Surah Yunus In Arabic
الر ۚ تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ الْحَكِيمِ ﴿1﴾ أَكَانَ لِلنَّاسِ عَجَبًا أَنْ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ رَجُلٍ مِنْهُمْ أَنْ أَنْذِرِ النَّاسَ وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنَّ لَهُمْ قَدَمَ صِدْقٍ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِمْ ۗ قَالَ الْكَافِرُونَ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَسَاحِرٌ مُبِينٌ ﴿2﴾ إِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۖ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ ۖ مَا مِنْ شَفِيعٍ إِلَّا مِنْ بَعْدِ إِذْنِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ ۚ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ ﴿3﴾ إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا ۖ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقًّا ۚ إِنَّهُ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَهُمْ شَرَابٌ مِنْ حَمِيمٍ وَعَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْفُرُونَ ﴿4﴾ هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَاءً وَالْقَمَرَ نُورًا وَقَدَّرَهُ مَنَازِلَ لِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ ۚ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ ذَٰلِكَ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۚ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿5﴾ إِنَّ فِي اخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَمَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَّقُونَ ﴿6﴾ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا وَرَضُوا بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَاطْمَأَنُّوا بِهَا وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا غَافِلُونَ ﴿7﴾ أُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمُ النَّارُ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ ﴿8﴾ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ يَهْدِيهِمْ رَبُّهُمْ بِإِيمَانِهِمْ ۖ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهِمُ الْأَنْهَارُ فِي جَنَّاتِ النَّعِيمِ ﴿9﴾ دَعْوَاهُمْ فِيهَا سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّهُمَّ وَتَحِيَّتُهُمْ فِيهَا سَلَامٌ ۚ وَآخِرُ دَعْوَاهُمْ أَنِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿10﴾ وَلَوْ يُعَجِّلُ اللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ الشَّرَّ اسْتِعْجَالَهُمْ بِالْخَيْرِ لَقُضِيَ إِلَيْهِمْ أَجَلُهُمْ ۖ فَنَذَرُ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ ﴿11﴾ وَإِذَا مَسَّ الْإِنْسَانَ الضُّرُّ دَعَانَا لِجَنْبِهِ أَوْ قَاعِدًا أَوْ قَائِمًا فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُ ضُرَّهُ مَرَّ كَأَنْ لَمْ يَدْعُنَا إِلَىٰ ضُرٍّ مَسَّهُ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِلْمُسْرِفِينَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿12﴾ وَلَقَدْ أَهْلَكْنَا الْقُرُونَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَمَّا ظَلَمُوا ۙ وَجَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَمَا كَانُوا لِيُؤْمِنُوا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْقَوْمَ الْمُجْرِمِينَ ﴿13﴾ ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ خَلَائِفَ فِي الْأَرْضِ مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ لِنَنْظُرَ كَيْفَ تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿14﴾ وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ ۙ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ لِقَاءَنَا ائْتِ بِقُرْآنٍ غَيْرِ هَٰذَا أَوْ بَدِّلْهُ ۚ قُلْ مَا يَكُونُ لِي أَنْ أُبَدِّلَهُ مِنْ تِلْقَاءِ نَفْسِي ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ إِنْ عَصَيْتُ رَبِّي عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ ﴿15﴾ قُلْ لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا تَلَوْتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَا أَدْرَاكُمْ بِهِ ۖ فَقَدْ لَبِثْتُ فِيكُمْ عُمُرًا مِنْ قَبْلِهِ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ ﴿16﴾ فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا أَوْ كَذَّبَ بِآيَاتِهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ ﴿17﴾ وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنْفَعُهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ هَٰؤُلَاءِ شُفَعَاؤُنَا عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ۚ قُلْ أَتُنَبِّئُونَ اللَّهَ بِمَا لَا يَعْلَمُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿18﴾ وَمَا كَانَ النَّاسُ إِلَّا أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَاخْتَلَفُوا ۚ وَلَوْلَا كَلِمَةٌ سَبَقَتْ مِنْ رَبِّكَ لَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ فِيمَا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ﴿19﴾ وَيَقُولُونَ لَوْلَا أُنْزِلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِ ۖ فَقُلْ إِنَّمَا الْغَيْبُ لِلَّهِ فَانْتَظِرُوا إِنِّي مَعَكُمْ مِنَ الْمُنْتَظِرِينَ ﴿20﴾ وَإِذَا أَذَقْنَا النَّاسَ رَحْمَةً مِنْ بَعْدِ ضَرَّاءَ مَسَّتْهُمْ إِذَا لَهُمْ مَكْرٌ فِي آيَاتِنَا ۚ قُلِ اللَّهُ أَسْرَعُ مَكْرًا ۚ إِنَّ رُسُلَنَا يَكْتُبُونَ مَا تَمْكُرُونَ ﴿21﴾ هُوَ الَّذِي يُسَيِّرُكُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا كُنْتُمْ فِي الْفُلْكِ وَجَرَيْنَ بِهِمْ بِرِيحٍ طَيِّبَةٍ وَفَرِحُوا بِهَا جَاءَتْهَا رِيحٌ عَاصِفٌ وَجَاءَهُمُ الْمَوْجُ مِنْ كُلِّ مَكَانٍ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ أُحِيطَ بِهِمْ ۙ دَعَوُا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ لَئِنْ أَنْجَيْتَنَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ لَنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الشَّاكِرِينَ ﴿22﴾ فَلَمَّا أَنْجَاهُمْ إِذَا هُمْ يَبْغُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ ۗ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّمَا بَغْيُكُمْ عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِكُمْ ۖ مَتَاعَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَنُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿23﴾ إِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا كَمَاءٍ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَاخْتَلَطَ بِهِ نَبَاتُ الْأَرْضِ مِمَّا يَأْكُلُ النَّاسُ وَالْأَنْعَامُ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَخَذَتِ الْأَرْضُ زُخْرُفَهَا وَازَّيَّنَتْ وَظَنَّ أَهْلُهَا أَنَّهُمْ قَادِرُونَ عَلَيْهَا أَتَاهَا أَمْرُنَا لَيْلًا أَوْ نَهَارًا فَجَعَلْنَاهَا حَصِيدًا كَأَنْ لَمْ تَغْنَ بِالْأَمْسِ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ ﴿24﴾ وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُو إِلَىٰ دَارِ السَّلَامِ وَيَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ ﴿25﴾ لِلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا الْحُسْنَىٰ وَزِيَادَةٌ ۖ وَلَا يَرْهَقُ وُجُوهَهُمْ قَتَرٌ وَلَا ذِلَّةٌ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ﴿26﴾ وَالَّذِينَ كَسَبُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ جَزَاءُ سَيِّئَةٍ بِمِثْلِهَا وَتَرْهَقُهُمْ ذِلَّةٌ ۖ مَا لَهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ عَاصِمٍ ۖ كَأَنَّمَا أُغْشِيَتْ وُجُوهُهُمْ قِطَعًا مِنَ اللَّيْلِ مُظْلِمًا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ﴿27﴾ وَيَوْمَ نَحْشُرُهُمْ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ نَقُولُ لِلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا مَكَانَكُمْ أَنْتُمْ وَشُرَكَاؤُكُمْ ۚ فَزَيَّلْنَا بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ وَقَالَ شُرَكَاؤُهُمْ مَا كُنْتُمْ إِيَّانَا تَعْبُدُونَ ﴿28﴾ فَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ إِنْ كُنَّا عَنْ عِبَادَتِكُمْ لَغَافِلِينَ ﴿29﴾ هُنَالِكَ تَبْلُو كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَا أَسْلَفَتْ ۚ وَرُدُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ مَوْلَاهُمُ الْحَقِّ ۖ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ ﴿30﴾ قُلْ مَنْ يَرْزُقُكُمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ أَمَّنْ يَمْلِكُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَمَنْ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَمَنْ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ ۚ فَسَيَقُولُونَ اللَّهُ ۚ فَقُلْ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ ﴿31﴾ فَذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُمُ الْحَقُّ ۖ فَمَاذَا بَعْدَ الْحَقِّ إِلَّا الضَّلَالُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُصْرَفُونَ ﴿32﴾ كَذَٰلِكَ حَقَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ فَسَقُوا أَنَّهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿33﴾ قُلْ هَلْ مِنْ شُرَكَائِكُمْ مَنْ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ ۚ قُلِ اللَّهُ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤْفَكُونَ ﴿34﴾ قُلْ هَلْ مِنْ شُرَكَائِكُمْ مَنْ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ ۚ قُلِ اللَّهُ يَهْدِي لِلْحَقِّ ۗ أَفَمَنْ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْحَقِّ أَحَقُّ أَنْ يُتَّبَعَ أَمَّنْ لَا يَهِدِّي إِلَّا أَنْ يُهْدَىٰ ۖ فَمَا لَكُمْ كَيْفَ تَحْكُمُونَ ﴿35﴾ وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ أَكْثَرُهُمْ إِلَّا ظَنًّا ۚ إِنَّ الظَّنَّ لَا يُغْنِي مِنَ الْحَقِّ شَيْئًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ ﴿36﴾ وَمَا كَانَ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنُ أَنْ يُفْتَرَىٰ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِنْ تَصْدِيقَ الَّذِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَتَفْصِيلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ مِنْ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿37﴾ أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَاهُ ۖ قُلْ فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِثْلِهِ وَادْعُوا مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿38﴾ بَلْ كَذَّبُوا بِمَا لَمْ يُحِيطُوا بِعِلْمِهِ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِهِمْ تَأْوِيلُهُ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۖ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿39﴾ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يُؤْمِنُ بِهِ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ لَا يُؤْمِنُ بِهِ ۚ وَرَبُّكَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُفْسِدِينَ ﴿40﴾ وَإِنْ كَذَّبُوكَ فَقُلْ لِي عَمَلِي وَلَكُمْ عَمَلُكُمْ ۖ أَنْتُمْ بَرِيئُونَ مِمَّا أَعْمَلُ وَأَنَا بَرِيءٌ مِمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ ﴿41﴾ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَسْتَمِعُونَ إِلَيْكَ ۚ أَفَأَنْتَ تُسْمِعُ الصُّمَّ وَلَوْ كَانُوا لَا يَعْقِلُونَ ﴿42﴾ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْكَ ۚ أَفَأَنْتَ تَهْدِي الْعُمْيَ وَلَوْ كَانُوا لَا يُبْصِرُونَ ﴿43﴾ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ النَّاسَ شَيْئًا وَلَٰكِنَّ النَّاسَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ ﴿44﴾ وَيَوْمَ يَحْشُرُهُمْ كَأَنْ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوا إِلَّا سَاعَةً مِنَ النَّهَارِ يَتَعَارَفُونَ بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ قَدْ خَسِرَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِلِقَاءِ اللَّهِ وَمَا كَانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ ﴿45﴾ وَإِمَّا نُرِيَنَّكَ بَعْضَ الَّذِي نَعِدُهُمْ أَوْ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ فَإِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُهُمْ ثُمَّ اللَّهُ شَهِيدٌ عَلَىٰ مَا يَفْعَلُونَ ﴿46﴾ وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولٌ ۖ فَإِذَا جَاءَ رَسُولُهُمْ قُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْقِسْطِ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ ﴿47﴾ وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هَٰذَا الْوَعْدُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿48﴾ قُلْ لَا أَمْلِكُ لِنَفْسِي ضَرًّا وَلَا نَفْعًا إِلَّا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ۗ لِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ أَجَلٌ ۚ إِذَا جَاءَ أَجَلُهُمْ فَلَا يَسْتَأْخِرُونَ سَاعَةً ۖ وَلَا يَسْتَقْدِمُونَ ﴿49﴾ قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَتَاكُمْ عَذَابُهُ بَيَاتًا أَوْ نَهَارًا مَاذَا يَسْتَعْجِلُ مِنْهُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ ﴿50﴾ أَثُمَّ إِذَا مَا وَقَعَ آمَنْتُمْ بِهِ ۚ آلْآنَ وَقَدْ كُنْتُمْ بِهِ تَسْتَعْجِلُونَ ﴿51﴾ ثُمَّ قِيلَ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا ذُوقُوا عَذَابَ الْخُلْدِ هَلْ تُجْزَوْنَ إِلَّا بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَكْسِبُونَ ﴿52﴾ وَيَسْتَنْبِئُونَكَ أَحَقٌّ هُوَ ۖ قُلْ إِي وَرَبِّي إِنَّهُ لَحَقٌّ ۖ وَمَا أَنْتُمْ بِمُعْجِزِينَ ﴿53﴾ وَلَوْ أَنَّ لِكُلِّ نَفْسٍ ظَلَمَتْ مَا فِي الْأَرْضِ لَافْتَدَتْ بِهِ ۗ وَأَسَرُّوا النَّدَامَةَ لَمَّا رَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ ۖ وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ ﴿54﴾ أَلَا إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ أَلَا إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿55﴾ هُوَ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ ﴿56﴾ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَتْكُمْ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَشِفَاءٌ لِمَا فِي الصُّدُورِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةٌ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿57﴾ قُلْ بِفَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهِ فَبِذَٰلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُوا هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ ﴿58﴾ قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ مِنْ رِزْقٍ فَجَعَلْتُمْ مِنْهُ حَرَامًا وَحَلَالًا قُلْ آللَّهُ أَذِنَ لَكُمْ ۖ أَمْ عَلَى اللَّهِ تَفْتَرُونَ ﴿59﴾ وَمَا ظَنُّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ ﴿60﴾ وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِنْ قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا يَعْزُبُ عَنْ رَبِّكَ مِنْ مِثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَا أَصْغَرَ مِنْ ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرَ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُبِينٍ ﴿61﴾ أَلَا إِنَّ أَوْلِيَاءَ اللَّهِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ ﴿62﴾ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَكَانُوا يَتَّقُونَ ﴿63﴾ لَهُمُ الْبُشْرَىٰ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ ۚ لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ ﴿64﴾ وَلَا يَحْزُنْكَ قَوْلُهُمْ ۘ إِنَّ الْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا ۚ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ ﴿65﴾ أَلَا إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَمَا يَتَّبِعُ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ ۚ إِنْ يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَخْرُصُونَ ﴿66﴾ هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ لِتَسْكُنُوا فِيهِ وَالنَّهَارَ مُبْصِرًا ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَسْمَعُونَ ﴿67﴾ قَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ وَلَدًا ۗ سُبْحَانَهُ ۖ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ ۖ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ إِنْ عِنْدَكُمْ مِنْ سُلْطَانٍ بِهَٰذَا ۚ أَتَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿68﴾ قُلْ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ لَا يُفْلِحُونَ ﴿69﴾ مَتَاعٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا ثُمَّ إِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُهُمْ ثُمَّ نُذِيقُهُمُ الْعَذَابَ الشَّدِيدَ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْفُرُونَ ﴿70﴾ وَاتْلُ عَلَيْهِمْ نَبَأَ نُوحٍ إِذْ قَالَ لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ إِنْ كَانَ كَبُرَ عَلَيْكُمْ مَقَامِي وَتَذْكِيرِي بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ فَعَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ فَأَجْمِعُوا أَمْرَكُمْ وَشُرَكَاءَكُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَكُنْ أَمْرُكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ غُمَّةً ثُمَّ اقْضُوا إِلَيَّ وَلَا تُنْظِرُونِ ﴿71﴾ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَمَا سَأَلْتُكُمْ مِنْ أَجْرٍ ۖ إِنْ أَجْرِيَ إِلَّا عَلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ﴿72﴾ فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَنَجَّيْنَاهُ وَمَنْ مَعَهُ فِي الْفُلْكِ وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ خَلَائِفَ وَأَغْرَقْنَا الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا ۖ فَانْظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُنْذَرِينَ ﴿73﴾ ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِ رُسُلًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِمْ فَجَاءُوهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَمَا كَانُوا لِيُؤْمِنُوا بِمَا كَذَّبُوا بِهِ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَطْبَعُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِ الْمُعْتَدِينَ ﴿74﴾ ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ مُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَئِهِ بِآيَاتِنَا فَاسْتَكْبَرُوا وَكَانُوا قَوْمًا مُجْرِمِينَ ﴿75﴾ فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ عِنْدِنَا قَالُوا إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَسِحْرٌ مُبِينٌ ﴿76﴾ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ أَتَقُولُونَ لِلْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَاءَكُمْ ۖ أَسِحْرٌ هَٰذَا وَلَا يُفْلِحُ السَّاحِرُونَ ﴿77﴾ قَالُوا أَجِئْتَنَا لِتَلْفِتَنَا عَمَّا وَجَدْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا وَتَكُونَ لَكُمَا الْكِبْرِيَاءُ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا نَحْنُ لَكُمَا بِمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿78﴾ وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ ائْتُونِي بِكُلِّ سَاحِرٍ عَلِيمٍ ﴿79﴾ فَلَمَّا جَاءَ السَّحَرَةُ قَالَ لَهُمْ مُوسَىٰ أَلْقُوا مَا أَنْتُمْ مُلْقُونَ ﴿80﴾ فَلَمَّا أَلْقَوْا قَالَ مُوسَىٰ مَا جِئْتُمْ بِهِ السِّحْرُ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَيُبْطِلُهُ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُصْلِحُ عَمَلَ الْمُفْسِدِينَ ﴿81﴾ وَيُحِقُّ اللَّهُ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُجْرِمُونَ ﴿82﴾ فَمَا آمَنَ لِمُوسَىٰ إِلَّا ذُرِّيَّةٌ مِنْ قَوْمِهِ عَلَىٰ خَوْفٍ مِنْ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَئِهِمْ أَنْ يَفْتِنَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ لَعَالٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَإِنَّهُ لَمِنَ الْمُسْرِفِينَ ﴿83﴾ وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ يَا قَوْمِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ آمَنْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ فَعَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلُوا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُسْلِمِينَ ﴿84﴾ فَقَالُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِلْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿85﴾ وَنَجِّنَا بِرَحْمَتِكَ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿86﴾ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰ وَأَخِيهِ أَنْ تَبَوَّآ لِقَوْمِكُمَا بِمِصْرَ بُيُوتًا وَاجْعَلُوا بُيُوتَكُمْ قِبْلَةً وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿87﴾ وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ آتَيْتَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَأَهُ زِينَةً وَأَمْوَالًا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا رَبَّنَا لِيُضِلُّوا عَنْ سَبِيلِكَ ۖ رَبَّنَا اطْمِسْ عَلَىٰ أَمْوَالِهِمْ وَاشْدُدْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُوا حَتَّىٰ يَرَوُا الْعَذَابَ الْأَلِيمَ ﴿88﴾ قَالَ قَدْ أُجِيبَتْ دَعْوَتُكُمَا فَاسْتَقِيمَا وَلَا تَتَّبِعَانِّ سَبِيلَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿89﴾ وَجَاوَزْنَا بِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ الْبَحْرَ فَأَتْبَعَهُمْ فِرْعَوْنُ وَجُنُودُهُ بَغْيًا وَعَدْوًا ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَدْرَكَهُ الْغَرَقُ قَالَ آمَنْتُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا الَّذِي آمَنَتْ بِهِ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ وَأَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ﴿90﴾ آلْآنَ وَقَدْ عَصَيْتَ قَبْلُ وَكُنْتَ مِنَ الْمُفْسِدِينَ ﴿91﴾ فَالْيَوْمَ نُنَجِّيكَ بِبَدَنِكَ لِتَكُونَ لِمَنْ خَلْفَكَ آيَةً ۚ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنَ النَّاسِ عَنْ آيَاتِنَا لَغَافِلُونَ ﴿92﴾ وَلَقَدْ بَوَّأْنَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مُبَوَّأَ صِدْقٍ وَرَزَقْنَاهُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ فَمَا اخْتَلَفُوا حَتَّىٰ جَاءَهُمُ الْعِلْمُ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَقْضِي بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ ﴿93﴾ فَإِنْ كُنْتَ فِي شَكٍّ مِمَّا أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ فَاسْأَلِ الَّذِينَ يَقْرَءُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ ۚ لَقَدْ جَاءَكَ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكَ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ ﴿94﴾ وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ فَتَكُونَ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ ﴿95﴾ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِمْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿96﴾ وَلَوْ جَاءَتْهُمْ كُلُّ آيَةٍ حَتَّىٰ يَرَوُا الْعَذَابَ الْأَلِيمَ ﴿97﴾ فَلَوْلَا كَانَتْ قَرْيَةٌ آمَنَتْ فَنَفَعَهَا إِيمَانُهَا إِلَّا قَوْمَ يُونُسَ لَمَّا آمَنُوا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمْ عَذَابَ الْخِزْيِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَمَتَّعْنَاهُمْ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ ﴿98﴾ وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ لَآمَنَ مَنْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كُلُّهُمْ جَمِيعًا ۚ أَفَأَنْتَ تُكْرِهُ النَّاسَ حَتَّىٰ يَكُونُوا مُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿99﴾ وَمَا كَانَ لِنَفْسٍ أَنْ تُؤْمِنَ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَيَجْعَلُ الرِّجْسَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ ﴿100﴾ قُلِ انْظُرُوا مَاذَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَمَا تُغْنِي الْآيَاتُ وَالنُّذُرُ عَنْ قَوْمٍ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿101﴾ فَهَلْ يَنْتَظِرُونَ إِلَّا مِثْلَ أَيَّامِ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ فَانْتَظِرُوا إِنِّي مَعَكُمْ مِنَ الْمُنْتَظِرِينَ ﴿102﴾ ثُمَّ نُنَجِّي رُسُلَنَا وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ حَقًّا عَلَيْنَا نُنْجِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿103﴾ قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ فِي شَكٍّ مِنْ دِينِي فَلَا أَعْبُدُ الَّذِينَ تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلَٰكِنْ أَعْبُدُ اللَّهَ الَّذِي يَتَوَفَّاكُمْ ۖ وَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿104﴾ وَأَنْ أَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفًا وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ﴿105﴾ وَلَا تَدْعُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنْفَعُكَ وَلَا يَضُرُّكَ ۖ فَإِنْ فَعَلْتَ فَإِنَّكَ إِذًا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿106﴾ وَإِنْ يَمْسَسْكَ اللَّهُ بِضُرٍّ فَلَا كَاشِفَ لَهُ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ وَإِنْ يُرِدْكَ بِخَيْرٍ فَلَا رَادَّ لِفَضْلِهِ ۚ يُصِيبُ بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿107﴾ قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ ۖ فَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيْهَا ۖ وَمَا أَنَا عَلَيْكُمْ بِوَكِيلٍ ﴿108﴾ وَاتَّبِعْ مَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيْكَ وَاصْبِرْ حَتَّىٰ يَحْكُمَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْحَاكِمِينَ ﴿109﴾
Transliteration in English
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Alif-Laaam-Raa; tilka Aayaatul Kitaabil Hakeem
- ‘A kaana linnaasi ‘ajaaban ‘an ‘awhainaaa ‘ilaa rajulin minhum ‘an anzirin naasa wa bashshiril lazeena ‘aamanoo ‘anna lahum qadama sidqin ‘inda Rabbihim; qaalal kaafiroona ‘inna haazaa la saahirun mubeen
- Inna Rabbakumul laahul lazee khalaqas samaawaati wal arda fee sittati aiyaamin thummas tawaa ‘alal ‘Arshi yudabbirul amra maa min shafee’in illaa min ba’di iznih; zalikumul laahu Rabbukum fa’budooh; afalaa tazakkaroon
- Ilaihi marji’ukum jamee ‘anw wa’dal laahi haqqaa; innahoo yabda’ul khalqa thumma yu’eeduhoo liyajziyal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati bilqist; wallazeena kafaroo lahum sharaabun min hamee minw wa ‘azaabun ‘aleemun bimaa kaanoo yakfuroon
- Huwal lazee ja’alash shamsa diyaaa’anw walqamara nooranw wa qaddarahoo manaazila li ta’lamoo ‘adadas sineena walhisaab; maa khalaqal laahu zaalika illa bilhaqq; yufassilul aayaati li qawminy ya’lamoon
- Inna fikh tilaafil laili wannahaari wa maa khalaqal laahu fis samaawaati wal ardi la aayaatin liqawminy yattaqoon
- Innal lazeena laa yarjoona liqaaa’anaa wa radoo bilhayaatid dunyaa watma’ annoo bihaa wallazeena hum ‘an Aayaatinaa ghaafiloon
- Ulaaa’ika ma’waahumun Naaru bimaa kaanoo yaksiboon
- Innal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati yahdeehim Rabbuhum bi eemaanihim tajree min tahtihimul anhaaru fee jannaatin Na’eem
- Da’waahum feehaa Subhaanakal laahumma wa tahiyyatuhum feehaa salaam; wa aakhiru da’waahum anil hamdu lillaahi Rabbil ‘aalameen (section 1)
- Wa law yu’ajjilul laahu linnaasish sharra sti’ jaalahum bil khairi laqudiya ilaihim ‘ajaluhum fa nazarul lazeena laa yarjoona liqaaa’anaa fee tughyaanihim ya’mahoon
- Wa izaa massal insaanad durru da’aanaa li jambiheee aw qaa’idan aw qaaa’iman falammaa kashafnaa ‘anhu durrahoo marra ka an lam yad’unaaa ilaa durrin massah; kazaalika zuyyina lilmusrifeena maa kaanoo ya’maloon
- Wa laqad ahlaknal quroona min qablikum lammaa zalamoo wa jaaa’at hum Rusuluhum bil baiyinaati wa maa kaanoo liyu’minoo; kazaalika najzil qawmal mujrimeen
- Thumma ja’alnaakum khalaaa’ifa fil ardi min ba’dihim li nanzura kaifa ta’maloon
- Wa izaa tutlaa ‘alaihim aayaatunaa baiyinaatin qaalal lazeena laa yarjoona liqaaa’a na’ti bi Qur’aanin ghairi haazaaa aw baddilh; qul maa yakoonu leee ‘an ‘ubaddilahoo min tilqaaa’i nafsee in attabi’u illaa maa yoohaaa ilaiya inneee akhaafu in ‘asaytu Rabbee ‘azaaba Yawmin ‘Azeem
- Qul law shaaa’al laahu maa talawtuhoo ‘alaikum wa laaa adraakum bihee faqad labistu feekum ‘umuran min qablih; afalaa ta’qiloon
- Faman azlamu mimmanif taraa ‘alal laahi kaziban aw kazzaba bi Aayaatih; innahoo laa yuflihul mujrimoon
- Wa ya’budoona min doonil laahi maa laa yadurruhum wa laa yanfa’uhum wa yaqooloona haaa’ulaaa’i shufa’aaa ‘unaa ‘indal laah; qul ‘a tunabbi ‘oonal laaha bi maa laa ya’lamu fis samaawaati wa laa fil ard; subhaanahoo wa Ta’aalaa ‘ammaa yushrikoon
- Wa maa kaanan naasu illaaa ummatanw waahidatan fa khtalafoo; wa law laa kalimatun sabaqat mir Rabbika laqudiya bainahum fee maa feehi yakhtalifoon
- Wa yaqooloona law laaa unzila ‘alaihi aayatun mir Rabbihee faqul innamal ghaibu lillaahi fantaziroo innee ma’akum minal muntazireen (section 2)
- Wa izaaa azaqnan naasa rahmatan min ba’di darraaa’a massat hum izaa lahum makrun feee aayaatinaa; qulil laahu asra’u makraa; inna rusulanaa yaktuboona maa tamkuroon
- Huwal lazee yusayyirukum fil barri walbahri hattaaa izaa kuntum fil fulki wa jaraina bihim bi reehin tayyibatinw wa farihoo bihaa jaaa’at haa reehun ‘aasifunw wa jaaa’ahumul mawju min kulli makaaninw wa zannooo ‘annahum ‘uheeta bihim da’a wullaaha mukhliseena lahud deena la’in anjaitanaa min haazihee la nakoonanna minash shaakireen
- Falammaaa anjaahum izaa hum yabghoona fil ardi bighairil haqq; yaaa aiyuhannaasu innamaa bagh yukum ‘alaaa anfusikum mataa’al hayaatid dunyaa thumma ilainaa marji’ukum fanunabbi ‘ukum bimaa kuntum ta’maloon
- Innamaa masalul hayaatid dunyaa ka maaa’in anzalnaahu minas samaaa’i fakhtalata bihee nabaatul ardi mimmaa ya’kulun naasu wal an’aam; hattaaa izaaa akhazatil ardu zukhrufahaa wazzayyanat wa zanna ahluhaaa annahum qaadiroona ‘alaihaaa ataahaaa amrunaa lailan aw nahaaran faja’alnaahaa haseedan ka ‘an lam taghna bil-ams; kazaalika nufassilul aayaati liqawminy yatafakkaroon
- Wallaahu yad’ooo ilaa daaris salaami wa yahdee many yashaaa’u ilaa Siraatin Mustaqeem
- Lil lazeena ahsanul husnaa wa ziyaadatunw wa laa yarhaqu wujoohahum qatarunw wa laa zillah; ulaaa’ika ashaabul jannati hum feehaa khaalidoon
- Wallazeena kasabus saiyi aati jazaaa’u saiyi’atin bimislihaa wa tarhaquhum zillah; maa lahum minal laahi min ‘aasimin ka annamaaa ughshiyat wujoohuhum qita’an minal laili muzlimaa; ulaaa’ika Ashaabun Naari hum feeha khaalidoon
- Wa yawma nahshuruhum jamee’an thumma naqoolu lil lazeena ashrakoo makaanakum antum wa shurakaaa’ukum; fazaiyalnaa bainahum wa qaala shurakaaa’uhum maa kuntum iyyaanaa ta’budoon
- Fakafaa billaahi shaheedan bainanaa wa bainakum in kunnaa ‘an ‘ibaadatikum laghaafileen
- Hunaalika tabloo kullu nafsin maaa ‘aslafat; wa ruddoo ilal laahi mawlaahumul haqqi wa dalla ‘anhum maa kaanoo yaftaroon (section 3)
- Qul mai yarzuqukum minas samaaa’i wal ardi ammany yamlikus sam’a wal absaara wa mai yukhrijul haiya minal maiyiti wa yukhrijul maiyita minal haiyi wa mai yudabbirul amr; fasa yaqooloonal laah; faqul afalaa tattaqoon
- Fazaalikumul laahu Rabbukumul haqq; famaazaa ba’dal haqqi illad dalaalu fa anna tusrafoon
- Kazaalika haqqat Kalimatu Rabbika ‘alal lazeena fasaqooo annahum laa yu’minoon
- Qul hal min shurakaaa ‘ikum mai yabda’ul khalqa thumma yu’eeduh; qulil laahu yabda’ul khalqa thumma yu’eeduhoo fa annaa tu’fakoon
- Qul hal min shurakaaa ‘ikum mai yahdeee ilal haqq; qulil laahu yahdee lilhaqq; afamai yahdeee ilal haqqi ahaqqu ai yuttaba’a ammal laa yahiddeee illaaa ai yuhdaa famaa lakum kaifa tahkumoon
- Wa maa yattabi’u aksaruhum illaa zannaa; innaz zanna laa yughnee minal haqqi shai’aa; innal laaha ‘Aleemun bimaa yaf’aloon
- Wa maa kaana haazal Qur’aanu ai yuftaraa min doonil laahi wa laakin tasdeeqal lazee baina yadaihi wa tafseelal Kitaabi laa raiba feehee mir Rabbil ‘aalameen
- ‘Am yaqooloonaf taraahu qul fa’too bi sooratin mislihee wad’oo manis tata’tum min doonil laahi in kuntum saadiqeen
- Bal kazzaboo bimaa lam yuheetoo bi’ilmihee wa lammaa ya’tihim ta’weeluh; kazaalika kazzabal lazeena min qablihim fanzur kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatuz zaalimeen
- Wa minhum mai yu ‘minu bihee wa minhum mal laa yu’minu bih; wa Rabbuka a’lamu bilmufsideen (section 4)
- Wa in kazzabooka faqul lee ‘amalee wa lakum ‘amalukum antum bareee’oona mimmaaa a’malu wa ana bareee’um mimmaa ta’maloon
- Wa minhum mai yastami’oona iliak; afa anta tusmi’us summa wa law kaanoo laa ya’qiloon
- Wa minhum mai yanzuru ilaik; afa anta tahdil ‘umya wa law kaanoo laa yubsiroon
- Innal laaha laa yazlimun naasa shai’anw wa laakin nannaasa anfusahum yazlimoon
- Wa Yawma yahshuruhum ka ‘an lam yalbasooo illaa saa’atan minan nahaari yata’aarafoona bainahum; qad khasiral lazeena kazzaboo bi liqaaa’il laahi wa maa kaanoo muhtadeen
- Wa imma nuriyannaka ba’dal lazee na’iduhum aw natawaffayannaka fa ilainaa marji’uhum thummal laahu shaheedun ‘alaa maa yaf’aloon
- Wa likulli ummatir Rasoolun fa izaa jaaa’a Rasooluhum qudiya bainahum bilqisti wa hum laa yuzlamoon
- Wa yaqooloona mataa haazal wa’du in kuntum saadiqeen
- Qul laaa amliku linafsee darranw wa laa naf’an illaa maa shaaa’al laah; likulli ummatin ajalun izaa jaaa’a ajaluhum fa laaa yasta’khiroona saa’atanw wa laa yastaqdimoon
- Qul ‘a ra’aytum in ataakum ‘azaabuhoo bayaatan aw nahaaran maazaa yasta’jilu minhul mujrimoon
- ‘A thumma izaa maa waqa’a aamantum bih; aaal ‘aana wa qad kuntum bihee tasta’jiloon
- Thumma qeela lil lazeena zalamoo zooqoo ‘azaabal khuldi hal tujzawna illaa bimaa kuntum taksiboon
- Wa yastanbi’oonaka ‘a haqqun huwa qul ee wa Rabbeee innahoo lahaqq; wa maaa antum bimu’jizeen (section 5)
- Wa law anna likulli nafsin zalamat maa fil ardi laftadat bih; wa asarrun nadaamata lammaa ra awul ‘azaab, wa qudiya bainahum bilqist; wa hum laa yuzlamoon
- Alaaa inna lillaahi maa fis samaawaati wal ard; alaaa inna wa’dal laahi haqqunw wa laakinna aksarahum laa ya’lamoon
- Huwa yuhyee wa yumeetu wa ilaihi turja’oon
- Yaaa aiyuhan naasu qad jaaa’atkum maw’izatun mir Rabbikum wa shifaaa’ul limaa fis sudoori wa hudanw wa rahmatul lil mu’mineen
- Qul bi fadlil laahi wa bi rahmatihee fa bi zaalika fal yafrahoo huwa khairun mimmaa yajma’oon
- Qul ara’aitum maaa anzalal laahu lakum mir rizqin faja’altum minhu haraamanw wa halaalan qul aaallaahu azina lakum; am ‘alal laahi taftaroon
- Wa maa zannul lazeena yaftaroona ‘alal laahil kaziba Yawmal Qiyaamah; innal laaha lazoo fadlin ‘alan naasi wa laakinna aksarahum laa yashkuroon (section 6)
- Wa maa takoonu fee sha’ninw wa maa tatloo minhu min qur’aaninw wa laa ta’maloona min ‘amalin illaa kunnaa ‘alaikum shuhoodan iz tufeedoona feeh; wa maa ya’zubu ‘ar Rabbika min misqaali zarratin fil ardi wa laa fis samaaa’i wa laaa asghara min zaalika wa laaa akbara illaa fee Kitaabin Mubeen
- Alaa innaa awliyaaa’al laahi laa khawfun ‘alaihim wa laa hum yahzanoon
- Allazeena aamanoo wa kaanoo yattaqoon
- Lahumul bushraa fil hayaatid dunyaa wa fil Aakhirah; laa tabdeela li kalimaatil laah; zaalika huwal fawzul ‘azeem
- Wa laa yahzunka qawluhum; innal ‘izzata lillaahi jamee’aa; Huwas Samee’ul ‘Aleem
- Alaaa inna lillaahi man fis samaawaati wa man fil ard; wa maa yattabi’ul lazeena yad’oona min doonil laahi shurakaaa’; iny yattabi’oona illaz zanna wa in hum illaa yakhrusoon
- Huwal lazee ja’ala lakumul laila litaskunoo feehi wannahaara mubsiraa; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil li qawminy yasma’oon
- Qaalut takhazal laahu waladan Subhaanahoo Huwal Ghaniyyu lahoo maa fis samaawaati wa maa fil ard; in ‘indakum min sultaanin bihaazaaa; a’ taqooloona ‘al allaahi maa laa ta’lamoon
- Qul innal lazeena yaftaroona ‘al allaahil kaziba laa yuflihoon
- Mataa’un fiddunyaa thumma ilainaa marji’uhum thumma nuzeequhumul ‘azaabash shadeeda bimaa kaanoo yakfuroon(section 7)
- Watlu ‘alaihim naba-a-Noohin iz qaala liqawmihee yaa qawmi in kaana kabura ‘alaikum maqaamee wa tazkeeree bi Aayaatil laahi fa’alal laahi tawakkaltu fa ajmi’ooo amrakum wa shurakaaa’akum thumma laa yakun amrukum ‘alaikum ghummatan thummaq dooo ilaiya wa laa tunziroon
- Fa in tawallaitum famaa sa altukum min ajrin; in ajriya illaa ‘al allaahi wa umirtu an akoona minal muslimeen
- Fa kazzaboohu fa najjainaahu wa man ma’ahoo fil fulki wa ja’alnaahum khalaaa’ifa wa aghraqnal lazeena kazzaboo bi aayaatinaa fanzur kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul munzareen
- Thumma ba’asnaa min ba’dihee Rusulan ilaa qawmihim fajaaa’oohum bil baiyinaati famaa kaanoo liyu’minoo bimaa kazzaboo bihee min qabl; kazaalika natba’u ‘alaa quloobil mu’tadeen
- Thumma ba’asnaa min ba’dihim Moosaa Wa Haaroona ilaa Fir’awna wa mala’ihee bi aayaatinaa fastakbaroo wa kaanoo qawman mujrimeen
- Falammaa jaaa’ahumul haqqu min ‘indinaa qaalooo inna haazaa la sihrun mubeen
- Qaalaa Moosaaa ‘a taqooloona lil haqqi lammmaa jaaa’a kum ‘a sihrun haazaa wa laa yuflihus saahiroon
- Qaaloo aji’tanaa litalfitanaa ‘ammaa wajadnaa ‘alaihi aabaaa’anaa wa takoona lakumal kibriyaaa’u fil ardi wa maa nahnu lakumaa bi mu’mineen
- Wa qaala Fir’awnu’ toonee bikulli saahirin ‘aleem
- Falammaa jaaa’assa haratu qaala lahum Moosaaa alqoo maaa antum mulqoon
- Falammaaa alqaw qaala Moosaa maa ji’tum bihis sihr; innal laaha sa yubtiluhoo; innal laaha laa yuslihu ‘amalal mufsideen
- Wa yuhiqqul laahul haqqa bi Kalimaatihee wa law karihal mujrimoon (section 8)
- Famaaa aamana li-Moosaaa illaa zurriyyatun min qawmihee ‘alaa khawfin min Fir’awna wa mala’ihim ‘any yaftinahum; wa inna Fir’awna la’aalin fil ardi wa innahoo laminal musrifeen
- Wa qaala Moosaa yaa qawmi in kuntum aamantum billaahi fa’alaihi tawakkalooo in kuntum muslimeen
- Faqaaloo ‘alal laahi tawakkalnaa Rabbanaa laa taj’alnaa fitnatal lilqawmiz zaalimeen
- Wa najjinaa birahmatika minal qawmil kaafireen
- Wa awhainaaa ilaa Moosaa wa akheehi an tabaw wa aali qawmikuma bi Misra buyootanw waj’aloo buyootakum qiblatanw wa aqeemus Salaah; wa bashshiril mu’mineen
- Wa qaala Moosaa Rabbanaaa innaka aataita Fir’awna wa mala ahoo zeenatanw wa amwaalan fil hayaatid dunyaa Rabbanaa liyudillo ‘ansabeelika Rabbanat mis ‘alaaa amwaalihim washdud ‘alaa quloobihim falaa yu’minoo hatta yarawul ‘azaabal aleem
- Qaala qad ujeebad da’watukumaa fastaqeemaa wa laa tattabi’aaanni sabeelal lazeena laa ya’lamoon
- Wa jaawaznaa bi Baneee Israaa’eelal bahra fa atba’ahum Fir’awnu wa junooduhoo baghyanw wa ‘adwaa; hattaaa izaaa adrakahul gharaqu qaala aamantu annahoo laaa ilaaha illal lazeee aamanat bihee Banooo Israaa’eela wa ana minal muslimeen
- Aaal ‘aana wa qad ‘asaita qablu wa kunta minal mufsideen
- Falyawma nunajjeeka bibadanika litakoona liman khalfaka Aayah; wa inna kaseeran minan naasi ‘an aayaatinaa laghaafiloon (section 9)
- Wa laqad bawwa’naa Baneee Israaa’eela mubawwa ‘a sidqinw wa razaqnaahum minat taiyibaati fa makhtalafoo hattaa jaaa’ahmul ‘ilm; inna Rabbaka yaqdee bainahum Yawmal Qiyaamati feemaa kaanoo feehi yakhtalifoon
- Fa in kunta fee shakkin mimmaaa anzalnaaa ilaika fas’alil lazeena yaqra’oonal Kitaaba min qablik; laqad jaaa’akal haqqu mir Rabbika fa laa takoonanna minal mumtareen
- Wa laa takoonanna minal lazeena kazzaboo bi Aayaatil laahi fatakoona minal khaasireen
- Innal lazeena haqqat ‘alaihim Kalimatu Rabbika laa yu’minoon
- Wa law jaaa’at hum kullu Aayatin hattaa yarawul ‘azaabal aleem
- Falaw laa kaanat qaryatun aamanat fa nafa’ahaaa eemaanuhaaa illaa qawma Yoonusa lammaaa aamanoo kashafnaa ‘anhum ‘azaabal khizyi fil hayaatid dunyaa wa matta’naahum ilaa heen
- Wa law shaaa’a Rabbuka la aamana man fil ardi kulluhum jamee’aa; afa anta tukrihun naasa hattaa yakoonoo mu’mineen
- Wa maa kaana linafsin an tu’mina illaa bi iznil laah; wa yaj’alur rijsa ‘alal lazeena laa ya’qiloon
- Qulin zuroo maazaa fissamaawaati wal ard; wa maa tughnil Aayaatu wannuzuru ‘an qawmil laa yu’minoon
- Fahal yantaziroona illaa misla ayyaamil lazeena khalaw min qablihim; qul fantazirooo innee ma’akum minal muntazireen
- Thumma nunajjee Rusulana wallazeena aamanoo; kazaalika haqqan ‘alainaa nunjil mu’mineen (section 10)
- Qul yaaa ayyuhan naasu in kuntum fee shakk-in min deenee fa laa a’budul lazeena ta’budoona min doonil laahi wa laakin a’budul laahal lazee yatawaffaakum wa umirtu an akoona minal mu’mineen
- Wa an aqim wajhaka liddeeni Haneefanw wa laa takoonanna minal mushrikeen
- Wa laa tad’u min doonil laahi maa laa yanfa’uka wa laa yadurruk; fa in fa’alta fa innaka izam minaz zaalimeen
- Wa iny yamsaskal laahu bidurrin falaa kaashifa lahoo illaa hoo;wa iny yuridka bikhairin falaa raaadda lifadlih; yuseebu bihee many yashaaa’u min ‘ibaadih; wa huwal Ghafoorur Raheem
- Qul yaaa ayyuhan naasu qad jaaa’akumul haqqu mir Rabbikum; famanih tadaa fa innamaa yahtadee li nafsih; wa man dalla fa innamaa yadillu ‘alaihaa; wa maaa ana ‘alaikum bi wakeel
- Wattabi’ maa yoohaaa ilaika wasbir hattaa yahkumal laah; wa Huwa khairul haakimeen (section 11)
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
- Lam. Ra. These are verses of the Wise Scripture.
- Is it a wonder for mankind that We have inspired a man among them, saying: Warn mankind and bring unto those who believe the good tidings that they have a sure footing with their Lord? The disbelievers say: Lo! this is a mere wizard.
- Lo! your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, then He established Himself upon the Throne, directing all things. There is no intercessor (with Him) save after His permission. That is Allah, your Lord, so worship Him. Oh, will ye not remind?
- Unto Him is the return of all of you; it is a promise of Allah in truth. Lo! He produceth creation, then reproduceth it, that He may reward those who believe and do good works with equity; while, as for those who disbelieve, theirs will be a boiling drink and painful doom because they disbelieved.
- He it is Who appointed the sun a splendour and the moon a light, and measured for her stages, that ye might know the number of the years, and the reckoning. Allah created not (all) that save in truth. He detaileth the revelations for people who have knowledge.
- Lo! in the difference of day and night and all that Allah hath created in the heavens and the earth are portents, verily, for folk who ward off (evil).
- Lo! those who expect not the meeting with Us but desire the life of the world and feel secure therein, and those who are neglectful of Our revelations,
- Their home will be the Fire because of what they used to earn.
- Lo! those who believe and do good works, their Lord guideth them by their faith. Rivers will flow beneath them in the Gardens of Delight,
- Their prayer therein will be: Glory be to Thee, O Allah! and their greeting therein will be: Peace. And the conclusion of their prayer will be: Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds!
- If Allah were to hasten on for men the ill (that they have earned) as they would hasten on the good, their respite would already have expired. But We suffer those who look not for the meeting with Us to wander blindly on in their contumacy.
- And if misfortune touch a man he crieth unto Us, (while reclining) on his side, or sitting or standing, but when We have relieved him of the misfortune he goeth his way as though he had not cried unto Us because of a misfortune that afflicted him. Thus is what they do made (seeming) fair unto the prodigal.
- We destroyed the generations before you when they did wrong; and their messengers (from Allah) came unto them with clear proofs (of His Sovereignty) but they would not believe. Thus do We reward the guilty folk.
- Then We appointed you viceroys in the earth after them, that We might see how ye behave.
- And when Our clear revelations are recited unto them, they who look not for the meeting with Us say: Bring a Lecture other than this, or change it. Say ( O Muhammad): It is not for me to change it of my accord. I only follow that which is inspired in me. Lo! if I disobey my Lord I fear the retribution of an awful Day.
- Say: If Allah had so willed I should not have recited it to you nor would He have made it known to you. I dwelt among you a whole lifetime before it (came to me). Have ye then no sense?
- Who doeth greater wrong than he who inventeth a lie concerning Allah and denieth His revelations? Lo! the guilty never are successful.
- They worship beside Allah that which neither hurteth them nor profiteth them, and they say: These are our intercessors with Allah. Say: Would ye inform Allah of (something) that He knoweth not in the heavens or in the earth? Praised be He and High Exalted above all that ye associate (with Him) !
- Mankind were but one community; then they differed; and had it not been for a word that had already gone forth from thy Lord it had been judged between them in respect of that wherein they differ.
- And they will say: If only a portent were sent down upon him from his Lord! Then say, ( O Muhammad): The Unseen belongeth to Allah. So wait! Lo! I am waiting with you.
- And when We cause mankind to taste of mercy after some adversity which had afflicted them, behold! they have some plot against Our revelations. Say: Allah is more swift in plotting. Lo! Our messengers write down that which ye plot.
- He it is Who maketh you to go on the land and the sea till, when ye are in the ships and they sail with them with a fair breeze and they are glad therein, a storm-wind reacheth them and the wave cometh unto them from every side and they deem that they are overwhelmed therein; (then) they cry unto Allah, making their faith pure for Him only: If Thou deliver us from this, we truly will be of the thankful.
- Yet when He hath delivered them, behold! they rebel in the earth wrongfully. O mankind! Your rebellion is only against yourselves. (Ye have) enjoyment of the life of the world; then unto Us is your return and We shall proclaim unto you what ye used to do.
- The similitude of the life of the world is only as water which We send down from the sky, then the earth’s growth of that which men and cattle eat mingleth with it till, when the earth hath taken on her ornaments and is embellished, and her people deem that they are masters of her, Our commandment cometh by night or by day and We make it as reaped corn as if it had not flourished yesterday. Thus do we expound the revelations for people who reflect.
- And Allah summoneth to the abode of peace, and leadeth whom He will to a straight path.
- For those who do good is the best (reward) and more (thereto). Neither dust nor ignominy cometh near their faces. Such are rightful owners of the Garden; they will abide therein.
- And those who earn ill-deeds, (for them) requital of each ill-deed by the like thereof; and ignominy overtaketh them – They have no protector from Allah – as if their faces had been covered with a cloak of darkest night. Such are rightful owners of the Fire; they will abide therein.
- On the day when We gather them all together, then We say unto those who ascribed partners (unto Us): Stand back, ye and your (pretended) partners (of Allah) ! And We separate them, the one from the other, and their (pretended) partners say: It was not us ye worshipped.
- Allah sufficeth as a witness between us and you, that we were unaware of your worship.
- There doth every soul experience that which it did aforetime, and they are returned unto Allah, their rightful Lord, and that which they used to invent hath failed them.
- Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Who provideth for you from the sky and the earth, or Who owneth hearing and sight; and Who bringeth forth the living from the dead and bringeth forth the dead from the living; and Who directeth the course? They will say: Allah. Then say: Will ye not then keep your duty (unto Him)?
- Such then is Allah, your rightful Lord. After the Truth what is there saving error? How then are ye turned away!
- Thus is the Word of thy Lord justified concerning those who do wrong: that they believe not.
- Say: Is there of your partners (whom ye ascribe unto Allah) one that produceth Creation and then reproduceth it? Say: Allah produceth Creation, then reproduceth it. How then, are ye misled!
- Say: Is there of your partners (whom ye ascribe unto Allah) one that leadeth to the Truth? Say: Allah leadeth to the Truth. Is He Who leadeth to the Truth more deserving that He should be followed, or he who findeth not the way unless he (himself) be guided. What aileth you? How judge ye?
- Most of them follow not but conjecture. Assuredly conjecture can by no means take the place of truth. Lo! Allah is Aware of what they do.
- And this Qur’an is not such as could ever be invented in despite of Allah; but it is a confirmation of that which was before it and an exposition of that which is decreed for mankind – Therein is no doubt – from the Lord of the Worlds.
- Or say they: He hath invented it? Say: Then bring a surah like unto it, and call (for help) on all ye can besides Allah, if ye are truthful.
- Nay, but they denied that, the knowledge whereof they could not compass, and whereof the interpretation (in events) hath not yet come unto them. Even so did those before them deny. Then see what was the consequence for the wrong-doers!
- And of them is he who believeth therein, and of them is he who believeth not therein, and thy Lord is Best Aware of the corrupters.
- And if they deny thee, say: Unto me my work, and unto you your work. Ye are innocent of what I do, and I am innocent of what ye do.
- And of them are some who listen unto thee. But canst thou make the deaf to hear even though they apprehend not?
- And of them is he who looketh toward thee. But canst thou guide the blind even though they see not?
- Lo! Allah wrongeth not mankind in aught; but mankind wrong themselves.
- And on the day when He shall gather them together, (when it will seem) as though they had tarried but an hour of the day, recognising one another, those will verily have perished who denied the meeting with Allah and were not guided.
- Whether We let thee ( O Muhammad) behold something of that which We promise them or (whether We) cause thee to die, still unto Us is their return, and Allah, moreover, is Witness over what they do.
- And for every nation there is a messenger. And when their messenger cometh (on the Day of Judgment) it will be judged between them fairly, and they will not be wronged.
- And they say: When will this promise be fulfilled, if ye are truthful?
- Say: I have no power to hurt or benefit myself, save that which Allah willeth. For every nation there is an appointed time. When their time cometh, then they cannot put it off an hour, nor hasten (it).
- Say: Have ye thought: When His doom cometh unto you as a raid by night, or in the (busy) day; what is there of it that the guilty ones desire to hasten?
- Is it (only) then, when it hath befallen you, that ye will believe? What! (Believe) now, when (until now) ye have been hastening it on (through disbelief)?
- Then will it be said unto those who dealt unjustly Taste the torment of eternity. Are ye requited aught save what ye used to earn?
- And they ask thee to inform them (saying): Is it true? Say: Yea, by my Lord, verily it is true, and ye cannot escape.
- And if each soul that doeth wrong had all that is in the earth it would seek to ransom itself therewith; and they will feel remorse within them, when they see the doom. But it hath been judged between them fairly and they are not wronged.
- Lo! verily all that is in the heavens and the earth is Allah’s. Lo! verily Allah’s promise is true. But most of them know not.
- He quickeneth and giveth death, and unto Him ye will be returned.
- O mankind! There hath come unto you an exhortation from your Lord, a balm for that which is in the breasts, a guidance and a mercy for believers.
- Say: In the bounty of Allah and in His mercy: therein let them rejoice. It is better than what they hoard.
- Say: Have ye considered what provision Allah hath sent down for you, how ye have made of it lawful and unlawful? Hath Allah permitted you, or do ye invent a lie concerning Allah?
- And what think those who invent a lie concerning Allah (will be their plight) upon the Day of Resurrection? Lo! Allah truly is Bountiful toward mankind, but most of them give not thanks.
- And thou (Muhammad) art not occupied with any business and thou recitest not a Lecture from this (Scripture), and ye (mankind) perform no act, but We are Witness of you when ye are engaged therein. And not an atom’s weight in the earth or in the sky escapeth your Lord, nor what is less than that or greater than that, but it is (written) in a clear Book.
- Lo! verily the friends of Allah are (those) on whom fear (cometh) not, nor do they grieve?
- Those who believe and keep their duty (to Allah).
- Theirs are good tidings in the life of the world and in the Hereafter – There is no changing the Words of Allah – that is the Supreme Triumph.
- And let not their speech grieve thee ( O Muhammad). Lo! power belongeth wholly to Allah. He is the Hearer, the Knower.
- Lo! is it not unto Allah that belongeth whosoever is in the heavens and whosoever is in the earth? Those who follow aught instead of Allah follow not (His) partners. They follow only a conjecture, and they do but guess.
- He it is Who hath appointed for you the night that ye should rest therein and the day giving sight. Lo! herein verily are portents for a folk that heed.
- They say: Allah hath taken (unto Him) a son – Glorified be He! He hath no needs! His is all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. Ye have no warrant for this. Tell ye concerning Allah that which ye know not?
- Say: Verily those who invent a lie concerning Allah will not succeed.
- This world’s portion (will be theirs), then unto Us is their return. Then We make them taste a dreadful doom because they used to disbelieve.
- Recite unto them the story of Noah, when he told his people: O my people! If my sojourn (here) and my reminding you by Allah’s revelations are an offence unto you, in Allah have I put my trust, so decide upon your course of action you and your partners. Let not your course of action be in doubt for you. Then have at me, give me no respite.
- But if ye are averse I have asked of you no wage. My wage is the concern of Allah only, and I am commanded to be of those who surrender (unto Him).
- But they denied him, so We saved him and those with him in the ship, and made them viceroys (in the earth), while We drowned those who denied Our revelations. See then the nature of the consequence for those who had been warned.
- Then, after him, We sent messengers unto their folk, and they brought them clear proofs. But they were not ready to believe in that which they before denied. Thus print We on the hearts of the transgressors.
- Then, after them, We sent Moses and Aaron unto Pharaoh and his chiefs with Our revelations, but they were arrogant and were a guilty folk.
- And when the Truth from Our presence came unto them, they said: Lo! this is mere magic.
- Moses said: Speak ye (so) of the Truth when it hath come unto you? Is this magic? Now magicians thrive not.
- They said: Hast thou come unto us to pervert us from that (faith) in which we found our fathers, and that you two may own the place of greatness in the land? We will not believe you two.
- And Pharaoh said: Bring every cunning wizard unto me.
- And when the wizards came, Moses said unto them: Cast your cast!
- And when they had cast, Moses said: That which ye have brought is magic. Lo! Allah will make it vain. Lo! Allah upholdeth not the work of mischief-makers.
- And Allah will vindicate the Truth by His words, however much the guilty be averse.
- But none trusted Moses, save some scions of his people, (and they were) in fear of Pharaoh and their chiefs, that he would persecute them. Lo! Pharaoh was verily a tyrant in the land, and lo! he verily was of the wanton.
- And Moses said: O my people! If ye have believed in Allah then put trust in Him, if ye have indeed surrendered (unto Him) !
- They said: In Allah we put trust. Our Lord! Oh, make us not a lure for the wrongdoing folk;
- And, of Thy mercy, save us from the folk that disbelieve.
- And We inspired Moses and his brother, (saying): Appoint houses for your people in Egypt and make your houses oratories, and establish worship. And give good news to the believers.
- And Moses said: Our Lord! Lo! Thou hast given Pharaoh and his chiefs splendour and riches in the life of the world, Our Lord! that they may lead men astray from Thy way. Our Lord! Destroy their riches and harden their hearts so that they believe not till they see the painful doom.
- He said: Your prayer is heard. Do ye twain keep to the straight path, and follow not the road of those who have no knowledge.
- And We brought the Children of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh with his hosts pursued them in rebellion and transgression, till, when the (fate of) drowning overtook him, he exclaimed: I believe that there is no Allah save Him in Whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am of those who surrender (unto Him).
- What! Now! When hitherto thou hast rebelled and been of the wrong-doers?
- But this day We save thee in thy body that thou mayst be a portent for those after thee. Lo! most of mankind are heedless of Our portents.
- And We verily did allot unto the Children of Israel a fixed abode, and did provide them with good things; and they differed not until the knowledge came unto them. Lo! thy Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that wherein they used to differ.
- And if thou (Muhammad) art in doubt concerning that which We reveal unto thee, then question those who read the Scripture (that was) before thee. Verily the Truth from thy Lord hath come unto thee. So be not thou of the waverers.
- And be not thou of those who deny the revelations of Allah, for then wert thou of the losers.
- Lo! those for whom the word of thy Lord (concerning sinners) hath effect will not believe,
- Though every token come unto them, till they see the painful doom.
- If only there had been a community (of all those that were destroyed of old) that believed and profited by its belief as did the folk of Jonah! When they believed We drew off from them the torment of disgrace in the life of the world and gave them comfort for a while.
- And if thy Lord willed, all who are in the earth would have believed together. Wouldst thou (Muhammad) compel men until they are believers?
- It is not for any soul to believe save by the permission of Allah. He hath set uncleanness upon those who have no sense.
- Say: Behold what is in the heavens and the earth! But revelations and warnings avail not folk who will not believe.
- What expect they save the like of the days of those who passed away before them? Say: Expect then! I am with you among the expectant.
- Then shall We save Our messengers and the believers, in like manner (as of old). It is incumbent upon Us to save believers.
- Say ( O Muhammad): O mankind! If ye are in doubt of my religion, then (know that) I worship not those whom ye worship instead of Allah, but I worship Allah Who causeth you to die, and I have been commanded to be of the believers.
- And, ( O Muhammad) set thy purpose resolutely for religion, as a man by nature upright, and be not of those who ascribe partners (to Allah).
- And cry not, beside Allah, unto that which cannot profit thee nor hurt thee, for if thou didst so then wert thou of the wrong-doers.
- If Allah afflicteth thee with some hurt, there is none who can remove it save Him; and if He desireth good for thee, there is none who can repel His bounty. He striketh with it whom He will of his bondmen. He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.
- Say: O mankind! Now hath the Truth from your Lord come unto you. So whosoever is guided, is guided only for (the good of) his soul, and whosoever erreth erreth only against it. And I am not a warder over you.
- And ( O Muhammad) follow that which is inspired in thee, and forbear until Allah give judgment. And He is the Best of Judges.
[From Holy Quran Translation by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall]
الۗرٰ ۣ تِلْكَ اٰيٰتُ الْكِتٰبِ الْحَكِيْمِ
Surah Yunus is among the Makki Surahs. Three of its verses re¬vealed after the Hijrah to Madinah have been called Madani.
In this Surah too, the proof of the basic objectives of Qur’an, and Islam, such as the Oneness of Allah, the mission of His Messenger and the inevitability of the Hereafter, has been provided. Since it has been presented in the background of the universe of our experience and observation, it becomes easy to comprehend. Along with it, some lesson-oriented historical accounts and stories have been introduced to warn people who do not pay heed to the open signs of Allah Ta` ala. As a cor¬ollary, the text refutes shirk whereby heedless people start ascribing partners to the pristine divinity of Allah – and also answers some re¬lated doubts.
This is a gist of the subjects taken up in the Surah. A careful look at these will help us understand the interconnection be¬tween the previous Surah, At-Taubah, and the present one. Surah At-Taubah was making a strong statement when it opted for breaking through the powerful cordon of kufr and shirk to achieve the same ob¬jectives through material means by waging Jihad against deniers and disbelievers. And since the present Surah was revealed in Makkah before the injunctions of Jihad came, these objectives have been ex¬plained and proved only by arguments and evidences very much in ac¬cordance with the law of the Makkan period.
The Surah opens with the letters: Alif, Lam, Ra الر). Known as ` isolated letters.’ Many Surahs of the Qur’an begin with these. Debates on investigations made into the meaning of letter combinations like الم (Alif, Lam, Mim), حٰمٓ(Ha, Mim) and عٓسٓقٓ(Ain, Sin, Qaf) by commentators are lengthy. But, we also have the authentic verdict of the Sahabah, the Tabi’in and the righteous elders of the community (salaf سَلَف) about these ` isolated letters.’ According to them, these are secret symbols or signs. In all likelihood, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was confided with their meaning but he elected to disclose to his community only those areas of knowledge and insight which their minds could bear by and which, if remained unknown, would impede the normal living of his people.
Nothing that Muslims must do is dependent upon knowing the secrets of such ‘isolated letters,’ nor do they have to miss anything by not knowing them. Therefore, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) too did not tell his com¬munity about their meaning as being unnecessary for them. Therefore, we too should not go about digging into it – because, it is certain that had the knowing of their meaning been expedient for us, our master, who was mercy personified for the whole world, would have never hesitated in telling us about it.
In the first verse: تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ الْحَكِيمِ (These are verses of the Wise Book), the word: تِلکَ (tilka: these) points out to the ‘ay at of this Surah which follow. ‘The Book’ refers to the Qur’an. To describe its attribute, the Qur’an has used the word: حَکِیم (hakim) at this place. It means the Book of Wisdom.
اَكَانَ لِلنَّاسِ عَجَبًا اَنْ اَوْحَيْنَآ اِلٰى رَجُلٍ مِّنْھُمْ اَنْ اَنْذِرِ النَّاسَ
The second verse refers to a doubt expressed by the Mushriks, and provides its answer. In a nutshell, these people had, out of their ignor¬ance, somehow decided that a Messenger or Prophet who comes from Allah Ta ala should not be a human being (al-bashar), instead, he should be an angel.
The Qur’an has refuted this absurd idea of theirs on several occasions from different angles. In one such verse, it was قُل لَّوْ كَانَ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَلَائِكَةٌ يَمْشُونَ مُطْمَئِنِّينَ لَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ مَلَكًا رَّسُولًا ﴿٩٥﴾ said: (Say, Had there been angels walking in peace on the Earth, We would have cer¬tainly sent to them from the heavens an angel-messenger!” – 17:95). In sum, the mission of a messenger cannot be accomplished unless there is a mutual homogeneity between this messenger and those to whom he is sent. Angels are homogenous to angels and human beings to hu¬man beings. If the purpose is to send a messenger for human beings, only a human being has to be made a messenger.
The same subject has been taken up in this verse in a different manner. The text sees no reason why would people wonder that a human being was made a messenger? Why was a human being entrusted with the mission of warning the disobedient ones against the punish¬ment of Allah? Why was the task of heralding the good news of His re-wards to the obedient ones assigned again to a human being? This kind of wondering deserves a counter-wonder, for sending a human messenger to the human race is perfect commonsense.
Good news to believers has been given in this verse by saying: قَدَمَ صِدْقٍ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ (that they will have a perfect place with their Lord). The initial meaning of the word: قَدَم (qadam) used here is ` step’ as in Eng¬lish. Since ‘qadam’ is the medium of a person’s effort, and advance¬ment in its wake, therefore, a higher rank is called a ‘qadam’ in a figu¬rative sense.
Then, by attributing ‘qadam’ (high rank, place of honor) to صِدق ` sidq’ (perfect as being true, certain, abiding, everlasting), it was emphasized that the high rank they were to get was real, certain, es¬tablished, abiding and everlasting. This was not something like the ranks and offices of the mortal world. To begin with, it is never certain that one would get these at all. If, as a result of some extra effort, one does get one of these, their continuity cannot be certain. In fact, what is certain is that these will vanish in time. Sometimes, this could happen within one’s lifetime. But, when comes the time to die, one goes empty-handed. All ranks, offices, blessings remain behind. So, the word: (sidq) includes the sense of certainty, and also that of being perfect and everlasting in it. Therefore, the sentence means: 0 Proph-et, give believers the good news that they will have a perfect place with their Lord, an asset that is certain and lasting.
Some commentators have said: Through the introduction of the word sidq at this place, an indication has been given that these high ranks can be achieved only through truth and absolute sincerity. Mere verbal claims of having faith and a formal recital of the Kalimah of ‘Iman is not enough, until one embraces the faith, truly and duly, ver¬bally and emotionally and intellectually. It will invariably result in ad¬herence to good deeds and avoidance of the evil ones.
اِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ اللّٰهُ الَّذِيْ خَلَقَ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضَ فِيْ سِتَّةِ اَيَّامٍ
In the third verse, the Oneness of Allah (Tauhid) has been proved through the undeniable reality that there is no associate or partner to Allah Ta` ala when it comes to the creation of the heavens and the earth and then to the management and operation of this entire univer¬sal system. When this reality stands established, how could someone else be made an associate or partner in His pristine Divinity or in wor¬ship for Him and in obedience to Him? In fact, doing so is the highest conceivable injustice.
It was said in this verse that Allah Ta’ala has created the heavens and the earth in six days. But, the day as we know it denotes the time from sunrise to sunset – and it is obvious that the sun did not exist be-fore the creation of the heavens, earth and stars. How then could sunrise and sunset be calculated? Therefore, intended here is the measure of time utilized in between sunrise and sunset.
Making this huge world composed of the heavens, the Earth, the planets and the universe as a whole, ready and functional (a virtual turn-key job, so to say), can only be attributed to the Being who is the purest of the pure and exercises power that is absolute. When He in-tends to create, He needs no raw materials in advance or any staff to assist. Such is the station and degree of His perfect power that He, as and when He intends to create what He wills, creates instantly, with-out any raw materials or personnel or technical support. The time duration of these six days has only been chosen in consideration of His particular wisdom. Otherwise, it was also within His power that He could have created the heavens and the Earth and what it contained in a single instant.
After that it was said: ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ (then He took a straight posi¬tion on the Throne). That which stands proved from the Qur’an, and Hadith is that the Arsh عَرش (Throne) of the Rahman رَحمٰن (the All-Merciful Al¬lah) is some created object which encompasses the entire heavens and the Earth and the whole universe thereof. Thus, seen conversely, all that there is fits into the room inside it.
Knowing anymore about its reality is beyond any human effort. No doubt, scientific knowledge in our time is at its zenith. Man is getting ready to reach planets compar¬atively nearer with mixed measures of success. However, scientists still confess that the distant planets are so far away from us that information about these through available instrumentation cannot be relied upon as a mirror of reality. Then, there are stars in the firma¬ment even light from where has not yet reached our Earth – even though, as we know, the speed of light is 1, 86, 000 miles per second. When this is the graph of human limitations in scaling planets and stars, how could human efforts to find out what we know as the heavens farther and higher from stars and planets be taken as credible (or even reasonable). And finally, what is believed to be the ` Arsh of the Rahman – encompassing all there is, even above what is termed as the seventh heaven – is a reality seeking access to which through technical ingenuity needs no comment.
So, up to this point, the third verse has told us that Allah Ta` ala created the heavens and the earth and the whole system of the uni¬verse in six days, and ` after that He took a position on the Throne’. (The last sentence is a word arrangement in English for the words of the text: ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ [ thumma ‘s-tawa ala ‘l-‘arsh ] which should be understood in the light of the comments appearing below).
This is certain, and evident enough that Allah, the high and the true, is above and beyond the human concepts of body and mass and of all attributes and characteristics they may have. Neither does His ex¬istence relate to any direction or form, nor is His stay in a place like the staying of the things of the world where they belong. Now then, how are we to explain the nature, mode or manner of His staying, es¬tablishing or positioning on the ` Arsh or Throne? This can be explained only by saying that these are from what is called ` mutashabihat’ (statements of hidden meaning) in the terminology of Qur’an, a phe¬nomena that cannot be comprehended by human reason. Therefore, about it, says the Qur’an: وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّـهُ ۗ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ (no one knows its interpretation except Allah. And those [ who are ] well-grounded in knowledge say: “We believe therein; – 3: 7) – and just do not bother to go digging out its reality. Therefore, there is a standard approach in all such matters where the attribution of Allah Ta` ala has been made to a place or form, or where words, such as hand, face and shank, have appeared in the Qur’an for Allah Ta` ala. The ` Aqidah (belief) of the majority of the ` Ulama of the Muslim Ummah is that one believes these words to be true in their place, and believes what Allah Ta` ala means by them is correct, and believes that the concern to know about its nature and reality should be set aside as being beyond one’s ability to comprehend it.
As for the later day ` Ulama who have suggested some meanings to these things, they have done it only in a degree of probability, even in their own sight. They simply suggest – perhaps, it may mean this. They never say that the meanings they have given are certain. As obvious, probabilities disclose no reality. Therefore, the only simple and straight creed (maslak مَسلَک) is that of the Sababah (Companions), the Tabi` in (Successors to Companions) and the Salaf (the righteous and worthy forebears and elders of the Faith). They were satisfied to live with the approach of entrusting the reality of such matters with Di-vine Knowledge.
This brings us to the next statement: يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ (He manages all mat¬ters). It means that, positioned on the Throne, He Himself manages all universes by virtue of His power. Then, comes the succeeding sen¬tence: مَا مِن شَفِيعٍ إِلَّا مِن بَعْدِ إِذْنِهِ translated as: ` There is no intercessor except after His permission.’ It tells us that such is the majesty of Allah Ta’ala that even a Prophet and Messenger cannot intercede on behalf of anyone, on their own, before Him – unless Allah Ta` ala Himself grants them the permission to intercede, without which even they could not do that.
اِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيْعًا ۭوَعْدَ اللّٰهِ حَقًّا
The fourth verse describes the ` Aqidah of ‘Akhirah (Belief in the Hereafter) إِلَيْهِ مَرْجِعُكُمْ جَمِيعًا (Towards Him is the return of you all). The an¬nouncement is asserted by saying: وَعْدَ اللَّـهِ حَقًّا (a real [ and true ] promise from Allah). That it must be as promised has been explained through the simple logic of: إِنَّهُ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ (Surely, He originates the creation, then He will bring it again). The sentence is telling us that there is nothing surprising about it and that there is no sense in worrying about as to how this entire universe would start pulsating with life af¬ter it has been eliminated. The reason is that the Sacred Power who has the mastery to create something the first time, without any pre-existing matter and without any prototype of form and shape, should hardly find any difficulty in creating once again everything He had made then unmade.
ھُوَ الَّذِيْ جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَاۗءً وَّالْقَمَرَ نُوْرًا وَّقَدَّرَهٗ مَنَازِلَ
These two verses mention some signs openly visible in the universe of our experience. They are evidences of the perfect power and elo¬quent wisdom of the most exalted Allah. They prove that the Lord Almighty is fully capable of bringing about the end of this universe, re¬ducing it to particles, then reassembling the particles and bringing everything back to life, all anew, making everyone account for one’s deeds and get punishment or reward as enforced. And when He does that, it will be nothing but reasonable and wise. Thus, these two vers¬es are an extension of what was said briefly in verse 3. Mentioned there was the creation of the heavens and the earth in six days, the po¬sitioning on the Throne and the management of matters. The later proved that He did not, after having created the universe, abandon it to survive on its own, instead, He manages, directs and controls everything, all the time, every moment.
The opening statement of verse هُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ ضِيَاءً وَالْقَمَرَ نُورًا firm (He is the One who has made the sun a glow and the moon a light) is a part of this very system and its management. Both words: ضِيَاءً (diya’ ) and نُورً (nur) mean glow and light, therefore, many master lexicographers have taken these as synonyms. ` Allamah al-Zamakhshari, al-Tibi, beside some others, said: Though the sense of light is common to both words, but نُور nur is general. Whether strong or weak, dim or clear, every light is referred to as nur, while ضُوء و ضِیَاء (daw’ and diya’ ) refer to light that is strong and clear. One needs both kinds of light.
For the usual business of life, the sharp and clear light of the day is required, while the com-paratively dim light of the night is preferred for ordinary chores. If the day had nothing but the pale light of the moon, business will be affected adversely, and if the sun were to keep shining also during the night, sleep and chores that must be taken care of at that time alone would be disturbed. Therefore, nature made arrangements to provide both kinds of light by giving sunlight the degree of daw’ ضُوء and diya’ ضِیَاء and let it manifest itself at the time when people are busy in business, vo¬cation or other avenues of livelihood. And the moonlight was made to be gentle, pale and pleasing and the night was appointed to be the time of its manifestation.
The Holy Qur’an has differentiated the lights of the sun and the moon variously at several places. In Surah Nuh, it was said: وَجَعَلَ الْقَمَرَ فِيهِنَّ نُورًا وَجَعَلَ الشَّمْسَ سِرَاجًا ﴿١٦﴾ I (And made the moon a light therein and made the sun, a lamp – 71:16). Again, in Surah al-Furqan, it was said: وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا سِرَاجًا وَقَمَرًا مُّنِيرًا 1f (and placed in it [ the sky ] a lamp, and a shining moon – 25:61). ‘Siraj’ means lamp and since the light from a lamp is its own and not borrowed from somewhere else, therefore, some commentators have said that ضیا (diya’ ) is the intrinsic light of something while (nar) is extrinsic light derived from something else. This semantic approach appears to be influenced by Greek thought, otherwise it has no lexical basis and the Qur’an too has not given any categorical verdict about it.
Zajjaj takes diya’ to be the plural of daw’. Perhaps, this may be in¬dicative of the Sun being a compendium of the seven colours of light which show up in the post-rain rainbow. (Al-Manar)
Another manifestation of Divine power related to the system of the sun and the moon appears in the second sentence of verse وَقَدَّرَهُ مَنَازِلَ لِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ ` and determined for it stages, so that you may know the number of years and the calculation (of time).’ The word قَدَّرَهُ (‘qaddara’ ) is a derivation from تَقدِیر (taqdir) which means to maintain something at the level of a particular quantity and measure in terms of time or place or attributes.
To keep the timings of the night and the day at a particular measure, the Holy Qur’an has said: وَاللَّـهُ يُقَدِّرُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ (And Allah determines [ the measure on the night and the day – 73:20). That spatial and travel distances have been kept at a particular meas¬ure finds mention elsewhere. In Surah Saba,’ it was said about the habitations lying in between Syria and Saba’: وَقَدَّرْنَا فِيهَا السَّيْرَ(and We determined between them the [ distance on journey – 34:18). And about quantitative measures in general, it was said: وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَقَدَّرَهُ تَقْدِيرًا (and created everything then determined a measure for it, determining precisely – Surah a1-Furqan, 25:2).
The word: مَنَازِل (manazil) in the verse under study is the plural form of مَنَزِل (manzil) which essentially means the place one arrives at on a journey, its stage or destination. Allah Ta` ala has appointed specific limits for the movement of the Sun and the Moon, each of which is called مَنَزِل manzil or stage. Since the Moon completes its orbit of the Earth every month, the count of its stages comes to thirty or twenty nine. However, since the Moon is not visible at least for a day, therefore, its stages are usually known as twenty- eight.
The orbit of the Sun is com¬plete in a year and it has 360 or 365 stages. During the Arab Jahiliy-ah, and by astronomers and mathematicians as well, particular names were given to these stages as borrowed from stars located in their proximity. Being above such technical nomenclatures, the Holy Qur’an has simply referred to the distances the Sun and the Moon cover in specified number of days.
In the verse under discussion, the words: قَدَّرَهُ مَنَازِلَ (and determined for it stages) have been used with a pronoun in the singular form – although, being referred to here are the stages of both the Sun and the Moon. Therefore, some commentators say that, no doubt, what has been mentioned here is in the singular form, but in terms of the refer¬ence to each single one, it includes both. Examples of this usage abound in the Qur’an, and Arabic idiom.
Some other commentators have said, ` though, Allah Ta` ala has de¬termined stages for the Sun and the Moon both but, at this place, the purpose is to describe the stages of the Moon only. Therefore, the pro-noun in قَدَّرَهُ (qaddarahu: determined for it) refers back to the Moon.
The reason for this specification is that one cannot find out the stages of the Sun without the help of relevant instruments and calculations. Sunrise and sunset follow the same pattern every day throughout the year. A simple observation cannot tell anybody in what stage the Sun is on a given day. This is contrary to the case of the Moon. It’ s states are different every day. By the end of the month, it is just not visible. By observing such changes, even uneducated people can figure out the dates. For example, let us say the date today is March 8. Now, by just looking at the Sun, nobody can tell whether it is the 8th or the 21st. The case of the Moon is different. One can find out the date even by looking at it.
In the cited verse, the purpose is to tell people that man’s own in¬terest is also tied to these great signs of Allah Ta` ala since the count of years, months and its dates can be kept through them. No doubt, this calculation can be made from the Sun and the Moon both. Years and months, both Solar and Lunar, are universally known. Then, the Qur’an has also mentioned in Surah al-‘Isra‘ (Banu Isra’il):
وَجَعَلْنَا اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ آيَتَيْنِ ۖ فَمَحَوْنَا آيَةَ اللَّيْلِ وَجَعَلْنَا آيَةَ النَّهَارِ مُبْصِرَةً لِّتَبْتَغُوا فَضْلًا مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَلِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ
And We made the night and the day two signs. Then made the sign of the night disappear, and put the sign of the day with the light to see, so that you may seek bounty from your Lord, and that you may come to know the number of years, and the count (of time) – (17:12).
Here, ` the sign of the night’ means the Moon and ` the sign of the day,’ the Sun. It is only after having mentioned both that it was said that you can find out the number of years and the dates of the months from these. And in Surah Ar-Rahman it was said: which tells us that we can calculate the date, the month and the year through the Sun and the Moon both.
But, the calculation of month and date through the Moon is based on observation and experience. On the contrary, when done through the Sun, the calculations are so complex that no one other than regu¬lar mathematicians would understand them. Therefore, after having mentioned both the Sun and the Moon in this verse, when the Qur’an talks about having determined their stages, it elects to say: قَدَّرَهُ (qaddarahu: determined for it) using the pronoun in its singular form, whereby mentioned there were the stages of the Moon only.
Since great attention is paid in the injunctions of Islam, practically in all situations, to ensure that abiding by them is easy for everyone – educated or uneducated, urbanized or rustic – therefore, reliance has usually been placed on lunar year, month and dates in its laws. Thus, it is the lunar calendar that operates in all matters of Islamic obliga¬tions and duties, such as, Salah, Sawm, Zakah, ` Iddah etc.
This does not mean that using the Solar Calendar is impermissi¬ble. In fact, one can choose to use the Lunar Calendar in the case of Sa¬lah, Sawm, Hajj, Zakah and ` Iddah in accordance with the Shari’ ah, but use the Solar Calendar in commercial and vocational activities. However, this is subject to the condition that the Lunar Calendar must continue to be in use among Muslims on a collective basis, so that the occasions and timings of religious obligations such as Ramadan and Hajj are in common knowledge at all times. This is to avoid the terri¬ble situation in which Muslims just know no other months but Janu¬ary, February etc. Muslim jurists, may the mercy of Allah be on them, have placed the responsibility of keeping the Lunar Calendar alive and functional on Muslims as Fard al-Kifayah (collective obligation).
And there is no doubt about it that the Calendar used in the Tradi¬tion of the blessed prophets and in the Sunnah of the Last among them, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and in the practice of his rightly-guided Khulafa’ was no other but this very Lunar Calendar. Using it, following in their footsteps, is certainly an effective cause of blessings and rewards for modern day Muslims as well.
In short, the verse points out to the perfect power and wisdom of Allah who created two inexhaustible treasure troves of light so harmo¬niously synchronized with the rest of the creation. And then, He determined ideal measures of their movement which help us find the time frame we are in, the year, the month, the day and its hours right up to every second. Neither does their movement vary, nor do they go ahead or remain behind, nor do these God-made marvels of what we call machines need any workshop appointments for repairs, nor greasing, nor replacement of worn-out parts. Someone in eternity had asked them to move and be good. This they are doing even today.
For added warning, it was said at the end of the verse (5): مَا خَلَقَ اللَّـهُ ذَٰلِكَ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۚ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ (Allah has not created all this but for something right. He elaborates the signs for a people who understand). It means that Allah did not create all these things in vain. There is great wis¬dom behind it, and certainly numerous are the benefits they bring for human beings. These are elaborated signs. They are loud and clear. They are telling the truth to people who are blessed with reason and insight.
اِنَّ فِي اخْتِلَافِ الَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَمَا خَلَقَ اللّٰهُ فِي السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضِ لَاٰيٰتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَّتَّقُوْنَ
Similarly, it was said in the second verse (6) that there are signs in the coming of the night after the day and the day after the night, and in everything Allah has created in the heavens and the earth. These are open proofs (of the Oneness of Allah and the inevitability of the Hereafter) for those who fear Allah.
That they are proofs of the Oneness of Allah (Tauhid) is not diffi¬cult to see. He has the power to make things happen. He makes things as no one can. He creates everything without the help of materials, personnel and prototype, and has the mastery to operate them under a system that never breaks or must be replaced.
And they are proofs of the ‘Akhirah (Hereafter) because Allah is a great creator. He created, in His infinite wisdom, objects of such pro-portion and efficiency for the benefit of human beings. Then, He made them follow a remarkably stable system. Now, it is not possible that He would have created human beings, who are the served ones in this universe, just for nothing, or just to eat and drink, or in some other nonchalant manner without assigning any duties to them. When it stands settled that some restrictions must apply to the served one of this universe, it also becomes necessary that those who observe or do not observe these restrictions should face an accounting of what they have done, sometime, somewhere. Naturally, those who do observe these shall be rewarded and those who do not shall be punished. Then, it is also obvious that things do not work like this in the present world of our experience. Here, reward and punishment do not follow that pattern. It is quite likely that a criminal here may be living better as compared to someone God-fearing, righteous and innocent. Therefore, it is necessary to have a day for the accounting of deeds, rewards and punishments. This is what Qiyamah (The Last Day) and ‘Akhirah (Hereafter) are.
اِنَّ الَّذِيْنَ لَا يَرْجُوْنَ لِقَاۗءَنَا وَرَضُوْا بِالْحَيٰوةِ الدُّنْيَا
In the previous verses, by mentioning the heavens and the earth and the Moon and the Sun, prominent manifestations of Allah’s per¬fect power and wisdom, the belief in the Oneness of Allah and the Hereafter was proved eloquently. The first three of the present verses tell us that, despite such open signs and evidences spread out in this universe, human beings split up in two groups. One of the two groups was of those who paid just no heed to these Divine signs, failed to rec¬ognize their creator and master and failed to recognize even themselves. It never occurred to them that they were no animal like other animals. They never discovered that their Almighty Lord had blessed them with intelligence, reason and commonsense in a degree much higher than that of the animals. Their Lord had put the entire resourc¬es of Divine creation at their doorsteps.
Everything was as if commis¬sioned to serve them. This should have made them realize that there has to be something their Lord would want them to do, some duty or obligation or charge. If that had to be the case, they would have to ac-count for whatever they had been asked to do. And for this it would be necessary that there should be a day fixed for ultimate reckoning and recompense – known as the day of Qiyamah or al-Hashr (Doomsday, Resurrection) in the terminology of the Qur’an. But, such people did nothing like that, instead, preferred to live their lives at the level of common animals. In the first two verses, after giving the signs and marks of these people, the text mentions the punishment they would receive in the Hereafter. The first thing the text tells is that such peo¬ple did not think that they would meet their Lord. They have forgotten all about the inevitability of their life in the Hereafter and have become pleased and content with their worldly life alone.
Then, they are sitting there, so satisfied and so content, as if they just do not have to go anywhere else from here. This, to them, was the end of the line and this was where they have to live forever. It never occurs to them that everyone has to bid farewell to this world. This is so open a truth that no one can go about doubting it. And when going away from here is certain, then, some preparation has to be made for the place one is going to.
And then, they are continuously heedless to Allah’s verses and signs. Had they pondered over the marvel of the heavens and the earth and what was created in between them and, for that matter, over what was in the their own person, they would have understood the reality behind everything and they would have thus come out of their fatal negligence.
The punishment of people whose signs have been given above is the fire of Jahannam that waits for them in the Hereafter – and this punishment is nothing but the outcome of their own deeds.
How regrettable that the signs of disbelievers and deniers pin-pointed by the Qur’an are no different as far as our own present condi¬tion as Muslims is concerned. By looking at our way of life and the pattern of our activities and thoughts, no one can come to the conclusion that we have some other concern bothering us except the concerns of this world under our noses. Yet, despite all that, we sit comfortably be¬lieving that we are Muslims, as staunch and true as they come. The hard reality is that the kind of staunch and true Muslims our worthy forbears were has become unimaginable for us.
They were the ones a look at whose faces would remind one of God and transmit unmistaka¬bly that they feared someone above them and their hearts throbbed with the concern of being accountable to Him. Not to say more about these wonderful people, even the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) despite being protected from sins (ma` sum مَعصُوم), lived his blessed life in that state. It appears in Shama’il al-Tirmidhi that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) looked sad and concerned fairly often.
دَعْوٰىھُمْ فِيْهَا سُبْحٰنَكَ اللّٰهُمَّ وَتَحِيَّتُھُمْ فِيْهَا سَلٰمٌ
Some particular states in which the people of Jannah shall find themselves after their arrival there have been spelt out in the fourth verse (10). First of all: دَعْوَاهُمْ فِيهَا سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّـهُمَّ :(their prayer therein will be, “Pure are you, 0 Allah” ). Here, the word: دَعوی (da` wa) should not be taken in its well known sense of claim, something a plaintiff does against the responding party. Instead of that, da` wa has been used here in the sense of du’a’ (prayer, supplication). It means that the du’a’ of the people of Jannah, after they have reached Jannah, will be in the form that they will be saying: سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّـهُمَّ (Pure are You, 0 Allah), that is, they will be glorifying the exalted majesty of Allah (known as Tsbih in the religious terminology of Islam).
This raises a question for du` a’, as commonly recognized, is the act of asking for something or the seeking of what one would like to have. The words: سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّـهُمَّ (subhanaka ‘l-lahumma: Pure are You, 0 Allah) have no element of asking or seeking in them. Then, what was the ba¬sis of calling it ‘du` a’?
The answer is that the expression used here is there to communi¬cate something relevant to the great occasion. Is it not that the people of Jannah will have the most comprehensive bliss which will include everything they could wish for almost automatically as they would have wished? So, there will be no asking or seeking. As a replacement of the popular mode of du` a, what they would be able to say would be nothing more than the tasbih of Allah in total submission.
That too would not be something like an obligatory act of worship they used to do in their mortal lives (whether or not they enjoyed doing so). In fact, they would savor the taste of saying these words of glorification and say سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّـهُمَّ subhanaka ‘l-lahumma on their own, gratefully delighted. In addi¬tion, reports a Qudsi Hadith that Allah Ta` ala said, ` a servant of Mine who remains busy glorifying Me all the time, so much so that he finds no time even to ask what was to be asked, then, I shall give him the best of what is asked by all those who ask, that is, take care of what he needs to be done without his having to ask for it.’ If so, the expression: subhanaka ‘l-lahumma that has been translated as ` Pure are You, 0 Allah’ could also be called a du` a ‘ (prayer).
It is in terms of this sense that a Hadith in the Sahih of al-Bukhari and Muslim reports that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) used to make the following du’a’ when in pain or anxiety:
لا إله إلا اللہ اَلعَظِیم اَلحَلِیم، لا إله إلا اللہ رَبُّ العَرشِ العَظِیم، لا إله إلا اللہ رَبُّ السَمٰوٰتِ و رَبُّ الاَرضِ وَ رَبُّ العَرشِ الکَرِیم.
There is no god but Allah, the Great, the Forbearing; there is no god but Allah, the Lord of the Great Throne; there is no god but Allah, the Lord of the Heavens and the Lord of the Earth and the Lord of the Generous Throne.
Imam al-Tabari said: The worthy forbears of the Muslim Communi¬ty (al-salaf al-salihun) used to call it the prayer of pain (the du` a of karb کَرب ). Whenever in intense pain, anxiety or distress, they would recite these words and pray to Allah for relief. (Tafsir Qurtubi)
There is yet another Hadith report carried by Imam Ibn Jarir, Ibn Mundhir and others that the people of Jannah, when they wish to have something, will say سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّـهُمَّ subhanaka ‘l-lahumma. Hearing this, the angels will instantly present what they wished before them – as if, the words: سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّـهُمَّ subhanaka ‘l-lahumma will serve as a password or access code for the people of Jannah through which they will articulate their wish, and the angels, doing their duty, will fulfill it every time. (Ruh al-M for the people of Jannah through which they will articulate their wish, and the angels, doing their duty, will fulfill it every time. (Ruh al-Ma’ani and Qurtubi) From that angle, we can also call the statement: subhana¬ka ‘l-lahumma, a du’a.
Describing the second state of the life of the people of Jannah, it was said: تَحِيَّتُهُمْ فِيهَا سَلَامٌ (and their greeting therein will be “Salam” ). In customary usage, تَحِیَّہ (tahiyyah) is the word used to greet someone com¬ing in or met elsewhere, for example ahlan wa sahlan, as the Arabs say, or good morning, good evening, nice to see you, hello, hi as used in English with varying degrees of formality or informality. This verse tells us that the people of Jannah will be greeted with the word: سلام salam from Allah Ta’ala or from the angels. It would mean, ` good news to you that you now stand protected against everything painful or unpleas¬ant.’ This ‘salam’ greeting could also be from Allah Ta’ala Himself as in Surah Ya Sin: سَلَامٌ قَوْلًا مِّن رَّبٍّ رَّحِيمٍ ﴿٥٨﴾ (“Salam” [ peace ], a word from a merciful Lord – 36:58). And it could also be from the angels as said elsewhere: وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ يَدْخُلُونَ عَلَيْهِم مِّن كُلِّ بَابٍ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُم “and angels will come to them from eve¬ry gate [ saying ] ‘salamun ‘alaikum’ [ may you be in peace and security ] – 13:23, 24.” By the way, there is no contradiction in the two sayings. There could be the time when salam greeting comes directly from Allah Ta’ala and there could be the time when it comes from the angels. Though, the salam greeting is actually a du’a (prayer) in the mortal world but, once in Jannah where one would have everything one needs or wishes to have, therefore, this word will not retain its sense of prayer there, instead, will become a complement of glad tidings. (Ruh al Ma’ ani)
Describing the third state of the life of the people of Jannah, it was said: آخِرُ دَعْوَاهُمْ أَنِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (And the end of their call will be, ‘praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds’ ).
The essential aim of the statement is to indicate that the people of Jannah, once there, will start knowing Allah Ta’ala better. The spiritu¬al master Shahabuddin Suhrawardi, said, ‘after having reached Jan¬nah, the people of Jannah as a whole will be blessed with a station of knowledge and wisdom which is occupied by ‘Ulama in the mortal world. The ‘Ulama would rise to the station the prophets have here. The prophets would rise to the station occupied by Sayyidna Muhammad al-Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) the foremost among them in this world.
And he, blessings and peace on him, will occupy the highest station of nearness to Allah in Jannah. It is possible that this may be the cele¬brated place called ` the praised station’ (al-maqam al-mahmud), a place referred to in the du` a’ to be recited after adhan where Muslims pray that their Prophet may be blessed with ` the praised station,’ a prayer he had himself taught them to make.
In short, the initial du` a of the people of Jannah will be: سُبْحَانَكَ اللَّـهُمَّ (subhanaka ‘l-lahumma: Pure are You, 0 Allah) and the last du` a will be: الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (alhamdu li ‘1-la-hi rabbi ‘l alamin: praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds). Pointed to here are two kinds of attributes of Al¬lah Ta` ala. One: The attributes of being the most exalted which show that He is free from and beyond any shortcoming or evil. Two: The attributes of being the noblest which show honor, greatness, magnanimi¬ty and perfection. In the last verse of Surah ar-Rahman both kinds have been named by saying: تَبَارَكَ اسْمُ رَبِّكَ ذِي الْجَلَالِ وَالْإِكْرَامِ ﴿٧٨﴾ (Blessed is the name of your Lord, the Possessor-par-Excellence of Majesty and Honor – 55:78). If we were to ponder a little, we will see that absolute purity of Allah Ta` ala forms part of His attribute of Majesty. And that He de-serves being praised is one of His attributes of Honor. Since the attrib¬utes of Majesty and Honor follow in that order, therefore, the people of Jannah will first recount His Majesty by saying: subhanaka ` l¬lahumma: Pure are You, 0 Allah. Then, they will mention the words: الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (alhamdu li ‘l-lahi rabbi ‘l ` alamin: Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds) being a tribute to His Honour, something they are engaged in all the time.
And according to the natural order of these three states, when the people of Jannah will say subhanaka ‘l-lahumma, in response to which, they will receive the greeting of salam from Allah Ta` a1a, as a result of which, they will say: الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ‘ (praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds). (Ruh a1-Ma` ani)
Injunctions and Rulings
Al-Qurtubi has said in Ahkam al-Qur’an: According to this conduct of the people of Jannah, Sunnah in eating and drinking, and in everything else we do, is that one starts with Bismillah and ends at Alhamdulillah. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, It is liked by Allah Ta` ala that His servant, when he eats or drinks something, starts with Bismillah (بسم اللہ) and, when he is finished with it, says Al-hamdulillah’ ۔ (الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ )
It is recommended (mustahabb) that a person making du’a also says: وَآخِرُ دَعْوَاهُمْ أَنِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ and our prayer at the end is that praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds) at the end of it. AI-Qurtubi adds to that by saying: Along with it, it is better to also recite the following last verses of Surah As-Saffat:
سُبْحَانَ رَبِّكَ رَبِّ الْعِزَّةِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ ﴿180﴾ وَسَلَامٌ عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ ﴿181﴾ وَالْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿182﴾
Pure is your Lord, Lord of all might, above from what they ascribe to Him. And salam (peace and security) be on the Messengers. And praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds – 37:180-182.
وَلَوْ يُعَجِّلُ اللّٰهُ لِلنَّاسِ الشَّرَّ اسْتِعْجَالَھُمْ بِالْخَيْرِ لَقُضِيَ اِلَيْهِمْ اَجَلُھُمْ
The first of the seven verses cited above relates to people who deny ‘Akhirah (Hereafter, life to come). For this reason, when they are warned against the punishment of ‘Akhirah, they mockingly say, ` if you are telling the truth, bring this punishment now’ or say something like, ` why would this punishment not come soon enough?’ This was like what Nadr ibn Harith had said, ` O Allah, if this thing is true, let stones rain down upon us from the heavens, or send some other severe punishment.’
It has been answered in the same verse by saying that Allah Ta` ala is, after all, powerful over everything. He can send the promised pun¬ishment instantly, right now. But, in His infinite wisdom and mercy, He prefers not to do so. When people like these wish to have evil and hardship sent upon them, they do not realize what they were doing. Had Allah Ta` ala been granting their curses on themselves as soon as they wished – similar to how He would answer their positive prayers fairly often – all of them would have been destroyed to the last man.
From here we learn that it is the customary practice of Allah Ta` ala that He would answer prayers for one’s good fairly often and if, on one or the other occasion, a prayer is not answered due to some wise con¬sideration, it would not be contrary to the general rule. But, the case of a person who, because of his ignorance, or anger, or grief, falls into the error of hurling on himself or his family a curse in the fair name of prayer is different. Similar to this is the unfortunate one who invites Divine punishment, due against those who reject the truth of a Here-after, to fall on him, as if playing a game with God. Allah Ta` ala does not accept these prayers promptly, instead, gives them respite so that the denier gets the time to think and abstain from his denial. Or, if the curse has been invoked because of some sudden grief, anger or desper¬ation, then one gets the lease of time to sort out his conduct, avoid what is bad about it and try to stay away from it thereafter.
Ibn Jarir on the authority of Qatadah and al-Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Mujahid report that, at this place, the invoking of curse refers to what an angry person sometimes does when he breaks into supplicating adversely to the effect that his children, wealth or property be destroyed. Even if the person were to blurt out words of curse on these, it will stand included therein. Allah Ta` ala, in His infi¬nite mercy, does not hasten to answer such prayers. Imam al-Qurtubi, on the authority of a Hadith narrative, reports that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, ` I have prayed to Allah jalla thana’uh imploring Him not to answer the curse invoked by a friend or relative upon another friend or relative.’ Shahr ibn Hawshab says, ` I have read that angels appointed to take care of human needs have been instructed by Allah Ta` ala, in His mercy, that they should not write down what His ser¬vant says in grief or anger.’ (Qurtubi)
Despite what has been said here, there are occasions when comes that moment of Divine approval in which what one is saying on the spot gets to be accepted instantly. Therefore, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, ` never pray that evil may fall on your children or things you own – lest, that time be the time the prayer is to be accepted – and the curse so invoked may stand answered (and activated) all of a sud¬den (causing you remorse afterwards).’ This Hadith on the authority of Sayyidna Jabir (رض) appears in the Sahih of Muslim under the event of the battle of Buwat.
The outcome of all these Hadith reports is as follows. As obvious, the main address in the verse under reference concerns the deniers of ‘Akhirah who demanded an instant punishment. But, in view of its universality, it includes Muslims as well, who may also break into in¬voking a curse on themselves or on their belongings and children un¬der some fit of grief or anger. Such is the customary practice of Allah Ta` ala, because of His grace and compassion, that he deals with both of them in the same manner. He does not allow such invocations for curses to be actualized and implemented instantly so that the erring person gets the opportunity to think it out and rescind.
وَاِذَا مَسَّ الْاِنْسَانَ الضُّرُّ دَعَانَا لِجَنْۢبِهٖٓ
An eloquent approach has been made in the second verse (12) to convince those who denied that Allah was One (Tauhid) and that there was a life to come (‘Akhirah). It was said: When conditions are normal, people would find time to engage in debating the nature and existence of God and the Hereafter. They would feel free to ascribe all sorts of partners and associates to His pristine divinity and look forward to them in the hope that they would respond at their hour of need. But, as soon as some major distress overtakes them, even these very peo¬ple, disappointed by the entire range of their false gods they pinned their hopes on, do nothing but call Allah for help, not simply once but repeatedly, lying, sitting, standing. They have no choice. They must in¬voke Him for help. However, along with this attitude, certainly terri¬ble is their ingratitude. When Allah Ta` ala removes their distress, they forget all about Him becoming so disconnected and indifferent to Him as if they had never called Him and never sought His help in their hour of need. This tells us that those who associate anyone or anything else with Allah Ta` ala in His exclusive domain as the Dispenser of all that is needed by His creation do themselves get to experience the demolition of this belief of theirs. But, because of their hostility and obstinacy, they keep glued to their false notion.
وَلَقَدْ اَهْلَكْنَا الْقُرُوْنَ مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ لَمَّا ظَلَمُوْا
The subject of verse 12 has been emphasized from a different angle in verse 13. It has been said: Let no one miscalculate that punishment cannot come in this world just because Allah Ta` ala gives respite to those who deny and disbelieve. The history of past peoples shows that different kinds of punishments have visited them because of their con¬tumacy and disobedience right here in this world. It is a different matter that Allah Ta` ala has promised that no mass punishment will come upon the Muslim ummah in consideration of the honor of Sayyidna Muhammad al-Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) the foremost among prophets. But, it is in the face of this very merciful indulgence of Almighty Allah that people have become audacious enough to come forward and invite, even demand, Divine punishment. On the contrary, it is necessary to remember that indifference to Divine punishment is not proper under any condition even for them (Muslims). The reason is that the promise of not sending mass punishment upon the Muslim ummah, or the world as a whole, certainly stands there, but the coming of such punishment on particular individuals and nations is possible even now.
وَاِذَا تُتْلٰى عَلَيْهِمْ اٰيَاتُنَا بَيِّنٰتٍ ۙ قَالَ الَّذِيْنَ لَا يَرْجُوْنَ لِقَاۗءَنَا
In the last three verses (15-17), there is the refutation of a false no¬tion entertained by the deniers of Akhirah and also the rejection of an inappropriate request made by them. They were a people who did not know much about God or Revelation or Prophets sent by Him. They took them to be like common human beings having nothing special about them. Think of the Holy Qur’an, which reached the world through the Prophet of Islam. Even this, they thought, was spoken and written by him.
It was under this frame of mind that they told the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ` as for this Qur’an, it is against our beliefs and ideas.’ These idols our forefathers have been worshipping since ever as providers of their needs are, according to the Qur’an, totally false and ineffectual. There are things we have been using and transactions we have been making all along. The Qur’an says that they are all unlawful. And then, the Qur’an tells us that we have to live again after we are dead and that we have to account for everything we have done. All these things make no sense to us. We are not ready to accept them. Therefore, you do one of the two things we are asking you to do. Either you replace this one with another Qur’an which does not have these things, or at the least, amend this very Qur’an and expunge those (undesirable) things from there.’
Rejecting their false notion first, the Qur’an instructs the Holy Prophet a1JI to tell those people that the Qur’an was not his Word, nor could he change it on his own. He only followed what was revealed to him by Allah. If he were to make the least change in it on his own and by his choice, he would be committing a grave sin, and that he feared the punishment that falls upon those who disobey Al¬lah, therefore, he could not do that.
Then he was asked to tell them that he did everything under Divine orders. Had it been the will of Allah Ta` ala that this Word should not be recited to them, neither would he have recited that to them, nor would He have let them know about that. Now that it was the very will of Allah Ta` ala that they should be made to listen to precisely that Word, who can dare make any addition or deletion therein?
قُلْ لَّوْ شَاۗءَ اللّٰهُ مَا تَلَوْتُهٗ عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَآ اَدْرٰىكُمْ بِهٖ ڮ
After that, the fact that the Qur’an was from Allah and that it was His Word was driven home with an open argument by saying: فَقَدْ لَبِثْتُ فِيكُمْ عُمُرًا مِّن قَبْلِهِ (Then I have lived among you for years before it). In effect, he was saying, ` just think for a moment. Is it not that, much before the revelation of the Qur’an, I have spent a long period of forty years of my life among you? During this period, you have never heard me compos¬ing and reciting poetry or writing essays in prose. Had I been profi¬cient in saying something like this Word of Allah, I would have natu¬rally said at least some of it during this period of forty years. In addition to that, you have a direct experience of my character and conduct, particularly of my truth and honesty, during these long forty years of my life among you. You know that I have never lied then. How and why would I start lying now after all those forty years?’ This clear¬ly proves that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is true and trustworthy. Whatever there is in the Qur’an is the Word of Allah Ta` ala and has come from Him.
No doubt, this argument of the Qur’an provides a perfect proof of its veracity as the Word of Allah. But, it has also given us a standing rule of conduct in matters of common interest where we must be able to separate the genuine from the counterfeit and the true from the false. When an office or rank of responsibility has to be given to a per-son, it becomes necessary to assess the qualification and capability of the incumbent. To do that, the best rule is to go through the record of his past life. If the person concerned is found to be true and trustwor¬thy, the same can be expected from him in the future as well. And if, there is no evidence to prove his honesty and truth in that person’s past life, trusting him for the future just because of what he says or claims is not a wise thing to do. In our time, finding the right person for an office of responsibility has become a nightmare. All sorts of er¬rors (of intent, background research and decision making) are being committed and errors are compounded by widespread disorders (in so¬cial and governmental institutions). The real reason why all this is happening is the abandonment of this natural principle in favor of what is customary, formal (or straight dishonest).
وَمَا كَانَ النَّاسُ اِلَّآ اُمَّةً وَّاحِدَةً فَاخْتَلَفُوْا ۭ
Disbelievers and Believers are two separate nationalities: Nationality based on race and country is absurd
The statement: كَانَ النَّاسُ إِلَّا أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً (And people were but one community) in verse 19 means that the progeny of Sayyidna Adam (عليه السلام) was essentially a single community of monotheists in the earlier stages of man’s presence in the world. Shirk and Kufr were unknown as such. Then came up difference in the principle of pure monotheism that divided human beings in different nations and groups of people.
How long this period of a single community of believers last? Original sources of Islamic Tradition tell us that this situation prevailed up to the time of Sayyidna Nuh (عليه السلام) (Noah). It was during his time that Shirk and Kufr showed up and he was the one who had to confront it first. (Tafsir Mazhari)
Then, it is also obvious that there is a long period of time between Sayyidna Adam and Sayyidna Nuh may peace be on them both. Human race had multiplied and population had spread out in the world. The presence of differences in color, ethnicity and social life styles was natural. That people had spread themselves out in different regions would have certainly generated differences on the basis of country and homeland. Then, it is also possible that spoken languages may have become somewhat different. But, the Holy Qur’an did not allow these natural genealogical or tribal differences or those of color and country to become impediments to the grand design of one community. In fact, it did not declare the progeny of Sayyidna Adam (عليه السلام) to be different nations and communities because of these differ¬ences. Instead, it gave them the status of one community.
Of course, when Kufr and Shirk spread out and posed a threat to ‘Iman or true belief, Kafirs and Mushriks were declared to be a separate community of people as indicated in: فَاخْتَلَفُوا (later, they differed). Another verse of the Holy Qur’an: هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ فَمِنكُمْ كَافِرٌ وَمِنكُم مُّؤْمِنٌ is He who created you; yet there is among you a disbeliever and there is among you a believer – At-taghabun, 64:2) makes it more explicit. It tells that the thing that separates the progeny of Sayyidna Adam (عليه السلام) created by Allah into different peoples is the deviation from ‘Iman and Islam. Bonds of lineage or country do not make people separate.
Bracketing human beings into different groups on the basis of lan¬guage, homeland, color or race is ignorance dished out in the garb of enlightenment. It is new. But everything new is not necessarily true and wise. In fact, it might as well be the exact opposite of what is wise. Today, there are many educated people who have also fallen into the trap of this narrow concept of nationalism based on the factors enu¬merated above. Unfortunately, this approach towards ordering the so¬cial life of human beings is fraught with seeds of countless unseen dis¬asters. May Allah keep Muslims safe from its evil effects.
وَاللّٰهُ يَدْعُوْٓا اِلٰى دَارِ السَّلٰمِ ۭ وَيَهْدِيْ مَنْ يَّشَاۗءُ اِلٰى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَــقِيْمٍ
In the previous verse (24), the transitory nature of worldly life was likened to a field. Water came from the heavens and it became verdant with flowers and fruits and crops. Growers were happy to presume that this will take care of everything they needed. But, because of their acts of disobedience, some unforeseen Divine punishment de¬scended during the time of the night or day. Everything stood wiped off – as if nothing had existed there. This was the state of worldly life. After that comes a description of the life-to-come as it would be (25).
It was said: وَاللَّـهُ يَدْعُو إِلَىٰ دَارِ السَّلَامِ (And Allah invites [ people ] to the Abode of Peace). It means a Home where absolute and eternal peace reigns, a Home that has neither pain and sorrow, nor the danger of disease, nor the concern of adverse change or sudden extinction.
` Daru’s-Salam’ means the Jannah or Paradise. One reason why it has been called Daru ‘s-Salam is that everyone will have ideal peace and security there. The second reason appears in some reports from Hadith. They say that Jannah has been given the name of Daru ‘s-Salam also because its dwellers shall always be receiving Salam greet¬ings from Allah Ta` ala, and from the angels as well. In fact, the word سلام :Salam would itself be a sort of technical keyword used by the people of Jannah to express their wishes which the angels would fulfill. For details, please see the commentary on verse 10.
While explaining this verse, Yahya ibn Mu` adh has given some man-to-man advice to whomsoever it may reach:
` O son of Adam! Allah Almighty invited you to the Home of Peace (Daru ‘s-Salam). When and from which country would you take that right step in response to this Divine call? Un¬derstand, and mark it well. If you have started making efforts to say yes to this invitation (from your Lord) while you are still here in this world, you will succeed. You will reach the Home of Peace. And if you wasted the years of your life here, then landed in your grave, and then thought of following this call, you will be stopped. You will not move from there, not even one step – because, the place where you are is no Home of Deeds (Daru ‘l-Amal).’
Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) عنہما said, ` Daru ‘s-Salam is one of the seven names of Jannah.’ (Tafsir al-Qurtubi)
This tells us that it is not proper to name a house in this world as Daru ‘s-Salam. Similarly, it is also not correct to give it names like Jannah or Firdaus (Paradise).
After that, it was said in the cited verse: وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ (and He brings whom He wills to a straight path – 25).
لِلَّذِيْنَ اَحْسَـنُوا الْحُسْنٰى وَزِيَادَةٌ ۭ وَلَا يَرْهَقُ وُجُوْهَھُمْ قَتَرٌ وَّلَا ذِلَّةٌ
The sense is that the invitation to the Abode of Peace (Daru ‘s-Salam) is universal, open to all human beings and, in terms of this sense, guidance too is open to all. But, there is a kind of guidance that is special. Here, a seeker is made to stand on the straight path and given the ability to move ahead on course. This is Taufiq at its best. Only fortunate people are blessed with it.
Compared in the first two verses (24, 25) were the two Abodes of the present world and the world-to-come. Mention was also made of the states in which their dwellers were. The next four verses (26-29) de-scribe the reward and punishment of both. Taken up first were the people of Paradise. About them it was said that those who opted for good, the greatest good was that of ‘Iman (belief and faith) supplement¬ed by staunch adherence to al-‘amalu ‘s-Salih (good deeds). They will have the best of returns for what they do, not simply what is coming to them as due, but much more than it.
The tafsir of this verse was given by the Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم himself. He explained it by saying, ` at this place, اَلحُسنیٰ :al-husna: the best [ of return ] means Jannah (Paradise) and (ziyadah: something more) means the visit to the most exalted Allah with which the people of Jannah shall be honored. (Tafsir al-Qurtubi on the authority of Sayyidna Anas (رض) .
As for the reality of Paradise, this much every Muslim knows that it is a place of bliss beyond human imagination now. And as for the visit to Allah Ta` ala, that is far superior to whatever blessings there are.
According to a narration of Sayyidna Suhayb (رض) appearing in the Sahih of Muslim, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has been reported to have said, ` when the people of Jannah would have entered Jannah, Allah Ta` ala will address them: “Do you need anything? If so, tell Us. We shall fulfill it.” The people of Jannah will submit: “You made our faces radiant with delight. You let us be in Jannah. You delivered us from Jahannam. What else can we ask for?” That will be the time when the hi jab obstructing the view in between will be removed. The people of Jannah, one and all, will be blessed with seeing their true Lord. They will then discover that this was a blessing far more sub-lime than all other blessings of Jannah, something they had not even thought about, something the Lord of all the worlds bestowed upon them without their having to ask for it simply out of His infinite affection and mercy!’
Then, the text describes the state of the same people of Jannah by saying that their faces will remain free of any effects of distaste, pain or sorrow, nor will they have to be worried about any disgrace. These are conditions everyone faces in the mortal world one or the other time – and those who go to Jahannam will face it in the Hereafter.
In contrast, the state of the people of Jahannam has been described by saying that those who came with evil deeds in their record will have an equal return for each evil without any increase in it. They will have disgrace all over them. There will be no one to save them from the punishment of Allah. Dark will be their faces, so dark as if layers upon layers of a night have covered them up.
فَذٰلِكُمُ اللّٰهُ رَبُّكُمُ الْحَقُّ ۚ فَمَاذَا بَعْدَ الْحَقِّ اِلَّا الضَّلٰلُ ښ فَاَنّٰى تُصْرَفُوْنَ
In the concluding verse (32), it was said: فَذَٰلِكُمُ اللَّـهُ رَبُّكُمُ الْحَقُّ ۖ فَمَاذَا بَعْدَ الْحَقِّ إِلَّا الضَّلَالُ (So, that is Allah, your Lord in truth. And what is there, after truth, but error?), that is, ` this is the Sacred Being whose attributes of perfection have just been mentioned. Once you have found the Truth, there remains nothing else to find except error and straying. In other words, once it stands proved that Allah Ta` ala is the only true and rightful object of worship, it is terribly senseless to abandon this truth and allow yourself to be diverted elsewhere.
In relation to issues of religious beliefs embedded in this verse, it must be borne in mind that the statement: مَاذَا بَعْدَ الْحَقِّ إِلَّا الضَّلَالُ (What is there, after truth, but error?) proves that there is no intermediary link between truth and error. What is not the truth will be included in error and straying. There can be no such thing that is neither truth nor error. And it is also not possible that two opposite things could be the truth. This is an established rule in the sight of the majority of scholars in the Muslim Ummah. However, difference exists among ` Ulama’ regarding minor and subsidiary juristic issues. In the view of some of them, both sides would be considered as on truth in Ijtihad-based issues and, according to the majority of them, there is consensus on the view that the taking of contra-position in Ijtihad-based problems cannot be termed as error and straying.
اَثُمَّ اِذَا مَا وَقَعَ اٰمَنْتُمْ بِهٖ ۭ اٰۗلْــٰٔنَ وَقَدْ كُنْتُمْ بِهٖ تَسْتَعْجِلُوْنَ
It was said in verse أَثُمَّ إِذَا مَا وَقَعَ آمَنتُم بِهِ ۚ آلْآنَ. It means: ` Would you believe when Divine punishment actually descends down upon you – whether at the time of death, or even before it? But, at that time, the response to your believing will be: آلْآنَ (‘al’an: now?) meaning: Is it now that you have come to believe while the time of believing has already passed? This is similar to what the Pharaoh said while drowning: آمَنتُ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا الَّذِي آمَنَتْ بِهِ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ وَأَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ ﴿٩٠﴾ (“I believe that there is no god except the One in whom the Children of Isra’il believe – 10:90). In answer, it was said: آلْآنَ (‘al’an: now?) and this believing by him was not accepted. In Hadith, the Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم has said, ` Allah Ta` ala keeps accepting the repentance of His servant until he is seized by the agony of death.’ It means that believing and repenting at the time of the agony of death is not credible in the sight of Allah. Similarly, in the mortal world, Taubah (repentance) could be accepted if done before the actual falling of the Divine punishment. Once the punishment strikes, Taubah is not accepted. The event related to the people of Sayyidna Yunus going to appear towards the end of the Surah in which their Taubah was accepted falls under this very rule. They had seen the punishment coming from a distance. Moved earnestly, weeping and wailing, they made their Taubah in all sincerity. Therefore, the pun¬ishment was withdrawn. Had it struck them, their Taubah would have remained unaccepted.
يٰٓاَيُّھَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاۗءَتْكُمْ مَّوْعِظَةٌ مِّنْ رَّبِّكُمْ وَشِفَاۗءٌ لِّمَا فِي الصُّدُوْرِ
Previous verses described how astray the disbelievers and polythe¬ists had gone and what punishments had become due against them in the Hereafter.
Shown to them in the first two verses was the way out of their liv¬ing in error and also the source through which they would find deliver¬ance from the punishment of the Hereafter. And that source is Qur’an, the Book of Allah, and His Messenger, Muhammad al-Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) .
Both are great blessings for humanity, far superior to the entire blessings of the heavens and the earth. Following the injunctions of the Qur’an and the way of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) go on to make human beings human in the real sense – and when this human person becomes the perfect man in the real sense, the whole world corrects and reorders itself like a paradise on earth.
The first (57) of the five verses cited above mentions four attributes of the Holy Qur’an:
ADVICE as in مَّوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ (an advice from your Lord).
The real meaning of the word: مَّوْعِظَةٌ (maw` izah) and: موعظ ، (wa` z) is to delineate such things as would make one’s heart soft and receptive. As a result, it would incline towards Allah Ta` ala. The barrier of heedless¬ness acquired from excessive indulgence in worldly life will stand removed. Ultimately, this advice would result in the flowering of a per¬sonal concern for what would happen in Akhirah, the life ahead. The Holy Qur’an, from the beginning to the end, is an eloquent preacher of this very good counsel. See anywhere, you will find promise with warning, reward with punishment, and prosperity and success in Dun¬ya and Akhirah with a corresponding fate due to error and straying. Appearing recurrently in varying shades and blending, it generates a powerful appeal which has the ability to make a heart stone-hard turn soft and pliable like water all ready to absorb the message. Of course, on top of everything, there is the miraculous diction of the Holy Qur’an that, by itself, has a class of its own in the matter of reversal of hearts.
The complement of: مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ (from your Lord) with (advice) has elevated the status of Qur’anic advice to a much higher level. It is tell¬ing us that this advice is not coming from a helpless human being that does not hold the keys to anyone’s profit and loss or reward and pun¬ishment, nor has any credibility of his own. Instead, the advice is from the merciful Lord whose Word admits of no error, and whose promise and warning too are free of any apprehension of some weakness or excuse.
- CURE as in:
شِفَاءٌ لِّمَا فِي الصُّدُورِ (a cure for what is in your hearts).
The word: شِفَاءٌ (shifa’ ) means the removal of disease and: صدُورِ (sudur) is the plural form of: صدر (sadr) which means the chest, and it signifies the heart.
The sense is that the Holy Qur’an is a successful remedy of the dis¬eases of the heart. It corrects and cures it as a prescription of legendary elixir would. The famous Hasan al-Basri (رح) said, ` from this attribute of the Qur’an, we learn that it is a cure for the diseases of the heart specifically, and not that of physical diseases. (Ruh al-Ma` ani)
But, other scholars have said that the Holy Qur’an is a cure for every disease, whether spiritual or physical. However, spiritual diseas¬es are far more harmful for men and women than physical diseases. Then, the treatment of such diseases too is not in everyone’s control. Therefore, at this place, only spiritual diseases that relate to the heart have been mentioned. From this it does not necessarily follow that it is not a cure for physical diseases.
Hadith reports and countless experiments of the religious scholars of the Muslim community are witnesses to the fact that the way the Holy Qur’an is a great elixir for diseases of the heart, very similarly, it is the best of treatments for physical diseases also.
As narrated by Sayyidna Abu Said al-Khudri (رض) someone came to Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and complained that he felt he had a chest problem. He said, ` recite the Qur’an, for Allah Ta` ala says: شِفَاءٌ لِّمَا فِي الصُّدُورِ that is, ` the Qur’an is a cure for all such diseases as are found insides chests.’ (Ruh al-Ma` ani from Ibn Marduwayh)
Similarly, according to the narration of Sayyidna Wathilah ibn Asqa’ (رض) someone came to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and said that he had a throat problem. He told him the same thing – ` recite the Qur’an’.
Scholars of the Muslim community have compiled the properties and efficacies of the Qur’anic verses in regular books by extracting these partly from narratives of Hadith and the sayings of the Sahabah, and partly from their own experiments and experience. Imam al-Ghazali’s work on ` Qur’anic Properties’ is well known in this area. Maulana Ashraf ` Ali Thanavi’s (رح) “A’mal-i-Qur’anii, an abridgement of this work, has been popular among readers of Urdu for over fifty years. Then, there are so many observations and experiments in this field which prove that different verses of the Holy Qur’an have been a total cure for physical diseases as well. Denying all of them is not pos¬sible. However, this much can be conceded that the real purpose of the revelation of the Holy Qur’an is to remove the diseases of the heart and soul while, as a corollary, it is also the most effective treatment of even physical diseases.
This also tells us that those who recite the Holy Qur’an only to treat physical diseases or to seek nothing but the fulfillment of worldly needs are low in sense and high in waywardness. Such people never bother to correct spiritual diseases, nor do they pay any heed to the need of doing things in accordance with the instructions given by the Qur’an. For such people, Iqbal said:
ترا حاصل زیٰس اش جزین نیست کہ ازھم خواندنش آسان بمیری
Your gain from Ya Sin is but that:
By reciting it, death becomes easy.
Though, he is suggesting, had you pondered over its meaning and message, realities and insights, you would have gained much more of its benefits and blessings.
Some research-oriented commentators who have gone deeper into the meanings of the Qur’an have said that the first attribute of the Qur’an, that is, مَّوْعِظَةٌ (maw’izah: advice, good counsel) relates to man’s obvious, outward or physically-accomplished deeds known as the Sha¬ri` ah. The Holy Qur’an is the best source of the correction and better¬ment of such deeds. Then, the second attribute: شِفَاءٌ لِّمَا فِي الصُّدُورِ (a cure for what is in your hearts) relates to man’s hidden, inward or heart-oriented deeds known as Tariqah and Tasawwuf.
GUIDANCE as in: وَهُدًى (and guidance).
The word: هُدًى (huda) means guidance or the showing of or leading onto the way. The Holy Qur’an invites human beings to the way of truth and faith. It invites them to ponder over the great signs Allah Ta’ala has placed in the near and far ranges of the world, even inside their own person, [ staggering would certainly be the interior distances of the universe within us ] and recognize the creator and master of everything.
قُلْ بِفَضْلِ اللّٰهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهٖ فَبِذٰلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُوْا ۭ ھُوَ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُوْنَ
MERCY as in وَرَحْمَةٌ (and mercy for the believers).
In the second verse (58), it was said: قُلْ بِفَضْلِ اللَّـهِ وَبِرَحْمَتِهِ فَبِذَٰلِكَ فَلْيَفْرَحُوا هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ ﴿58﴾ (Say, “With the grace of Allah and with His mercy” – in these they should rejoice. It is far better than what they accumulate). The sense of the verse is that people should take only the grace and mercy of Allah Ta` ala as the real thing to be delighted about and be pleased with it. As for the short-lived worldly wealth, possession, comfort and recognition, these are things not worth being happy about in the real sense. Because, to start with, no matter how much one has, it turns out to be not as much as one would have wished. It becomes a cycle that never ends. Then, there is that ever-lurking danger that it may start declining any time. Therefore, at the end of the verse, it was said: هُوَ خَيْرٌ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ (It is far better than what they accumulate). Thus, the core of the meaning is that the grace and mercy of Allah is far better than the layers upon layers of wealth and property and worldly recog¬nition and power one accumulates as the sum-total of one’s entire life.
Two things have been identified as a source of delight in this verse, one being grace, and the other, mercy. What do these two mean here? Regarding this, there is a Hadith from Sayyidna Anas (رض) عنہwhere it has been reported that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, فضل ` the :fadl (grace) of Allah denotes the Qur’an and: رحمہ : rahmah (mercy) means that you were blessed with the taufiq (ability) of reciting the Qur’an and acting in accordance with it.’ (Ruh al-Ma` ani from Ibn Mardu¬wayh)
The same thing has also been reported from Sayyidna Bara’ ibn ` Azib and Sayyidna Abu Said al-Khudri (رض) while there are many commentators who say that fadl (grace) means the Qur’an while rahmah (mercy) signifies Islam. However, the sense remains the same as given in the Hadith appearing earlier, that is, rahmah (mercy) means that Allah Ta` ala taught us the Qur’an, gave us the taufiq to fol¬low it practically, and that is what Islam is in reality.
And Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہما narrates that fdll means the Qur’an, and rahmah refers to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) This interpretation finds support in the verse of the Holy Qur’an where it is said: وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ ﴿١٠٧﴾ (And We have not sent you [ 0 Mu¬hammad ] except as mercy for the worlds – 21:107). However, the outcome of this too is no different from the earlier tafsir – because, acting in accordance with the Qur’an, or Islam ultimately reverts to following the lead given by the Holy Prophet Ili through his word and deed.
In this verse, the word: فَلْيَفْرَحُوا (they should rejoice) has appeared in the third person in accordance with its well-known rendition (qira’ah), although its real addressees were those present there or were living at that time. The exigency of the situation required that the form used should have been that in the second person – as it does actually ap¬pear in some renditions. But, the wisdom behind the use of the third person, as in the well-known rendition, is that the universal mercy of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) or Islam, was not restricted only to those present there, or living at that time. Instead, it included even the generations that will be born right through the last day of Qiyamah. (Ruh al-Ma` ni)
At this point it is worth our attention that there is another verse of the Qur’an which, in terms of its outward literal sense, seems to indi¬cate that this world is just no place for any highly stimulated expres¬sion of joy and merriment. It was said: لَا تَفْرَحْ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَرِحِين (Do not exult. Indeed, Allah does not like the exultant – Al-Qasas 28:76). The word: لَا تَفْرَحْ (la tafrah) translated here as ` do not exult’ means rejoicing in tri¬umph or intoxication. But, in the verse under study (58), the command to rejoice appears in the imperative mood. One answer for this seem¬ingly apparent contradiction is that the place where rejoicing has been prohibited is a place where rejoicing relates to the fleeting enjoyments of the mortal world. And the place where rejoicing is commanded is a place where rejoicing is related to the grace and mercy of Allah Ta` ala. Then, there is yet another difference here. Wherever rejoicing is pro¬hibited, it does not refer to rejoicing in the absolute sense. Instead, it means getting euphoric and intoxicated in exultation and rejoicing. And wherever permitted, it means rejoicing in an absolute sense.
اَلَآ اِنَّ اَوْلِيَاۗءَ اللّٰهِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا ھُمْ يَحْزَنُوْنَ
In the verses cited above, particular merits, definition and identity of the Auliya’ of Allah have been mentioned. Also given there is good news for them in the present world as well as in the Hereafter. The text says that they will have no apprehensions of facing some unpleasant or unforeseen happening, nor will they grieve over the non-fulfillment of some objective. These Auliya’ of Allah (men of Allah) will be people who believed and remained pious, righteous and God fearing. They are most welcome in this world and in the next world both.
We have to consider three things at this point:
- What is the meaning of Auliya’ of Allah having no fear and grief?
- What is the definition of Auliya’ of Allah? How does one identify them?
- What does the good news given to them in Dunya and Akhirah mean?
First of all, the Auliya’ of Allah have no fear or grief. This could possibly mean when they are admitted to their allocated place in Paradise, after having gone through the accounting of deeds in the Hereafter, they will stand delivered from fear and grief forever. They will have no apprehension of any pain or anxiety nor will they have to grieve for having lost something dear to them. Instead, the blessings of Paradise will be everlasting. Given this sense, there is no difficulty in rationalizing the subject of the verse. But, it does, however, raise a question. If this be the case, it registers no peculiarity of the Auliya’ of Allah. In fact, all people of Paradise who stand delivered from Hell will be enjoying that very state of being. Yes, it can, then, be said that those who ultimately reach Paradise will all be known as the Auliya’ of Allah invariably. No matter how different their deeds had been in the mortal world but, once they have entered Paradise, all of them will be counted among the Auliya’ of Allah.
But, many commentators say that freedom from fear and grief with which the Auliya’ of Allah are blessed is common to the present world and the Hereafter both. The thing unique about the Auliya’ of Allah is that they remain protected from fear and grief even in the present world, and that they will have no fear and grief in the Hereafter is something everyone knows. So, included therein are all people of Para-dise.
Apart from that, in terms of relevant prevailing conditions, we have yet another difficulty on our hands. Observations in the world of our experience bear out that – not to mention the Auliya’ of Allah – even the Prophets of Allah, may peace be on them, are not secure from fear and grief in this mortal world. In fact, their fear of and humble¬ness before Allah is far more pronounced as compared to others. It was said in the Qur’an: إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّـهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ (Among Our servants only those who have knowledge (really) fear Allah – 35:28). At another place, the emotional state of the righteous and the men of Allah has been de-scribed in the following words: وَالَّذِينَ هُم مِّنْ عَذَابِ رَبِّهِم مُّشْفِقُونَ ﴿٢٧﴾ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّهِمْ غَيْرُ مَأْمُونٍ ﴿٢٨﴾ (And those who are fearful of the punishment of their Lord – indeed, the punishment of their Lord is not to be un-fearful of – 70:27) that is, no one can sit home comfortably in the knowledge that it is due to come.
This is borne by facts as well as it appears in a Hadith of Shama’il al-Tirmidhi: ` The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) would more than often look concerned and pensive’. And he himself said, ` I fear Allah more than all of you.’
There are countless events relating to Sayyidna Abu Bakr, Sayyid¬na ` Umar and the rest of the Sahabah (رض) ، the Tabi` in and the wide spectrum of the men of Allah which tell us how intensely they grieved and how genuinely they feared what would happen to them in the Hereafter.
Therefore, ` Allamah ‘Alusi has said in Ruh al-Ma’ani: That the Au¬liya’ Allah are protected against fear and grief in the mortal world has to be seen in terms of what usually happens here. There are things worldly people generally fear or grieve about most of the time. They are chronically addicted to their mundane agenda of life. They have to have convenience, comfort, wealth and recognition. The slightest shortfall in any of these makes them nervous as if they were going to die without that. The fear of a minor discomfort or anxiety drives them crazy and they will go about finding ways and means to get rid of such irritants. The station of the Auliya’, friends or men of Allah is way higher. In their sight, convenience, comfort, wealth and recognition one surrounds himself with in this transitory world are not worth their while that they go about acquiring these. Nor do they care much about the anxieties of the mundane and see no need to beef up their defenses against these. Their life style admits of nothing but the recog¬nition of His greatness and love for Him. So overshadowed they are with the fear of Allah and their humbleness before Him that they just have no use for worldly sorrow and comfort or profit and loss.
Now we can go to the matter of the definition of Auliya’ Allah and the marks of their identification. The word: اولیاء (Auliya’ ) is the plural form of: ولی (waliyy, commonly rendered as the simpler: wall, which bypasses the need to render the doubling of the y ā sound at the end shown by the addition of a or two, as purists would prefer to do). The word: ولی (waliyy) is used in the Arabic language in the dual sense of ` near’ as well as ` friend’ or someone held ` dear.’ The common degree of nearness and love as related to Allah Ta` ala is such as would not leave any living entity, human or non-human, exempt from it. If this element of nearness were not there, nothing would have come into be¬ing in this universe.
The real justification for the existence of this entire universe is that particular interrelationship which it has been al-lowed to have by Allah in His absolute majesty. Though, no one has understood the reality of this interrelationship, nor is it possible to do so, but that a non-definable interrelationship does exist is certain. However, this degree is not what is actually meant in the term: Auliya’ Allah. In fact, there is yet another degree of friendship, love and near¬ness that is specific to particular servants of Allah Ta` ala. This is known as nearness in love. Those who are blessed with this nearness are called the Auliya’ Allah. This has been succinctly articulated in a Qudsi Hadith where Allah Ta` ala says, ` My servant keeps earning My nearness through voluntary acts of worship (nafl ` ibadat) until I too turn to him in love and when I love him, I become his ear – whatever he hears, he hears through Me. I become his eye – whatever he sees, he sees through Me. I become his hands and feet – whatever he does, he does through Me.’ In short, it means that virtually nothing issues forth from such a person against the pleasure of his Lord.
The degrees of this unique Wilayah (station of nearness or friend-ship) are endless. Its highest degree is for the blessed prophets be-cause every prophet has to be, of necessity, a Waliyy of Allah. In this degree, the highest station belongs to the foremost among prophets, Sayyidna Muhammad al-Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . Then, the lowest degree of this Wilayah, in the terminology of the noble Sufis, is known as the degree of Fan-a’ (self-elimination: I am nothing – He is everything). It makes the heart of man become so engrossed in the thought of Allah Ta` ala that it would not allow any love rooted in this world to overcome it. When such a person loves, he loves for the sake of Allah. When he hates, he hates for the sake of Allah. His own person plays no part in this love and hate cycle, the inevitable outcome of which is that he keeps busy in his quest for the pleasure of Allah Ta` ala both outwardly and inwardly. This style of living makes him avoid everything which is not liked in the sight of Allah Ta` ala. The sign of this state of existence is abundance of Dhikr and constancy in obedience – in other words, to remember Allah Ta` ala abundantly and profusely, and to obey His in-junctions always, and under all conditions and circumstances. When these two attributes are present in a person, he is called a Waliyy of Allah. Whoever does not have any one of the two is not included in that category. Then, whoever has both, there is no limit to his ranks, lower and higher. It is in terms of these degrees that the ranks of Au¬liya’ Allah precede or succeed each other.
On the authority of a narration from Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض) ، it has been reported in a IIadith that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was asked as to who were the people meant by Auliya’ Allah’ in this verse? He said, ` those who love each other only for Allah – without having any worldly interest in between.’ (Mazhari, quoted from Ibn Mardu¬wayh). It is obvious that this condition can apply only to those who have been mentioned above.
At this stage, we have another question before us: What is the method of acquiring this degree of Wilayah (nearness to Allah)?
Respected commentator, Qadi Thana’ullah Panipati has said in Tafsir Mazhari: Individuals from the Muslim Ummah could acquire this degree of Wilayah only through the company of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . It is from here that the profound relationship with Allah, which was part of the blessed persona of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is partly passed on to the Auliya’ of the Ummah, of course, depend¬ing on their ambition and capacity for whatever portion from it falls to their lot. Then, we know that this benefit of companionship was available to the Sahabah without anyone being in between. Therefore, the degree of their Wilayah was higher than that of all Auliya’ and aqtab (plural of qutb, literally axis, meaning a man of Allah who stays at one place, as in Sufi orders).
Later people derive this benefit through one or more intermediaries. The more the intermediaries, the more pro-nounced becomes the difference. Only those who are colored with the color of the word, deed and message of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and follow his Sunnah, in all love and obedience, can become such an intermediary. Going to them, frequenting their company with the add¬ed practice of listening to their good counsel, remaining obedient and remembering Allah abundantly – this is the blueprint of attaining the degree of Wilayah. It is made of three parts. One: Being in the compa¬ny of a Waliyy of Allah. Two: Remaining obedient to his good counsel.
Three: Remembering Allah abundantly (Dhikrullah) – with the condi¬tion that this abundance (and nature) of Dhikr must be in accordance with the masnun method. The reason is that Dhikr, when frequent and sincere, adds to the luster of the mirror of the heart and it becomes worthy of receiving reflections from the light of Wilayah. It appears in Hadith that everything has a method of furbishing it. Dhikrullah fur¬bishes the heart. The same thing has been reported by al-Baihagi as based on a narration from Sayyidna Ibn ` Umar (رض) . (Mazhari)
Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn Masud (رض) عنہما said that a person asked the Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم ` what would you say about a person who loves someone spiritually noble but is unable to reach up to his level in terms of his own deeds?’ He said: اَلمَرَء مَعَ مَن اَحَبَّ that is, ` everyone shall be with one he loves’. This tells us that the love and company of the Auliya’ Allah is a source of acquiring Wilayah (nearness to Allah). Al-Baihaqi (in Shu’ab al-‘Iman) has reported that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said to Sayyidna Razin (رض) tell you about a principle of Faith. With it you can attain success in Dunya. and Akhirah: Take to the company of ahl adh-Dhikr (people who remember Allah) as indis¬pensable, and When you are alone, move your tongue with the Dhikr of Allah, as much as you can. Whoever you love, do it for Allah. Whoever you hate, do it for Allah. (Mazhari)
But, in order to be beneficial, this ` company’ has to be of those who are, in themselves, the Waliyy of Allah and staunch followers of Sunnah. Those who do not observe and follow the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) (and do not demonstrate by their word and deed that they are operating under it) are themselves deprived of the essen¬tial degree of Wilayah. It does not matter if many a contrahabitual wonders (kashf and karamat) issue forth from them. They will still be considered deprived. However, if someone is a Waliyy in terms of the stated attributes – even though, nothing of the sort has ever issued forth from him – he is a Waliyy of Allah. (Mazhari)
Now we come to the last point. What are the signs of the Auliya’ Allah? How can they be identified? A Qudsi Hadith referred to in Tafsir Mazhari points out in this direction. Allah Ta` ala said: ` From among My servants, My Auliya’ are those who are remembered when I am remembered and when they are remembered I am remembered.’ According to a narration from Sayyidah Asma’ bint Yazid reported in Ibn Majah, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) gave the identity of Auliya’ Allah by saying: الذین اذا رُؤُا ذُکِرَ اللہُ (those who, when one sees them, remind of Allah).
In short, there is someone by sitting in whose company one gets the taufiq of remembering Allah (Dhikr), and relief from worldly con¬cerns, then, this is a sign of his being a Waliyy of Allah.
It has been said in Tafsir Mazhari: There is a prevailing assumption among masses that things like getting to know what is hidden (kashf), doing some extraordinary things (karamah) or claiming to be aware of what is al-Ghayb (Unseen) are signs of someone being among the Auliya’ of Allah. This is nothing but error and self-deception. There are thousands of Auliya’ who are not credited with anything like this, that could be termed as authentically proved while, in sharp contrast, reports of things otherwise hidden and unseen are accredited to those whose very basic ‘Iman (belief) is not correct!
لَھُمُ الْبُشْرٰي فِي الْحَيٰوةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الْاٰخِرَةِ ۭ لَا تَبْدِيْلَ لِكَلِمٰتِ اللّٰهِ
It was said in the last verse (64) that, for the friends of Allah, there is the good news in the worldly life and in the Hereafter. As for the good news of the Hereafter, it will come at the time of death when the spirit of the deceased will be taken to Allah. At that time, he will hear the good news of Paradise being for him. Then, on the day of Qiyamah, when he rises from his grave, he will receive the good news of being welcome to Paradise. This is similar to what al-Tabarani has reported from Sayyidna Ibn ` Umar (رض) narrates that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: ` People who recite: لا إلہ إلا اللہ (la ilaha illallah: There is no god but Allah) will not experience any fright at the time of death, nor inside the grave, nor at the time they rise from it. This is as if my eyes are seeing the scenario of that time when these people will, shak¬ing the dust off, rise from their graves, saying: الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ (Praised is Allah who has removed from us [ all ] grief – 35:34) ‘
As for the good news in this world, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, `(they are) the true dreams one sees himself or are seen by someone else with him in it and, in which, there is good news for them. (Reported by al-Bukhri from Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض) .
Another basharah (good news) of this world unfolds in the form that Muslims at large love someone and take him to be good without any personal motive or interest. About it, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said: تِلکَ عَاجِلُ بشرَی المؤمِن that is, ` being taken as good and praiseworthy is, for a true Muslim, good news in ready cash.’ (Muslim and al-Baghawi)
وَاَوْحَيْنَآ اِلٰى مُوْسٰى وَاَخِيْهِ اَنْ تَبَوَّاٰ لِقَوْمِكُمَا بِمِصْرَ بُيُوْتًا
Mentioned in the verses appearing immediately above, there are some circumstantial details along with their corresponding injunctions as they relate to Sayyidna Musa and Sayyidna Harun (علیہما السلام) and the children of Isra’il and the people of the Pharaoh. The first verse (87) carries an injunction pertaining to a particular event. Banu Isra’il (the children of Isra’il) who observed the religious law of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) used to perform their prayers only in their synagogues as customary. Then, the past communities were also bound by this injunction. Their prayers were not valid if performed in their homes.
The Muslim Um¬mah was the special recipient of the convenience that they could, if needed, perform their prayers everywhere as they wished. In a Hadith of Sahih Muslim, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has, out of his six sin¬gularities, given one as, ` the whole earth has been made a masjid for me.’ It means that Salah performed anywhere remains valid. However, it is something else that the performing of obligatory prayers in con¬gregation only in masjids has been declared as an emphasized Sun¬nah.
Then, saying nafl prayers inside homes is better. This was the usual practice of the Holy Prophet i He would say only the Fard Salah in the Masjid then go home and say his sunnahs and nafls there. As for the Banu Isra’il, they were bound to offer their prayers only in their synagogues in obedience to their religious laws. Realizing this, the Pharaoh who used to oppress them in all sorts of ways had all synagogues demolished so that they could be deprived of offering their prayers in accordance with their religious laws. Thereupon, Allah Ta` ala sent to the two prophets of Banu Isra’il, Sayyidna Musa and Harun, may peace be on them both, the injunction mentioned in verse 87. It was said there that new houses should be built in Egypt for Bani Isra’il and that their orientation should be towards the Qiblah so that prayers could be offered in those very residential houses.
This tells us that the religious law of past communities demanded that prayers should be offered in houses of worship specifically built for this purpose. But it was because of a particular incident that the Bani Isra’il were temporarily allowed to offer their prayers at home and, for this purpose, they were to have houses oriented towards the Qiblah. And it can also be said that even at this time of emergency they were allowed to offer their prayers in particular houses that were oriented towards the Qiblah. Praying in common homes and public places was still not permitted even at that time. It was unlike the Muslim community that has the convenience of offering their prayers anywhere, be it a city or wilderness. (Ruh al-Ma’ani)
It will be good to answer another question at this point. In this verse, the Bani Isra’il have been commanded to orient themselves towards the Qiblah. Which Qiblah is this? The Ka’bah or the Baytu ‘l-Maqdis? Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) says, It means the Ka’bah and the Ka’bah alone was the Qiblah of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) and his people.’ (al-Qurtubi and Ruh al-Ma` ani)
In fact, some religious schol¬ars say that the real Qiblah of all past prophets was no other but the Ka’bah.
As for the Hadith where it is said that the Jews turn their faces towards the Sakhrah (the Rock) of Baytu ‘l-Maqdis during their prayers, it will be applied to the time when Sayyidna Musa left Egypt and headed towards Baytu ‘l-Maqdis. This is not contrary to his Qi¬blah being the Baytullah during the period of his stay in Egypt.
It is also proved from this verse that the condition of facing to-wards the Qiblah was operative also during the period of past proph¬ets. Similarly, it also stands proved from authentic reports that purity (taharah) and body cover (satr al-‘aurah) were conditions of Salah even in the religious laws of all past prophets.
Since the very purpose of making houses Qiblah oriented was to pray in there, therefore, by giving the command: ` Establish Salah’ (اَقِیمُوا الصَّلٰوۃَ ) after that, the instruction given was: If the Pharaoh stops you from making prayers in places reserved for worship, prayers do not stand dropped. Make these in your homes.
At the end of the verse, Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) has been asked to convey the good news to believers that their mission will be successful. They will overpower the enemy and they will go to Paradise in the Hereafter. (Ruh al-Ma` ani)
It will be noted that, at the beginning of the verse, Sayyidna Musa and Harun (علیہما السلام) may peace be upon them both, were addressed in the dual form because they both were charged with the responsibility of having houses made Qiblah oriented and allowing occupants to pray in there. After that, by using the plural form which included all Bani Isra’il, command was given to establish Salah – because, this law in¬cluded all, the prophet and his community. At the end, the command to convey the good news was given particularly to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) – because, it was he, as the law-giving prophet, who had the right to give out the good news of Paradise.
وَقَالَ مُوْسٰى رَبَّنَآ اِنَّكَ اٰتَيْتَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَاَهٗ زِينَةً
Mentioned in the second verse (88), there is a curse which Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) invoked after having lost all hopes of reforming the peo¬ple of the Pharaoh. At its beginning, he submitted before his Lord that He had given the Pharaoh and his group glamour and riches in their worldly life (mines of gold, silver and precious stones in Egypt and Ethiopia – al-Qurtubi). As a result, they misled people from His way. Because, common-people, when they looked at their bulging affluence, they started doubting – had they been in error, why would they have been so blessed? Again, because common-people were unable to see through the reality that material affluence without good deeds cannot be the sign of a person being right and true. It was only after having been disappointed with his efforts to correct the people of the Pharaoh, and having realized the danger it posed for other people who were be¬ing misled by the glamour and wealth of the Pharaoh’s group that he invoked the curse: رَبَّنَا اطْمِسْ عَلَىٰ أَمْوَالِهِمْ (Our Lord, obliterate their riches).
According to the statement of Sayyidna Qatadah (رض) ، such was the effect of this invocation that all gold, precious coins, stones, land produce belonging to Pharaoh’s people were transformed into bland rocks. In a bag found during the period of the pious Khalifah Sayyidna ` Umar ibn ` Abd al-` Aziz (رح) ، there were things dating back to the time of the Pharaoh. Seen in it, there were eggs and almonds of solid rock. Leading commentators say that Allah Ta` ala had turned all fruits, vegetables and grains they had into rocks. This is among the nine ayat (signs or miracles) mentioned in the Qur’an as in: وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ تِسْعَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ رَبَّنَا اطْمِسْ عَلَىٰ أَمْوَالِهِمْ (and We gave Musa [ Moses ] nine clear signs – 17:101).
The second curse invoked by Sayyidna Musa عليه السلام for them appears in the words: وَاشْدُدْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُوا حَتَّىٰ يَرَوُا الْعَذَابَ الْأَلِيمَ (and harden their hearts, so that [ they are deprived of the very ability to receive any good and ] they may not come to believe until they witness the painful punishment – 88).
The invocation of this curse obviously appears to be something far out as coming through the speech of an apostle or prophet, because the sole mission of a prophet’s life is nothing but to invite people to believe and act right and make efforts towards that end.
But, in terms of the hard facts of the situation here, Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) has already made whatever efforts he could. He was to-tally disappointed. Now he wanted that they better learn through the punishment for their deeds. In doing so, it was probable that these people, once they see the punishment coming, may make a confession and declare that they now believed, whereby the punishment could stand warded off. Therefore, what became the cause of this invocation from him was his hatred for kufr (disbelief, infidelity). This is similar to what happened to the Pharaoh. When he started to announce his belief at the time he was drowning, the angel, Jibra’il shut his mouth lest Divine mercy turns to him and he stands delivered from the pun¬ishment.
اٰۗلْئٰنَ وَقَدْ عَصَيْتَ قَبْلُ وَكُنْتَ مِنَ الْمُفْسِدِيْنَ
The answer to this appearing in the fifth verse (91) came from Allah Almighty Himself. It says:
آلْآنَ وَقَدْ عَصَيْتَ قَبْلُ وَكُنتَ مِنَ الْمُفْسِدِينَ ﴿91﴾
Is it now [ that you come to believe ] while you were rebellious before and you were among the mischief-makers?
This proves that the profession of faith exactly at the time of death is not legally trustworthy. It is further clarified by the Hadith in which the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said, ‘Allah Ta’ala keeps accepting the Taubah (repentance) of a servant until comes the time of the ghargha¬rah of death. (Tirmidhi)
The ghargharah of death means the time the soul or spirit is drawn out or extracted from the body and it is a time when angels appear face to face. At that time, life in this world, the home of deeds, is all over and the laws of the Hereafter come into force. Therefore, nothing done at that time is acceptable, neither belief, nor disbelief. Whoever believes at such a time will not be called a believer. He will not be treated as a believer while shrouding and burying him. This stands proved from the fate of Pharaoh. There is a consensus that he died a disbeliever. This is also what the text of the Qur’an says. In case, someone is reported to have called the belief of the Pharaoh as valid, it will either be suitably interpreted, otherwise the statement would be considered false. (Ruh al-Ma` ani)
Similarly, if someone were to utter (God forbid) a word of disbelief (kufr) in a state when the soul is being drawn out of the body, he will not be called a kafir (disbeliever). Instead, a Salah of Janazah (Muslim funeral prayers) will be offered for him and he would be buried like Muslims, and the word of disbelief uttered by him would be interpret¬ed (in his favor). This finds confirmation in what happened in the case of some Auliya’ of Allah, specially when that which they uttered both¬ered people as if what they were uttering was nothing short of kufr (disbelief). However, when they became conscious and explained, it gave relief to everyone and they realized that it was nothing but a dec¬laration of true belief.
In short, when the soul is being drawn out and the certain knock of death is on, that time is not counted in the life one lives in this world. Nothing done at that time is valid in terms of the Shari’ah. However, everything is, if done before that. But, those who see this transition from one world to the other have to be very cautious. It is possible to make a mistake in determining the correct situation. Is this the time of the drawing of the soul from the body (naz’atu’r-ruh)? Or, is it the last rattle of death (ghargharatu ‘l-maut)? Or, is it that which prevails earlier (usually referred to in English as being in the throes of death or the agony of death or, uncharitably enough, giving up the ghost)?
فَالْيَوْمَ نُنَجِّيْكَ بِبَدَنِكَ لِتَكُوْنَ لِمَنْ خَلْفَكَ اٰيَةً ۭ
Addressing Pharaoh in the first verse (92), it was said that Allah will take his body out of the waters after he is drowned so that his body becomes a sign of Divine power, and a lesson for people after him.
It happened when, after having crossed the sea, Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) told Bani Isra’il about the drowning of the Pharaoh, they were so overawed and subdued by him that they refused to believe the news and said that the Pharaoh was not drowned. To guide them right and to teach others a lesson, Allah Ta’ala had the dead body of Pharaoh thrown ashore by a wave of the sea. Everyone saw it and believed that he had died and then, this corpse became a sort of moral deterrent for everyone. After that, it is not known as to what happened to this corpse ultimately. The place where the dead body of the Pharaoh was found is still known as the mount of Pharaoh.
Some time back, newspaper reports indicated that the dead body of Pharaoh was found intact and was seen by the public at large and that it was deposited safely in the Cairo Museum. But, it cannot be said with certainty that this is the same Pharaoh who confronted Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) or is some other Pharaoh because names of Pharaohs differ. Every ruler of Egypt in that period of history had the title of Pharaoh.
But, no wonder, the Divine power had thrown a drowned dead body ashore. Very similarly, it may have kept it even preserved against spoilage so that it could become a lesson for future genera¬tions. And it may still be there! (However it remains essential to learn a lesson from it as compared to becoming excited about its discovery as an archeological triumph).
At the end of the verse, it was said that many people pay no heed to the verses and signs of Allah. They do not ponder over them and fail to learn their essential lesson in living a better life. Otherwise, signs abound. They are everywhere, in every particle of this universe. A look at them would help one recognize Allah and His perfect power.
وَلَقَدْ بَوَّاْنَا بَنِيْٓ اِسْرَاۗءِيْلَ مُبَوَّاَ صِدْقٍ وَّرَزَقْنٰھُمْ مِّنَ الطَّيِّبٰتِ
The second verse (93) brings the future of a people bulldozed in disgrace by the Pharaoh into sharp focus making it stand out against the evil end of the tyrant. It was said that Allah gave the Bani Isra’il a good place to live. They had the whole country of Egypt for themselves.
Then, they were given the holy lands of Jordan and Palestine which Allah Ta’ ala had assigned to Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) and his proge¬ny as their inheritance. A good place to live has been termed as: مُبَوَّأَ صِدْقٍ (translated as: ` a proper place to live’ ) in the Qur’an. The word: صِدْقٍ (sidq) at this place means good and proper. The sense is that they were given a place to live that was suitable and proper for them in every way. Then it was said that Allah gave them their sustenance in the form of Halal and pure things so much so that they had the best of everything.
Towards the end of the verse, once again, their penchant for crook¬edness and evil doing has been mentioned. Among them too, there were many who, soon after having power, failed to appreciate the blessings of Allah and went about disobeying Him. They recited the Torah and they knew the signs and marks of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) mentioned there. This awareness demanded that they should have been the first to believe in him as soon as he came. But, how strange that these very people believed in the coming of the last prophet, Sayyidna Muhammad al-Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) before he actu¬ally came. They would tell people about the signs he would have and the time he would come. They would even use the wasilah (medium) of the last prophet in their prayers. But, when the last prophet came with a whole array of evidences of his veracity, and the signs identified in the Torah, these people started disputing among themselves. Some of them believed while the rest refused to do so. In this verse, the com¬ing of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) to has been expressed by saying: جَاءَهُمُ الْعِلْمُ (knowledge came to them). Here, علم (` ilm) could also denote certi¬tude. In that case, it would mean that once the causes of observation and certitude converged together, these people started disputing.
Some commentators have said that عِلم (ilm: knowledge) at this place denotes مَعلُوم (ma` lum: known), that is, when the blessed person who was already known through the prophesies of the Torah came before them face to face, they started disputing the truth.
At the end of the verse, it was said that Allah Ta’ala will give His verdict about what they used to dispute, on the day of Qiyamah. Truth will then become distinct from falsehood and the upholders of truth will be sent to Paradise while the practitioners of falsehood, to Hell.
فَلَوْلَا كَانَتْ قَرْيَةٌ اٰمَنَتْ فَنَفَعَهَآ اِيْمَانُهَآ اِلَّا قَوْمَ يُوْنُسَ
In the seventh verse (98), the heedless deniers of truth have been admonished for their failure to make the optimum use of the time of life allowed to them. There was still time for them to leave denial and contumacy. Otherwise, an ominous time was due to come when they will make Taubah but their Taubah will not be accepted. They will say that they believed but their belief will not be welcome. And that time will be the time when the punishment of the Hereafter will appear right before their eyes at the time of death. It was in this connection that an event relating to Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) and his people was mentioned – that has good counsels and great lessons in it.
It has been asked in this verse that the people who denied truth could have believed at a time when their believing would have been of benefit to them. It means that there was no use for it at the hour of death, or the punishment, or after being neck deep in it, or at the time Doomsday sets in for the doors of repentance will then be closed and no repentance or belief from anyone will be acceptable. Now that they still had the time, they could put their contumacy aside and become believers very much like the people of Prophet Yunus (عليه السلام) did. When they, much before the worse happened, saw the Divine punish¬ment coming, they lost no time, repented and believed. For this rea¬son, Allah Ta` ala removed the painful punishment from them.
The gist of the tafsir given above is that the door of Taubah does not close even when the worldly punishment comes face to face. However, Taubah is not accepted at the time the punishment of the Hereafter comes face to face. As for the coming of the punishment of the Hereafter face to face, it would either be on the day of Qiyamah or at the time of death, whether it is natural death or death as a victim of some worldly punishment as was the case with the Pharaoh.
Therefore, the acceptance of the Taubah of the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) is not contrary to the Divine law. In fact, it falls under it because they, no doubt, made their Taubah when they saw the punish¬ment coming, but they certainly did so before the punishment overtook them, and did it before death too. This is contrary to what the Pharaoh and others did. They did their Taubah only after the punishment had overtaken them, and did that at the time of the last rattle of death, saying that they believed. Therefore, their believing was not valid and trustworthy and the Taubah they made was not accepted.
A precedent of the event relating to the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) is the event relating to Bani Isra’il which finds mention in the Holy Qur’an itself. In this event, the mount of Tur was left dangling over their heads so that they were scared enough to repent. They re¬pented and their Taubah was accepted. This appears in Surah al-Baqarah where it was said:
رَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُوا مَا آتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ
And raised high above you the (Mount on Tur: “Hold fast to what We have given to you” – 2:63
- The reason was that they had, much before the punishment materialized and death overtook them, repented simply by noticing the im¬minent danger of punishment. Similarly, when the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) saw the punishment coming, they sincerely wept and wailed and repented details of which will appear a little later. So, the acceptance of this Taubah is not counter to the Divine law stated above. (Qurtubi)
- At this stage, some contemporaries have made a grave error. They attribute shortcomings to Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) in the discharge of his duties as a prophet. They declare that the cause of the removal of punishment from the people was the failing of the prophet and that this very failing was the cause of Divine displeasure which is men¬tioned in Surah al-Anbiya’ and Surah As-Saffat. Their words are as giv¬en below:
قرآن کے اشارات اور صحیفہ یونس کی تفصیلات پر غور کرنے سے اتنی بات صاف معلوم ہو جاتی ہے کہ حضرت یونس (عليه السلام) سے فریضہ رسالت ادا کرنے میں کچھ کو تاھیاں ہوگئی تھیں اور غالباً انہوں نے بےصبر ہو کر قبل از وقت اپنا مستقر چھوڑ دیا تھا، اس لٔے جب آثار عذاب دیکھ کر آشوریوں نے توبہ و استغفار کی تو اللہ تعالیٰ نے انہیں معاف کردیا، قرآن میں خدأی دستور کے جو اصول و کلیات بیان کیے گئے ہیں ان میں ایک مستقل دفعہ یہ بھی ہے کہ اللہ تعالیٰ کسی قوم کو اسوقت تک عذاب نہیں دیتا جن تک اس پر اپنی حجت پوری نہیں کردیتا، پس جب نبی ادأے رسالت میں کوتاہی کر گیا اور اللہ کے مقرر کردہ وقت سے پہلے قوم کو عذاب دینا گوارا نہ کیا۔ (تفہیم القرآن مولانا مودودی، ص ٣٢١، ج ٢، طبع 1964)
` By considering the hints of the Qur’an and the details of the book of Jonah, at least this much becomes clear that some shortcomings had issued forth from Hadrat Yunus peace be on him, in the performance of his duty as a prophet. And, most probably, becoming impatient, he had abandoned his permanent station before time. Therefore, having seen the signs of punishment, the Assyrians repented and sought for¬giveness, then Allah Ta` ala forgave them. Out of the principles and universals of Divine Law described in the Qur’an, there is this standing article as well – that Allah Ta` ala does not punish a people until He establishes His argument against them conclusively. So, when the prophet went about falling short in doing his duty as a prophet and, on his own, vacated his sta¬tion (of duty) before the time determined by Allah, then, the justice of Allah Ta` ala did not bear by punishing those people.” (Tafhimul-Qur’anl by Maulana Mawdudi, p. 321, volume 2, published 1964)2
- Ordinary changes have been made, without any prior public announcement of with¬drawal from these remarks, in the later editions of Tafhimul-Qur’an, that is, the words: فریضہ رسالت کی ادایٔگی میں کو تاھی : ` shortcomings in the performance of duty as a prophet,’ are not there in the new text. But, the following observations are still there: جب نبی نے۔۔۔۔ پوری نہیں ہوتی تھیں : When the prophet did not continue the mission of giving good counsel to those people up to the last moment of the respite given to them and, before the time determined by Allah, he himself, in a self-serving way, migrated out and away, then, the justice of Allah Ta` ala did not bear by punishing his people, because the legal conditions of a conclusive argument against them had yet to be fulfilled.” Thus, despite the change in the text of the Tafhimul-Qur’an, the comment of Ma’ariful-Qur’an stands as is. – Idaratul-Ma` arif, publishers, October/ 1991.
- Apart from the religious aspects of the observations quoted above which have been dealt with in the Commentary of this Tafsir, the language used to convey these has contributed significantly in making the observations acidly vulnerable. For example, the use of verbs towards the end: کر گیا (kar gaya), ھٹ گیا (hat gaya) and گوارا نہ کیا (gawara na kiya) are hot action words in the present context. When used for a prophet, they are terrible. When attributed to God, like the last one, they are presumptuous. The liberty taken through language is difficult to transplant in translation. By ignoring it, the translator turns traitor. So, the translator has made the extra effort to stay within functional limits and render the text as it is. Since, the Urdu original has been reproduced here, discerning readers who read it should have no problem in making their independent judgment about the rendering – Tr.
The first thing to look at here is that the prophets, peace be upon them all, are protected from sins (ma` sum). This is an uncontested belief on which there is a consensus of the Muslim Ummah. In its details, some partial differences do exist, for instance, is this protection (` ismah) from all kinds of minor sins (saghirah), or from the major ones (kabirah) only, and whether or not this protection (` ismah) includes the period of time before being inducted as a prophet? But, no difference exists among any individuals or groups in the belief that the blessed prophets, all of them, can never fall short in carrying out their duty as prophets. The reason is that there could be no greater sin for prophets than that they themselves fall short in taking care of the mission for which Allah Ta` ala had chosen them. This is an open breach of trust in assigned duty, something beyond even ordinary nice people anywhere. If a prophet does not stand protected (ma` sum) even from this short-coming, then, there is no use for protection from other sins.
If there were something somewhere even in the Qur’an, and Hadith, seemingly contrary to the established principles of Qur’an, and Sunnah, and the collective Muslim belief in prophets being protected from sins, it would have been necessary to interpret it in a way that would not have left it discordant and different from the absolutely proven principles of Qur’an, and Hadith.
But, things are strange here. What the learned author has present¬ed with reference to ` Qur’anic hints and details of the book of Jonah’ may possibly be in the book of Jonah, and so be it, being something having no validity in the sight of the people of Islam. As for a ` Qur’anic hint, there is none, not just one. In fact, what has happened here is that this presumption has been forced out of a patched pattern of sev¬eral premises. First of all, it was presumed that the removal of the punishment from the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) took place con¬trary to Divine law – which is totally contrary to the context of this very verse, and equally contrary to the explications of recognized au¬thorities in the field of Tafsir. Along with it, it was also assumed that Divine law was broken on this occasion because the prophet himself had failed to fulfill his duty as a prophet. Again, along with that, it was also assumed that some particular time had been fixed by Allah Ta` ala when he was supposed to leave the place – and he, much before this supposedly fixed time, abandoned his duty of calling people to truth and ran for life!
If seen with the least deliberation and fairness, it will stand proved that no hint from the Qur’an, or Hadith points out to these assumed premises.
To consider what precedes in the verse of the Qur’an itself, let us look at the words of the verse:
فَلَوْلَا كَانَتْ قَرْيَةٌ آمَنَتْ فَنَفَعَهَا إِيمَانُهَا إِلَّا قَوْمَ يُونُسَ
So, how is it that there never was a town which could have believed and its belief would have been of benefit to it, except the people of Yunus (Jonah) !
The sense, as already clear, is that of regret over the state of inertia prevailing among common residents of habitations around the world. It is in that spirit that it was said: How would they not become such as would have believed at a time when believing is acceptable and beneficial? In other words, they could have believed before being hit by punishment or death, in which case, their believing would have been accepted. But, the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) were an ex¬ception to this rule, for they, by seeing the signs of punishment, and much before being hit by the punishment, believed and their believing and repentance came to be accepted.
This evident sense of the verse is itself telling us that no Divine law has been broken here, in fact, exactly in accordance with Divine practice, their faith and repentance have been accepted.
Most commentators – Abu Hayyan, Al-Qurtubi, Al-Zamakhshari, Qadi Thana’ullah, ` Allamah Alusi and others – have given this very sense of the verse according to which the acceptance of repentance from the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) comes under the customary Divine law. The words of Al-Qurtubi appear as given below:
وَقَالَ ابْنُ جُبَيْرٍ: غَشِيَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ كَمَا يَغْشَى الثَّوْبُ الْقَبْرَ، فَلَمَّا صَحَّتْ تَوْبَتُهُمْ رَفَعَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابَ. وَقَالَ الطَّبَرِيُّ: خُصَّ قَوْمُ يُونُسَ مِنْ بَيْنٍ سَائِرِ الْأُمَمِ بِأَنْ تِيبَ عَلَيْهِمْ بَعْدَ مُعَايَنَةِ الْعَذَابِ، وَذُكِرَ ذَلِكَ عَنْ جَمَاعَةٍ مِنَ الْمُفَسِّرِينَ. وَقَالَ الزَّجَّاجُ: إِنَّهُمْ لَمْ يَقَعْ بِهِمُ الْعَذَابُ، وَإِنَّمَا رَأَوُا الْعَلَامَةَ الَّتِي تَدُلُّ عَلَى الْعَذَابِ، وَلَوْ رَأَوْا عَيْنَ الْعَذَابِ لَمَا نَفَعَهُمُ الْإِيمَانُ. قُلْتُ: قَوْلُ الزَّجَّاجِ حَسَنٌ، فَإِنَّ الْمُعَايَنَةَ الَّتِي لَا تَنْفَعُ التَّوْبَةُ مَعَهَا هِيَ التَّلَبُّسُ بِالْعَذَابِ كَقِصَّةِ فِرْعَوْنَ، وَلِهَذَا جَاءَ بِقِصَّةِ قَوْمِ يُونُسَ عَلَى أَثَرِ قِصَّةِ فِرْعَوْنَ لِأَنَّهُ آمَنَ حِينَ رَأَى الْعَذَابَ فَلَمْ يَنْفَعْهُ ذَلِكَ، وَقَوْمُ يُونُسَ تَابُوا قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ. وَيُعَضِّدُ هَذَا قَوْلُهُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ: (إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَقْبَلُ تَوْبَةَ الْعَبْدِ مَا لَمْ يُغَرْغِرْ). وَالْغَرْغَرَةُ الْحَشْرَجَةُ، وَذَلِكَ هُوَ حَالُ التَّلَبُّسِ بِالْمَوْتِ، وَأَمَّا قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ فَلَا. وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ. وَقَدْ رُوِيَ مَعْنَى مَا قُلْنَاهُ عن ابن مسعود، أن ويونس لَمَّا وَعَدَهُمُ الْعَذَابَ إِلَى ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ خَرَجَ عَنْهُمْ فَأَصْبَحُوا فَلَمْ يَجِدُوهُ فَتَابُوا وَفَرَّقُوا بَيْنَ الْأُمَّهَاتِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ، وَهَذَا يَدُلُّ عَلَى أَنَّ تَوْبَتَهُمْ قَبْلَ رُؤْيَةِ عَلَامَةِ الْعَذَابِ. وَسِيَأْتِي مُسْنَدًا مُبَيَّنًا فِي سُورَةِ” وَالصَّافَّاتِ” «1» إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى. وَيَكُونُ مَعْنَى (كَشَفْنا عَنْهُمْ عَذابَ الْخِزْيِ) أَيِ الْعَذَابَ الَّذِي وَعَدَهُمْ بِهِ يُونُسُ أَنَّهُ يَنْزِلُ بِهِمْ، لَا أَنَّهُمْ رَأَوْهُ عَيَانًا وَلَا مُخَايَلَةَ، وَعَلَى هَذَا لَا إِشْكَالَ وَلَا تَعَارُضَ وَلَا خُصُوصَ. تفسير القرطبي (8/ 384، 385)
“Ibn Jubayr says that the punishment had covered them up like the sheet of cloth on the grave. Then, as their Taubah turned out to be sound (being before the punishment material¬ized), Allah Ta` ala lifted the punishment from them. And At-Tabari says that the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) have been given a special place among all other peoples in that their Taubah was accepted after they had seen the punish¬ment. And that has been mentioned by a large number of com¬mentators. However, Az-Zajjaj says that the punishment had not yet fallen on those people. They had only seen the signs that proved the coming of the punishment. And if they had seen the very punishment falling upon them, their believing would have then been no good for them (and their Taubah too would have not been accepted). Al-Qurtubi says that the state¬ment of Az-Zajjaj is better because the seeing of a punishment after which Taubah is not accepted means that in which one is seized – as it happened in the case of Pharaoh. Therefore, in this very Surah, the event of the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) has been taken up immediately after the event relating to the Pharaoh. (So that the difference becomes clear in that the belief of the Pharaoh came after having been seized by the punishment, contrary to the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) who came to believe before the punishment actually seized them). This is confirmed by a saying of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، Allah Ta` ala accepts the Taubah of the servant until he is rattled by death.’ And ` al-ghargharah’ (as in the Hadith) is the rattling sound that comes from the throat and that is what happens on being seized by death. And the same thing is evident from the riwayah of Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn Masud (رض) in which it has been said that the people of Sayyidna Yu¬nus (عليه السلام) had repented before the actual falling of the pun-ishment. And Al-Qurtubi says, as based on this explanation, there remains no difficulty, or contradiction, or particulariza¬tion (of the people of Sayyidna Yunus عليه السلام).
As for At-Tabari and other commentators who have deemed this event to be special to the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) ، none of them have said that the reason of this special treatment was the ` shortcomings’ of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) . Instead, the honest repentance of those people and their sincere belief in Divine knowledge are the kind of reasons that they have given to that end.
And now, when we know that the removal of the punishment from the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) was just not against the Divine law, in fact, was exactly in accordance with it, then, the very foundation of what has been postulated here stands demolished.
Similarly, there is no Qur’anic hint to prove that Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) once he had given the warning of punishment, broke away from his people without prior Divine permission. Instead, the context of verses and reports from Tafsir tell us that things happened here as they had happened with all past communities, that is, when the decision was made to send Divine punishment on a people, Allah Ta` ala would command his Messenger and his companions to leave that area. This has been clearly mentioned in the Qur’an in connection with the story of Sayyidna Lut Very similarly, here too, when this command of Allah was delivered to those people through Sayyidna Yunus عليه السلام۔ that the punishment will come after three days – then, the departure of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) from that area has, obviously enough, taken place under Divine orders.
Of course, there was a slip from Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) in terms of the elegant prophetic station he was blessed with. Words of displeasure about it appear in Surah al-Anbiya‘ (21:87, 88) and Surah as-Saffat (37:139-148) and, as a result of which, came the event of his staying in the belly of a fish. But, this slip has nothing to do with the assumed assertion that he fell short in fulfilling his duty as a prophet. In fact, what actually happened is what has been stated earlier with reference to authentic Tafsirs. In brief, after Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) had delivered the warning to his people that the punishment will come after three days as willed by Allah, he left his place and went out. Later, it was proved that the punishment did not materialize. Now, Sayyidna Yunus was worried as to how he would go back to his people. If he did, they would charge him to be a liar. And the law of those people required that a proven liar must be killed. Now, this added the danger of the likely loss of life in returning to his people. Under such circumstances, he had no way out but to migrate from that very country.
But, the customary practice of the blessed prophets is that they do not migrate simply on the authority of their personal opinion – unless the signal to migrate comes from Allah Ta` ala. So, the slip of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) was no more than that he boarded a boat with the intention of migration, before came the permission of Allah. This was, though no sin in itself, but different from the customary practice of prophets it was. If we were to ponder over the words of the verse of the Qur’an, the slip of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) will not turn out to be a shortcoming in the fulfillment of his duty as a prophet.
In fact, it would prove not to be anything else but migration before permission with the aim of staying safe against the oppression of his people. The verse of Surah as-Saffat is virtually explicit regarding this subject. It was said: إِذْ أَبَقَ إِلَى الْفُلْكِ الْمَشْحُونِ (when he ran away towards the laden boat – 37:140). Here, the act of boarding a boat with the intention of migration has been expressed through the word: أَبَقَ (abaqa) denoting displeasure. It means the running away or fleeing of a slave without the permission of his master. And in the verse of Surah al-Anbiya’, it has been said: وَذَا النُّونِ إِذ ذَّهَبَ مُغَاضِبًا فَظَنَّ أَن لَّن نَّقْدِرَ عَلَيْهِ (and the man of the fish, when he left in anger assuming that We shall not keep him tight – 21:87). Here the tenor of speech is that of displeasure over the act of migration that was resorted to because of natural apprehension and the desire to stay protected from a hostile people. It is worth keeping in mind that all this happened after the perfect fulfillment of the duties of prophethood, only when a return to his people posed a certain danger to his life. Tafsir Ruh al-Ma’ani has taken up this subject in the following words:
أي غضبان على قومه لشدة شكيمتهم وتمادى إصرارهم مع طول دعوته إياهم، وكان ذهابه هذا هجرة عنهم لكنه لم يؤمر به. تفسير الألوسي = روح المعاني (9/ 79)
(Sayyidna Yunus عليه السلام) left his people in anger against their bitter hostility and adamant infidelity despite that he had spent a long time as a prophet inviting them to faith. This journey of his was a kind of migration but he had not yet re¬ceived the permission for it.
Here, it has been made clear that some shortcoming in carrying out the prophetic mission was not the cause of Divine displeasure, in-stead, it was migration before permission that did become its cause – which, by itself, was no sin. But, because of being contrary to the cus¬tomary practice of blessed prophets, it was received with displeasure. When some ` Ulama sounded the learned contemporary about this er¬ror, he chose to report the sayings of many commentators relating to the Tafsir of Surah as-Saffat, in support of his stand.
Among these – with the exception of some Israelite reports of Wahb ibn Munabbih and others – not a single report proves his stand, that shortcomings were committed (God forbid) by Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) in the fulfillment of his duty as a prophet, as correct.
And it is not hidden from the people of knowledge that commenta¬tors generally include Israelite reports in their Tafsirs about which all of them agree that these are not authentic and trustworthy. No Islam¬ic legal ruling can be based on them. It is only through the crutches of these Israelite reports, whether they appear in the books of Muslim commentators or in the book of Jonah, that this grave accusation can be leveled against Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) that ` he had committed shortcomings in the fulfillment of his duties as a prophet.’ No commen¬tator of Islam has ever approved of it.
وَاللہُ سُبحانَه و تعالیٰ أَعلَمُ ، وَبِه أَستغیثُ أن یَعْصِمُنا مِنَ الْخَطَایَا والزلالتِ .
And Allah, He is Pure and High and the Most Knowledgeable and before Him is our plaint that He protects us from all er¬rors and lapses.
Details of the Event relating to Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام)
Part of the details of the event relating to Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) has been mentioned in the Qur’an while some of it has its proof in reports of Hadith and history. According to these sources, the people of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) lived in the well-known place, Nineveh near Mousel, Iraq. Their number has been given as more than one hundred thousand in the Holy Qur’an. It was for their guidance that Allah Ta` ala sent Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) .
They refused to believe. Allah Ta` ala asked Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) to warn these people that Divine punishment was going to overtake them within three days. Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) made the announcement before his people. When they went in consultation with each other, they agreed that they had never found Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) lying, therefore, this thing from him was not to be ignored. Finally, they devised a plan to see whether or not Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) stays among them at his place during the night. If he did, they were to understand that nothing would happen. And if he went somewhere else from there, then, they should be certain that the punishment would descend upon them the next morning. Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) moved out of his dwelling place during the night as Divinely commanded. When morning came, the Divine pun¬ishment, in the form of a cloud-like black smoke started hovering over their heads tending to be descending down closer to them.
They then became certain that they all were going to be destroyed. Seeing this, they looked for Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) so that they could confess to their past denial, repent and believe with him as the witness. But, when they did not find him, they took it upon themselves to come up with repentance and prayers for forgiveness in the best spirit of sincer¬ity at their command. To do that, they left homes, came out on open grounds, women, children and animals all huddled there. Wearing rags, weeping and wailing, repenting and begging refuge from Divine punishment, they made the whole area resound with a massive collective plaint. Allah Ta` ala accepted their repentance and removed the punishment from them – as mentioned in this verse. Reports indicate that this was ‘Ashura, that is, the day of the tenth of Muharram.
On the other side, Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) was waiting outside the township expecting that the Divine punishment will be about to hit the people there. He knew nothing about how they had repented and sought forgiveness. When the punishment stood removed, he started worrying about himself for his people would now declare him to be a liar – because he had announced that the punishment would strike within three days. According to the law of those people, if a person whose lying was known did not produce a witness in his support, he would be killed. Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) was concerned apprehending that he would be declared a liar and killed.
The noble prophets are protected from every act of sin and disobe¬dience, but are not set apart from others in terms of human nature and temperament. At that time, Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) naturally grieved that he had made the announcement as Divinely commanded and now it was because of the announcement he made he would be de¬clared a liar. How could he go back to his place under these circum¬stances and take the risk of being killed in accordance with the law of his people? Deep in this anxiety, he started off with the intention of getting out of that town until he reached the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. There he saw a boat being boarded by people. They recog¬nized Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) and let him board gratis. The boat sailed. But, when it reached off shore, it stopped suddenly. It refused to move any further, neither forward, nor backward. The boat people made an announcement. They said that Allah had made their boat special. When an oppressive sinner or a slave in flight boards it, the boat stops on its own. So, they said, let that person show himself up so that others do not suffer because of one person.
Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) spoke out that he was the sinner and the fleeing slave. As the act of leaving his town and boarding the boat was prompted by a natural apprehension and not by Divine permission, the dignified bearing of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) as a prophet had no hesitation in declaring this act, of coming towards the boat without that permission, a sin. The rule was that no movement of a prophet should have been without Divine permission. So he said, ` Throw me into the sea and be spared of the punishment.’ The people of the boat would not do that. They drew lots so that the person thus named could be thrown into the sea. By chance, the lot drawn had the name of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) on it. They were intrigued. They drew lots again and again. But, as Divine decree would have it, the name that kept appearing repeatedly was that of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) . The Holy Qur’an mentions this drawing of lots and the incidence of the name of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) being drawn therein (to be the one to be thrown overboard): فَسَاهَمَ فَكَانَ مِنَ الْمُدْحَضِينَ ﴿١٤١﴾ (and he drew lots and was among the losers – 37:141).
This dealing of Allah Ta` ala with Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) was in view of his special status as a prophet. He had done no contravention of any Divine command that could be called sin or disobedience – for that matter, there exists no possibility of these issuing forth from any prophet because they are ma’sum مَعصُوم (Divinely protected). But, it was not appropriate to the high station of a prophet that he would transfer to another place without Divine permission simply on the basis of natu¬ral apprehension. It was this contra-dignity conduct which brought displeasure and resultant action.
On the one hand, names were being drawn in lots. The named was waiting to be thrown overboard. On the other hand, a large fish under Divine orders was lurking by the boat with her mouth agape, waiting for the incumbent to be thrown into the sea and right into her belly. Allah Ta` ala had already commanded the fish that the body of Sayyid¬na Yunus عليه السلامthat was to be deposited in her belly was no food for her, instead, was his home for a while. When Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) was lowered into the sea, the fish received him. Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn Masud (رض) said that Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) lived in the belly of the fish for forty days. It would take him down to the sea bed and to nautical journeys far and wide. The period of his stay in the belly of the fish has also been reported as, five, and one day and few hours. (Mazhari). Only Allah Ta’-al-a knows the truth about it. Living in that state, Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) made the following du` a:
لَّا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا أَنتَ سُبْحَانَكَ إِنِّي كُنتُ مِنَ الظَّالِمِين
There is no god but You. Pure are You. Indeed, I have been of the wrongdoers – 21: 87.
Allah Ta’-al-a accepted this prayer and Sayyidna Yunus عليه السلام was put on the shore alive and unharmed.
But, the heat in the belly of the fish had left no hair on his body. Allah Ta’ ala caused a gourd vine to grow near him. Even the shade provided by the leaves on it became a blessing for Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) .
And signaled by Allah Ta` ala, a wild goat would come every morn¬ing and evening, stand near him and he would have milk to drink.
Thus, Sayyidna Yunus عليه السلام was alerted to that slip, and later on, his people too came to know the whole story.
In this story, as for parts that have been mentioned in the Qur’an, or stand proved from authentic narratives of Hadith, they are certain. The rest of them come from historical reports – and no ruling of Islam¬ic law can be based on them.
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
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