people of your Rabb, people with wisdom, learning and law.’ After reporting this saying in the Sahih al-Bukhari, the word: رَبَّانِی (Rabbani) has been explained as: A person who, keeping in sight the principles of Da’wah, Tabligh, education and training, starts with simple things first. When people get used to it, then he tells them about other imperatives which would have been difficult at the elementary stage. This person is a Divinely guided scholar (عَالِم رَبَّانِی). These days religious sermons and propagation efforts produce very little effect. The main rea¬son is that workers in this field generally do not give due consideration to the principles and etiquette necessary in this area. Lengthy lectures, uncalled for sermonizings and insisting on people to do something without first finding out the conditions faced by the addressee have become their habit.
When engaged in the mission of Invitation and Reformation, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) made an extra effort to ensure that the addressee is not insulted or disgraced in any way. Therefore, when he would see someone involved with something bad or wrong, he would not address him direct¬ly. Instead, he used to beam his remarks at a public gathering, for exam¬ple, he would say:
مَا بَالُ اَقوَامِ یَّفعَلُونِ کَذَا
What has happened to people that they do so?
This used to be part of a public address. Naturally, the person who was supposed to hear it did hear it, was ashamed in his heart and went about getting rid of that drawback.
It was the universal habit of noble prophets that they shielded the addressee from being embarrassed. Therefore, on occasions, they would attribute what was done by the addressee to their own selves and thus tried to set things right with their people. It appears in Surah Ya Sin: وَمَا لِيَ لَا أَعْبُدُ الَّذِي فَطَرَنِي (What is the matter with me that I would not worship Him who created me? – 36:22). As for this emissary of the messenger, he was already devoted to his ` ibadah (worship) all the time as was his usual way. The purpose here was to make the addressee who was not so engaged hear the worth and value of turning to Allah in ` ibadah. But, as we see, he has attributed the shortcoming to his own person.
And Da’wah means to call or bid someone to come close to the caller – definitely not to enumerate the person’s shortcomings. Then, this act of calling can become effective only when there is some common ground between the caller and the called. For this reason, the Da’wah of the noble prophets عليهم السلام as in the Holy Qur’an mostly begins with the words: یا قومِ (ya qawmi: 0 my people) through which stress is placed first on the common factor of brotherly relations and then things aiming at their betterment are said. It amounts to saying – ‘we are people of the same brotherhood, so let there be no hatred in between us’ – and this is how they start the mission of reforming their society.
In the letter of Da’wah sent by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) to Hiraql, the By¬zantine emperor, he began by calling the emperor: ‘The Great Man of By¬zantium.’ This tribute of honour given to him was permissible because it contained a confession of the emperor’s being great – though, for the peo¬ple of Byzantine, not for him. After that, the manner in which the invita¬tion to believe was given is being quoted below:
يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّـهَ
“0 people of the Book, come to a word common between us and you that we worship none but Allah” (as in Surah Al-` Imran, 3:64)
Here, a common factor of unity was mentioned first. It was said that the belief in the Oneness of Allah (Tauhid) was the common bond between the two of them. After that came the reminder about the error of Christians.
If we were to look into the teachings of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) carefully, we will find similar rules of conduct in every field of Da’wah and public education. Unfortunately, in our time, we suffer from lack of concern for carrying the call to faith, working for the correction and betterment of people, bidding the Fair and forbidding the Unfair. Even those who are engaged in these pursuits have, (with valid exceptions) taken mere dis¬cussions, debates, accusations, name calling, berating and disgracing the adversary to be Da’wah and Tabligh. The truth of the matter is that all this, being contrary to the Sunnah, never turns out to be effective and beneficial – while these gentlemen continue to congratulate themselves for having done a great service to Islam. In reality, they are becoming the cause of making people scared of it.
The Harmful Worldly and Other-Worldly Effects of Current Contestations
We know from the Tafsir of the present verse (125) that the main ob¬jective of the Shari` ah of Islam is the Call to Allah (da’wah ilal-lah) which has two principles: (1) Al-Hikmah (Wisdom) and (2) Al-Maw` izah Al-Hasanah (Good Counsel). And if the unwelcome need of Al-Mujadalah (argument, debate, confrontation) stands imposed on some stray occa¬sion, then, that too has been allowed with the restriction of being ‘in the best of manners.’ But, in reality, it is not a regular department of Da’wah. Instead, it is a via media to handle its negative aspect. The Holy Qur’an has resolved it by placing the restriction of: بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ (in the best of manners). By doing so, it has told us that it should be in the best spirit of politeness, and with the attitude of a sympathizer and well-wisher. Argument should be formulated clearly as appropriate to the state of the addressee. Any approach which belittles or insults the addressee should be totally avoided. Similarly, for it to be the best, it is also necessary to be on guard lest it becomes harmful to the speaker him-self. In other words, it should not affect his morals adversely for there is the danger of his falling into envy, malice, arrogance, love for name, fame and power. These are major inward sins. In short, the kind of dis¬cussions, debates, polemics and confrontations we see today are such that it would take a very rare person, some man of Allah, to remain safe against their harmful effects, otherwise, it is extremely difficult to find refuge from it under normal circumstances.
Imam al-Ghazali has said: The way liquor is ‘the mother of evils’ (umm-ul-khabaith) in that it is a grave sin by itself and also becomes the conduit of other grave sins. Similarly, when overpowering the addres¬see and demonstrating one’s intellectual superiority over people becomes the objective, that too becomes ‘the mother of evils’ for one’s inward state. As a result, many spiritual crimes crop up, for example: envy, malice, arrogance, backbiting, spying on the faults of others, being pleased with their discomfort and being unhappy with their gain, haughty rejec¬tion of Truth, the attitude of not considering the position of others with justice and moderation, instead, worrying about a rebuttal, no matter how askance their interpretations from the Qur’ an and Sunnah are.
These are dangers. Even serious religious scholars are affected by them. But, the problem is compounded when the thing starts affecting their followers when the intellectual exercise could turn into a physical one in progressive proportions. Inna lillahi wa inna ilaihi rajiun. Imam Shafii, may the mercy of Allah be upon him, said:
“Knowledge is a brotherhood of the learned. How do those who have turned knowledge into enmity could invite others to fol¬low their religion? When their sole objective is to dominate over others, how could they be expected to practice mutual at¬tachment, love and consideration? And for one what evil could be greater than that which drowns him in the morals of the hypocrites and deprives him of the morals of those who truly believe and fear Allah?”
Imam al-Ghazali said that a person who devotes himself to the ‘ilm of din and the da’wah of haqq revolves between two destinies. Either he, following correct principles and avoiding fatal dangers, achieves the eter¬nal good; or, otherwise, if he falls down from this station, he slides into eternal misfortune. That he would remain hanging in between these two states is too far out to entertain – because, knowledge which is not benefi¬cial is nothing but punishment. The Holy Prophet said:
أَشدُّالنَّاسِ عَذَاباً یَّومَ القِیامةِ عَالِمُ لَّم یَنفَعه اللہُ بِعِلمِه
On the day of Judgment, the person most severely punished, of all human beings, shall be an ` slim from whose knowledge A11ah has not given him any benefit.
And in another Sahih Hadith, he said:
لا تَتَعَِلَّمُوا العِلمِ لِتُبَاھُوا بہِ العُلَمَآّء وَلِتُمِرُوا بہِ السُّفَھَآَء وَلِتَصرِفُوا بِہٖ وُجُوہَ النَّاس اِلَیکُم فَمَن فَعَلَ ذٰلِکَ فَھُوَ فِی النَّارِ
“Do not learn the ‘Um (of din) to compete with the learned in pride and prestige nor to challenge the incompetent with it nor to make the faces of people turn towards you therewith. So whoever will do that, will be in the fire.” (Ibn Majah, from the Hadith of Sayyidna Jabir with sound chains of authority as in Takhrij al-` Iraqi ` ala al-Ihya’ )
Therefore, the standing creed (maslak) of authorities among Muslim jurists and the people on Truth (haqq) in this matter was that they never considered disputation and confrontation in intellectual issues as permissible. In the mission of inviting people to the Truth, it is enough to alert anyone considered to be in error, politely and sympathetically as a well-wisher, presenting one’s submission with necessary arguments. Then, should he accept, it is better. If otherwise, let him observe silence, totally avoiding altercation and adverse criticism. Let us turn to Imam Malik (رح) in this matter:
کَانَ مَالِکُ عَّقُولُ المِرآُء وَالجدَالُ فِي العِلمِ یَذھبُ بنُورِ العِلم عَن قَلبِ العَبدِ – وَ قِیلَ لَه : رَجُلۃ لَّه عِلمُ بِالسُّنَّةِ فَھَل یُجَادِلُ عَنھَا ؟ قَالَ : لَا وَلٰکِن یُّخبِرُ بِالسُّنَّۃِ فَإِن قُبِلَ مِنهُ وَ اِلَّا سکَتَ – (اوجز المسالک شرح مؤطا ص 15)
Imam Malik said: “Altercation and confrontation in al-` ilm (the knowledge of din) drives away the light of knowledge from the heart of a servant.” Someone submitted: ‘There is a person. who has the knowledge of Sunnah. Can he enter into debate for the protection of Sunnah?’ He said, “No. But, he should inform the addressee about the Sunnah (as it is). Then, should he ac¬cept it, good – otherwise, let him observe silence.” (Awjaz al-Masalik Sharb al-Muwatta, v. 1, page 15)
Ineffectiveness of Contemporary Da’wah Work
There are two reasons why the work of Da’wah (invitation) and Islah (reform) is not fully effective. (1) Firstly, because of the increase of cor¬ruption in our time and the abundance of حرام Haram things, hearts of people have become generally hard, and heedless of the Hereafter – and the very ability to accept truth has become weak and low. And there are some who find themselves suffering from the curse the foreboding of which was given by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . He had said that, by the later times, the hearts of many people will turn upside down, all reversed. The ability to know good from bad, and the distinction of permissible and impermissible will vanish from their heart.
(2) Then, negligence towards the duties of bidding the Fair and forbidding the Unfair and inviting people to the true faith has become common. Not to say much about people at large, there is not much realization of its need even among the learned and the righteous. It is assumed that correcting one’s own deed is just about enough whether their children, spouse, brother, friend remain smeared with all sorts of sins. The concern for their reform and betterment is as if no responsibility of theirs – although, the definite textual statements of the Holy Qur’an (nusus) are openly declaring that the betterment of one’s children, family and relatives is his responsibility: قُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَهْلِيكُمْ نَارًا (Protect yourselves and your families from a Fire… – at-Tabrim, 66/6). As for some people who do pay attention to this duty, they do not know the teachings of the Qur’an and the principles and manners of prophetic Da’wah. They take it easy, go by their impulse and say anything to anybody anytime without ever thinking about it. By doing so, they surmise, they have done their duty – although, this method of action, being contrary to the blessed practice of prophets, further alienates people from the Faith and from following its dictates.
Of particular mention is the habit of finding faults with others, mock¬ing at them or making fun of them all in the name of open criticism. Imam Shafi` i رحمۃ اللہ علیہ said:
“When alerting someone to some mistake (the rule is:) If you talked to him privately, explained it politely, then, this is ‘advice’; and if you disgraced him publicly, this is vice.”
The publicizing of mutual defects has become so popular these days that negative advertising is being done as if it was some service rendered to the Faith. May Allah Ta’ala bless all of us the ability to serve our Faith with the best of insight into its Da’wah and its modalities.
At this point ends our submission relating to Da’wah and its princi¬ples and etiquette.
After that, we can move on to explain the last part of verse 125: إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ۖ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ (Surely, your Lord knows best the one who strays from His way, and He knows best the ones who are on the right path). This statement has been made to comfort those who carry the Call of their Faith because one is naturally shocked when the addres¬see does not accept the truth presented despite that all rules of Da’wah have been observed. And there are occasions when this could produce another effect. When one sees no benefit coming out of Da’wah, he can become disappointed, even leave the work itself. Therefore, in this sen¬tence, it was said:’ Your duty is only to invite people to the Truth in ac¬cordance with its correct principles. Beyond that, its acceptance or rejec¬tion is something you have nothing to do with, nor is that one of your responsibilities. That falls in the domain of Allah alone. He knows who will remain astray and who will stand guided. You should not worry about it. Go on doing your duty. Do not lose hope. Do not despair.’ This tells us that this sentence too is really a complement of the etiquette of Da’wah.
وَاِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُوْا بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوْقِبْتُمْ بِهٖ ۭوَلَىِٕنْ صَبَرْتُمْ لَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لِّلصّٰبِرِيْنَ
Causing Pain to a Man of Da’wah: Revenge is Permissible, but Patience is Better.
The next three verses (126, 127, 128) carry another important instruction for those who present the message of Truth before people. It tells them about what they have to do in unusual conditions. There are occa¬sions when they have to face people who are hard-hearted and very ig¬norant. No matter how softly and politely one explains things to them and no matter how much goodwill one has for them in his heart, they would, even then, go in a fit of anger, use bad language and cause pain. There are times when they would go beyond that and hurt the preacher physically or would not even mind killing. So, a remedial measure was in order.
For this purpose, by saying: وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ (And if you were to harm them in retaliation, harm them to the measure you were harmed. And if you opt for patience, it is definitely much better for those who are patient – 126), these noble workers in the way of Allah were given the legal right that it was permissible for them to retaliate against injustice done to them. But, this was to be subject to the condition that retaliation should not ex¬ceed the measure of injustice done. In other words, assess the injustice inflicted on you, retaliate only to that measure and ensure that no excess occurs.
And at the end of the verse, given there is the advice: Though, you do have the right to retaliate, but be patient and do not retaliate. It is better.
The Background in which this Verse was Revealed and How it was Implemented by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and his noble Sahabah (رض)
According to the majority of commentators, this verse is Madani. It was revealed in relation to the shahadah of seventy sahabah and about the event in which Sayyidna Hamzah (رض) was killed and his body was subjected to post-killing mutilations (muthlah). The narration in Sahih al-Bukhari is in accordance with it. Darqutni has reported from Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) as follows:
“In the battle of Uhud when the Mushriks marched back, the dead bodies of seventy leading sahabah were found. Also in¬cluded there was Sayyidna Hamzah (رض) ، the revered uncle of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . Since the Mushriks were particularly angry with him, therefore, once he was killed by them, they took out their anger on his dead body. His nose, ears and other parts of the body were cut and the abdomen was slit open. The very sight of it shocked the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and he said that, to avenge Hamzah, he would have seventy men from the Mush¬riks subjected to a ‘muthlah’ similar to what they have done to Hamzah. It was in the background of this event that these three verses were revealed (126, 127, 128) “. (Tafsir Qurtubi)
It appears in some narrations that these cruel people had meted out the same treatment of ‘muthlah’ (mutilation) in the case of other sahabah as well. (As reported by al-Tirmidhi, Ahmad, and Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban in their Sahihs from Sayyidna Ubaiyy ibn Ka` b (رض)
In this matter, being extremely grieved, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had de¬clared his determination to subject seventy Mushriks in retaliation for his sahabah irrespective of their exact number, and this was not in accord with the principle of justice and equity Allah Ta` ala intended to stand established in this world through him. Therefore, two things were done. (1) He was alerted and told that the right of retaliation was there but it had to match the measure of injustice done. Retaliating against seventy for a few, irrespective of their number, is not right. (2) Then, he was to be the model of morals at their best. Therefore, given to him was the good counsel: Though, you are allowed to retaliate evenly but, should you set aside this option and be patient and generous to the unjust, that would be much better.
Thereupon, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, “Now, patient we shall be. We shall not take any revenge from anyone” – and he paid out a kaffarah (expiation) for his oath. (Mazhari from al-Baghawi) When, on the eve of the Conquest of Makkah, having all those Mushriks of Makkah under his control, it was certainly the time to do what he had declared on the battlefield of Uhud that he would do. But, it was precisely at the time of the revelation of the cited verses that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had forsaken his earlier intention and had, instead, decided to observe patience. Therefore, at the time of the Conquest of Makkah, the course of patience was taken in accordance with the imperative of these verses. Perhaps, it is on this basis that it has been mentioned in some narration that these verses were revealed at the time of the Conquest of Makkah. And it is also not too far out to believe that the revelation of these verses was repeated, that is, initially they were revealed at the battle of ‘Uhud and then, when came the Conquest of Makkah, they were revealed again. (as narrated by al-Mazhari from Ibn al-Hassar)
This verse has told us about the Law of Even Retaliation when avenging. Therefore, Muslim jurists say that in the event a person kills someone, the killed will be avenged by killing the killer. One who inflicts injury will have an even injury inflicted on him. Against one who cuts off someone’s hand and feet, and then kills him, the guardian of the killed will be given the right that he too should first cut off the killer’s hands and feet and then kill him.
Yes, if someone kills someone else by hitting him with a rock, or kills him by injuring him with arrows, then, it is not possible to determine the correct measure of the way of killing, that is, how many strikes did it take to make this killing take place, and how much pain has been in¬flicted on the person killed. In this matter, there is no measure of determining real equalization. Therefore, he will have to be killed invariably with a sword. (AI-Jassas)
Though the verse has been revealed in relation to physical pain and loss, but its words are general which includes the inflicting of financial loss. Therefore, Muslim jurists have said that a person who usurps مَال mal (money, property etc.) belonging to another person, then, this other person has the right to forcibly take away from him his mal in accordance with his right, or take it by stealth on condition that the مَال mal taken is from the genus of his right, for example, if cash has been taken, then, he can take, in lieu of it, the same amount of cash from him, by usurpation or theft. If things usurped are like grains, corn or cloth, then, similar grains, corn or cloth can be taken back. But, one cannot take another kind in lieu of the kind taken from him, for example, one cannot forcibly take cloth or some other article of use in lieu of cash. However, some fu¬qaha.’ (Muslim jurists) have permitted it unconditionally – whether it be from the entitled kind or from some other. Some details of these rules have been covered by al-Qurtubi in his Tafsir while more comprehensive details appear in books of Fiqh.
Mentioned in verse 126: وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ , (And if you were to harm…) was the general law in which avenging harm done with even harm was declared to be permissible for all Muslims, but taking the option of patience was recommended as definitely much better. And in the next verse (127), the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has been addressed in a special manner and prompted to be patient because, in view of his great dignity and high station, the later response was certainly more appropriate and becoming for him as compared with others. Therefore, it was said: وَاصْبِرْ وَمَا صَبْرُكَ إِلَّا بِاللَّـهِ (And be patient. And your patience is bestowed by none but Allah). It means: ‘As for you, you just do not even contemplate a revenge. Take to Sabr (pa¬tience) as your only option.’ And then, he was also told that his Sabr will come with the help of Allah alone, that is, observing Sabr will be made easy for him.
اِنَّ اللّٰهَ مَعَ الَّذِيْنَ اتَّقَوْا وَّالَّذِيْنَ هُمْ مُّحْسِنُوْنَ
After that, once again in the last verse (128), a universal formula of having the help of Allah Ta’ ala by one’s side was announced. It is:
إِنَّ اللَّـهَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّالَّذِينَ هُم مُّحْسِنُونَ
Surely, Allah is with those who fear Him and those who are good in deeds.
The essence of this formula is that the help of Allah Ta’ ala is with people who have two virtues: Taqwa and Ihsan. The essence of Taqwa is acting righteously or being good in deed while the sense of Ihsan at this place is to be good to those created by Allah Ta’ ala, that is, those who are duty-bound to do righteous deeds and are particular in dealing with others nicely – Allah Tais with them. And it is obvious, if someone is-blessed with the ‘company’ (help) of Allah Ta’ ala, who can touch him!
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
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