Surah Al Anbiya In Arabic
الجزء ﴿ 17 ﴾
اقْتَرَبَ لِلنَّاسِ حِسَابُهُمْ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ مُعْرِضُونَ ﴿1﴾ مَا يَأْتِيهِمْ مِنْ ذِكْرٍ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ مُحْدَثٍ إِلَّا اسْتَمَعُوهُ وَهُمْ يَلْعَبُونَ ﴿2﴾ لَاهِيَةً قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ وَأَسَرُّوا النَّجْوَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا هَلْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا بَشَرٌ مِثْلُكُمْ ۖ أَفَتَأْتُونَ السِّحْرَ وَأَنْتُمْ تُبْصِرُونَ ﴿3﴾ قَالَ رَبِّي يَعْلَمُ الْقَوْلَ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ ﴿4﴾ بَلْ قَالُوا أَضْغَاثُ أَحْلَامٍ بَلِ افْتَرَاهُ بَلْ هُوَ شَاعِرٌ فَلْيَأْتِنَا بِآيَةٍ كَمَا أُرْسِلَ الْأَوَّلُونَ ﴿5﴾ مَا آمَنَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا ۖ أَفَهُمْ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿6﴾ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ إِلَّا رِجَالًا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِمْ ۖ فَاسْأَلُوا أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿7﴾ وَمَا جَعَلْنَاهُمْ جَسَدًا لَا يَأْكُلُونَ الطَّعَامَ وَمَا كَانُوا خَالِدِينَ ﴿8﴾ ثُمَّ صَدَقْنَاهُمُ الْوَعْدَ فَأَنْجَيْنَاهُمْ وَمَنْ نَشَاءُ وَأَهْلَكْنَا الْمُسْرِفِينَ ﴿9﴾ لَقَدْ أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ كِتَابًا فِيهِ ذِكْرُكُمْ ۖ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ ﴿10﴾ وَكَمْ قَصَمْنَا مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ كَانَتْ ظَالِمَةً وَأَنْشَأْنَا بَعْدَهَا قَوْمًا آخَرِينَ ﴿11﴾ فَلَمَّا أَحَسُّوا بَأْسَنَا إِذَا هُمْ مِنْهَا يَرْكُضُونَ ﴿12﴾ لَا تَرْكُضُوا وَارْجِعُوا إِلَىٰ مَا أُتْرِفْتُمْ فِيهِ وَمَسَاكِنِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُسْأَلُونَ ﴿13﴾ قَالُوا يَا وَيْلَنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ ﴿14﴾ فَمَا زَالَتْ تِلْكَ دَعْوَاهُمْ حَتَّىٰ جَعَلْنَاهُمْ حَصِيدًا خَامِدِينَ ﴿15﴾ وَمَا خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاءَ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا لَاعِبِينَ ﴿16﴾ لَوْ أَرَدْنَا أَنْ نَتَّخِذَ لَهْوًا لَاتَّخَذْنَاهُ مِنْ لَدُنَّا إِنْ كُنَّا فَاعِلِينَ ﴿17﴾ بَلْ نَقْذِفُ بِالْحَقِّ عَلَى الْبَاطِلِ فَيَدْمَغُهُ فَإِذَا هُوَ زَاهِقٌ ۚ وَلَكُمُ الْوَيْلُ مِمَّا تَصِفُونَ ﴿18﴾ وَلَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَمَنْ عِنْدَهُ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَلَا يَسْتَحْسِرُونَ ﴿19﴾ يُسَبِّحُونَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لَا يَفْتُرُونَ ﴿20﴾ أَمِ اتَّخَذُوا آلِهَةً مِنَ الْأَرْضِ هُمْ يُنْشِرُونَ ﴿21﴾ لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتَا ۚ فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ ﴿22﴾ لَا يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ وَهُمْ يُسْأَلُونَ ﴿23﴾ أَمِ اتَّخَذُوا مِنْ دُونِهِ آلِهَةً ۖ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ ۖ هَٰذَا ذِكْرُ مَنْ مَعِيَ وَذِكْرُ مَنْ قَبْلِي ۗ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْحَقَّ ۖ فَهُمْ مُعْرِضُونَ ﴿24﴾ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ ﴿25﴾ وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وَلَدًا ۗ سُبْحَانَهُ ۚ بَلْ عِبَادٌ مُكْرَمُونَ ﴿26﴾ لَا يَسْبِقُونَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ وَهُمْ بِأَمْرِهِ يَعْمَلُونَ ﴿27﴾ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يَشْفَعُونَ إِلَّا لِمَنِ ارْتَضَىٰ وَهُمْ مِنْ خَشْيَتِهِ مُشْفِقُونَ ﴿28﴾ وَمَنْ يَقُلْ مِنْهُمْ إِنِّي إِلَٰهٌ مِنْ دُونِهِ فَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِيهِ جَهَنَّمَ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿29﴾ أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا ۖ وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ ۖ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿30﴾ وَجَعَلْنَا فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَنْ تَمِيدَ بِهِمْ وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا فِجَاجًا سُبُلًا لَعَلَّهُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ ﴿31﴾ وَجَعَلْنَا السَّمَاءَ سَقْفًا مَحْفُوظًا ۖ وَهُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهَا مُعْرِضُونَ ﴿32﴾ وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ وَالشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ ۖ كُلٌّ فِي فَلَكٍ يَسْبَحُونَ ﴿33﴾ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا لِبَشَرٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ الْخُلْدَ ۖ أَفَإِنْ مِتَّ فَهُمُ الْخَالِدُونَ ﴿34﴾ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ ۗ وَنَبْلُوكُمْ بِالشَّرِّ وَالْخَيْرِ فِتْنَةً ۖ وَإِلَيْنَا تُرْجَعُونَ ﴿35﴾ وَإِذَا رَآكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ يَتَّخِذُونَكَ إِلَّا هُزُوًا أَهَٰذَا الَّذِي يَذْكُرُ آلِهَتَكُمْ وَهُمْ بِذِكْرِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ هُمْ كَافِرُونَ ﴿36﴾ خُلِقَ الْإِنْسَانُ مِنْ عَجَلٍ ۚ سَأُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِي فَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونِ ﴿37﴾ وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هَٰذَا الْوَعْدُ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ ﴿38﴾ لَوْ يَعْلَمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا حِينَ لَا يَكُفُّونَ عَنْ وُجُوهِهِمُ النَّارَ وَلَا عَنْ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يُنْصَرُونَ ﴿39﴾ بَلْ تَأْتِيهِمْ بَغْتَةً فَتَبْهَتُهُمْ فَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ رَدَّهَا وَلَا هُمْ يُنْظَرُونَ ﴿40﴾ وَلَقَدِ اسْتُهْزِئَ بِرُسُلٍ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ فَحَاقَ بِالَّذِينَ سَخِرُوا مِنْهُمْ مَا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ ﴿41﴾ قُلْ مَنْ يَكْلَؤُكُمْ بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ مِنَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ ۗ بَلْ هُمْ عَنْ ذِكْرِ رَبِّهِمْ مُعْرِضُونَ ﴿42﴾ أَمْ لَهُمْ آلِهَةٌ تَمْنَعُهُمْ مِنْ دُونِنَا ۚ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ نَصْرَ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ مِنَّا يُصْحَبُونَ ﴿43﴾ بَلْ مَتَّعْنَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ وَآبَاءَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ طَالَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْعُمُرُ ۗ أَفَلَا يَرَوْنَ أَنَّا نَأْتِي الْأَرْضَ نَنْقُصُهَا مِنْ أَطْرَافِهَا ۚ أَفَهُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ ﴿44﴾ قُلْ إِنَّمَا أُنْذِرُكُمْ بِالْوَحْيِ ۚ وَلَا يَسْمَعُ الصُّمُّ الدُّعَاءَ إِذَا مَا يُنْذَرُونَ ﴿45﴾ وَلَئِنْ مَسَّتْهُمْ نَفْحَةٌ مِنْ عَذَابِ رَبِّكَ لَيَقُولُنَّ يَا وَيْلَنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ ﴿46﴾ وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئًا ۖ وَإِنْ كَانَ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِنْ خَرْدَلٍ أَتَيْنَا بِهَا ۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِنَا حَاسِبِينَ ﴿47﴾ وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ وَهَارُونَ الْفُرْقَانَ وَضِيَاءً وَذِكْرًا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ ﴿48﴾ الَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ بِالْغَيْبِ وَهُمْ مِنَ السَّاعَةِ مُشْفِقُونَ ﴿49﴾ وَهَٰذَا ذِكْرٌ مُبَارَكٌ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ ۚ أَفَأَنْتُمْ لَهُ مُنْكِرُونَ ﴿50﴾ وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ رُشْدَهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَكُنَّا بِهِ عَالِمِينَ ﴿51﴾ إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ مَا هَٰذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنْتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ ﴿52﴾ قَالُوا وَجَدْنَا آبَاءَنَا لَهَا عَابِدِينَ ﴿53﴾ قَالَ لَقَدْ كُنْتُمْ أَنْتُمْ وَآبَاؤُكُمْ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ ﴿54﴾ قَالُوا أَجِئْتَنَا بِالْحَقِّ أَمْ أَنْتَ مِنَ اللَّاعِبِينَ ﴿55﴾ قَالَ بَلْ رَبُّكُمْ رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ الَّذِي فَطَرَهُنَّ وَأَنَا عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكُمْ مِنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ ﴿56﴾ وَتَاللَّهِ لَأَكِيدَنَّ أَصْنَامَكُمْ بَعْدَ أَنْ تُوَلُّوا مُدْبِرِينَ ﴿57﴾ فَجَعَلَهُمْ جُذَاذًا إِلَّا كَبِيرًا لَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ يَرْجِعُونَ ﴿58﴾ قَالُوا مَنْ فَعَلَ هَٰذَا بِآلِهَتِنَا إِنَّهُ لَمِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿59﴾ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا فَتًى يَذْكُرُهُمْ يُقَالُ لَهُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ ﴿60﴾ قَالُوا فَأْتُوا بِهِ عَلَىٰ أَعْيُنِ النَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْهَدُونَ ﴿61﴾ قَالُوا أَأَنْتَ فَعَلْتَ هَٰذَا بِآلِهَتِنَا يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ ﴿62﴾ قَالَ بَلْ فَعَلَهُ كَبِيرُهُمْ هَٰذَا فَاسْأَلُوهُمْ إِنْ كَانُوا يَنْطِقُونَ ﴿63﴾ فَرَجَعُوا إِلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ فَقَالُوا إِنَّكُمْ أَنْتُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ ﴿64﴾ ثُمَّ نُكِسُوا عَلَىٰ رُءُوسِهِمْ لَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ يَنْطِقُونَ ﴿65﴾ قَالَ أَفَتَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنْفَعُكُمْ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَضُرُّكُمْ ﴿66﴾ أُفٍّ لَكُمْ وَلِمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ ۖ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ ﴿67﴾ قَالُوا حَرِّقُوهُ وَانْصُرُوا آلِهَتَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ فَاعِلِينَ ﴿68﴾ قُلْنَا يَا نَارُ كُونِي بَرْدًا وَسَلَامًا عَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ﴿69﴾ وَأَرَادُوا بِهِ كَيْدًا فَجَعَلْنَاهُمُ الْأَخْسَرِينَ ﴿70﴾ وَنَجَّيْنَاهُ وَلُوطًا إِلَى الْأَرْضِ الَّتِي بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا لِلْعَالَمِينَ ﴿71﴾ وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ نَافِلَةً ۖ وَكُلًّا جَعَلْنَا صَالِحِينَ ﴿72﴾ وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنَا وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ فِعْلَ الْخَيْرَاتِ وَإِقَامَ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءَ الزَّكَاةِ ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا عَابِدِينَ ﴿73﴾ وَلُوطًا آتَيْنَاهُ حُكْمًا وَعِلْمًا وَنَجَّيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْقَرْيَةِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ تَعْمَلُ الْخَبَائِثَ ۗ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمَ سَوْءٍ فَاسِقِينَ ﴿74﴾ وَأَدْخَلْنَاهُ فِي رَحْمَتِنَا ۖ إِنَّهُ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ ﴿75﴾ وَنُوحًا إِذْ نَادَىٰ مِنْ قَبْلُ فَاسْتَجَبْنَا لَهُ فَنَجَّيْنَاهُ وَأَهْلَهُ مِنَ الْكَرْبِ الْعَظِيمِ ﴿76﴾ وَنَصَرْنَاهُ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمَ سَوْءٍ فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ ﴿77﴾ وَدَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ إِذْ يَحْكُمَانِ فِي الْحَرْثِ إِذْ نَفَشَتْ فِيهِ غَنَمُ الْقَوْمِ وَكُنَّا لِحُكْمِهِمْ شَاهِدِينَ ﴿78﴾ فَفَهَّمْنَاهَا سُلَيْمَانَ ۚ وَكُلًّا آتَيْنَا حُكْمًا وَعِلْمًا ۚ وَسَخَّرْنَا مَعَ دَاوُودَ الْجِبَالَ يُسَبِّحْنَ وَالطَّيْرَ ۚ وَكُنَّا فَاعِلِينَ ﴿79﴾ وَعَلَّمْنَاهُ صَنْعَةَ لَبُوسٍ لَكُمْ لِتُحْصِنَكُمْ مِنْ بَأْسِكُمْ ۖ فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ شَاكِرُونَ ﴿80﴾ وَلِسُلَيْمَانَ الرِّيحَ عَاصِفَةً تَجْرِي بِأَمْرِهِ إِلَى الْأَرْضِ الَّتِي بَارَكْنَا فِيهَا ۚ وَكُنَّا بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَالِمِينَ ﴿81﴾ وَمِنَ الشَّيَاطِينِ مَنْ يَغُوصُونَ لَهُ وَيَعْمَلُونَ عَمَلًا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ ۖ وَكُنَّا لَهُمْ حَافِظِينَ ﴿82﴾ وَأَيُّوبَ إِذْ نَادَىٰ رَبَّهُ أَنِّي مَسَّنِيَ الضُّرُّ وَأَنْتَ أَرْحَمُ الرَّاحِمِينَ ﴿83﴾ فَاسْتَجَبْنَا لَهُ فَكَشَفْنَا مَا بِهِ مِنْ ضُرٍّ ۖ وَآتَيْنَاهُ أَهْلَهُ وَمِثْلَهُمْ مَعَهُمْ رَحْمَةً مِنْ عِنْدِنَا وَذِكْرَىٰ لِلْعَابِدِينَ ﴿84﴾ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِدْرِيسَ وَذَا الْكِفْلِ ۖ كُلٌّ مِنَ الصَّابِرِينَ ﴿85﴾ وَأَدْخَلْنَاهُمْ فِي رَحْمَتِنَا ۖ إِنَّهُمْ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ ﴿86﴾ وَذَا النُّونِ إِذْ ذَهَبَ مُغَاضِبًا فَظَنَّ أَنْ لَنْ نَقْدِرَ عَلَيْهِ فَنَادَىٰ فِي الظُّلُمَاتِ أَنْ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ سُبْحَانَكَ إِنِّي كُنْتُ مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ ﴿87﴾ فَاسْتَجَبْنَا لَهُ وَنَجَّيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْغَمِّ ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُنْجِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿88﴾ وَزَكَرِيَّا إِذْ نَادَىٰ رَبَّهُ رَبِّ لَا تَذَرْنِي فَرْدًا وَأَنْتَ خَيْرُ الْوَارِثِينَ ﴿89﴾ فَاسْتَجَبْنَا لَهُ وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ يَحْيَىٰ وَأَصْلَحْنَا لَهُ زَوْجَهُ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَاتِ وَيَدْعُونَنَا رَغَبًا وَرَهَبًا ۖ وَكَانُوا لَنَا خَاشِعِينَ ﴿90﴾ وَالَّتِي أَحْصَنَتْ فَرْجَهَا فَنَفَخْنَا فِيهَا مِنْ رُوحِنَا وَجَعَلْنَاهَا وَابْنَهَا آيَةً لِلْعَالَمِينَ ﴿91﴾ إِنَّ هَٰذِهِ أُمَّتُكُمْ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً وَأَنَا رَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُونِ ﴿92﴾ وَتَقَطَّعُوا أَمْرَهُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ كُلٌّ إِلَيْنَا رَاجِعُونَ ﴿93﴾ فَمَنْ يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَا كُفْرَانَ لِسَعْيِهِ وَإِنَّا لَهُ كَاتِبُونَ ﴿94﴾ وَحَرَامٌ عَلَىٰ قَرْيَةٍ أَهْلَكْنَاهَا أَنَّهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ ﴿95﴾ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فُتِحَتْ يَأْجُوجُ وَمَأْجُوجُ وَهُمْ مِنْ كُلِّ حَدَبٍ يَنْسِلُونَ ﴿96﴾ وَاقْتَرَبَ الْوَعْدُ الْحَقُّ فَإِذَا هِيَ شَاخِصَةٌ أَبْصَارُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يَا وَيْلَنَا قَدْ كُنَّا فِي غَفْلَةٍ مِنْ هَٰذَا بَلْ كُنَّا ظَالِمِينَ ﴿97﴾ إِنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ حَصَبُ جَهَنَّمَ أَنْتُمْ لَهَا وَارِدُونَ ﴿98﴾ لَوْ كَانَ هَٰؤُلَاءِ آلِهَةً مَا وَرَدُوهَا ۖ وَكُلٌّ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ﴿99﴾ لَهُمْ فِيهَا زَفِيرٌ وَهُمْ فِيهَا لَا يَسْمَعُونَ ﴿100﴾ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ سَبَقَتْ لَهُمْ مِنَّا الْحُسْنَىٰ أُولَٰئِكَ عَنْهَا مُبْعَدُونَ ﴿101﴾ لَا يَسْمَعُونَ حَسِيسَهَا ۖ وَهُمْ فِي مَا اشْتَهَتْ أَنْفُسُهُمْ خَالِدُونَ ﴿102﴾ لَا يَحْزُنُهُمُ الْفَزَعُ الْأَكْبَرُ وَتَتَلَقَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ هَٰذَا يَوْمُكُمُ الَّذِي كُنْتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ ﴿103﴾ يَوْمَ نَطْوِي السَّمَاءَ كَطَيِّ السِّجِلِّ لِلْكُتُبِ ۚ كَمَا بَدَأْنَا أَوَّلَ خَلْقٍ نُعِيدُهُ ۚ وَعْدًا عَلَيْنَا ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا فَاعِلِينَ ﴿104﴾ وَلَقَدْ كَتَبْنَا فِي الزَّبُورِ مِنْ بَعْدِ الذِّكْرِ أَنَّ الْأَرْضَ يَرِثُهَا عِبَادِيَ الصَّالِحُونَ ﴿105﴾ إِنَّ فِي هَٰذَا لَبَلَاغًا لِقَوْمٍ عَابِدِينَ ﴿106﴾ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِلْعَالَمِينَ ﴿107﴾ قُلْ إِنَّمَا يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ ﴿108﴾ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَقُلْ آذَنْتُكُمْ عَلَىٰ سَوَاءٍ ۖ وَإِنْ أَدْرِي أَقَرِيبٌ أَمْ بَعِيدٌ مَا تُوعَدُونَ ﴿109﴾ إِنَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْجَهْرَ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْتُمُونَ ﴿110﴾ وَإِنْ أَدْرِي لَعَلَّهُ فِتْنَةٌ لَكُمْ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ ﴿111﴾ قَالَ رَبِّ احْكُمْ بِالْحَقِّ ۗ وَرَبُّنَا الرَّحْمَٰنُ الْمُسْتَعَانُ عَلَىٰ مَا تَصِفُونَ ﴿112﴾
Transliteration in English
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Iqtaraba linnaasi hisaabuhum wa hum fee ghaflatim mu’ridoon
- Maa ya’teehim min zikrim mir Rabbihim muhdasin illas tama’oohu wa hum yal’aboon
- Laahiyatan quloobuhum; wa asarrun najwal lazeena zalamoo hal haazaaa illaa basharum mislukum ‘afa ta’toonas sihra wa antum tubsiroon
- Qaala Rabbee ya’lamul qawla fis samaaa’i wal ardi wa Huwas Samee’ul ‘Aleem
- Bal qaalooo adghaasu ahlaamin bal iftaraahu bal huwa shaa’irun fal ya’tinaa bi Aayatin kamaa ursilal awwaloon
- Maaa aaamanat qablahum min qaryatin ahlaknaahaa a-fahum yu’minoon
- Wa maaa arsalnaa qablaka illaa rijaalan nooheee ilaihim fas’aloo ahlaz zikri in kuntum laa ta’lamoon
- Wa maa ja’alnaahum jasadal laa ya’kuloonat ta’aama wa maa kaanoo khaalideen
- Summa sadaqnaa humul wa’da fa-anjainaahum wa man nashaaa’u wa ahlaknal musrifeen
- Laqad anzalnaaa ilaikum Kitaaban feehi zikrukum afalaa ta’qiloon (Section 1)
- Wa kam qasamnaa min qaryatin kaanat zaalimatanw wa ansha’ naa ba’dahaa qawman aakhareen
- Falammaaa ahassoo ba’sanaaa izaa hum minhaa yarkudoon
- Laa tarkudoo warji’ooo ilaa maaa utriftum feehi wa masaakinikum la’allakum tus’aloon
- Qaaloo yaa wailanaaa innaa kunnaa zaalimeen
- Famaa zaalat tilka da’waahum hattaa ja’alnaahum haseedan khaamideen
- Wa maa khalaqnas samaaa’a wal arda wa maa bainahumaa laa’ibeen
- Law aradnaaa an nattakhiza lahwal lat takhaznaahu mil ladunnaaa in kunnaa faa’ileen
- Bal naqzifu bilhaqqi ‘alal baatili fa yadmaghuhoo fa izaa huwa zaahiq; wa lakumul wailu mimmaa tasifoon
- Wa lahoo man fis samaawaati wal ard; wa man ‘indahoo laa yastakbiroona ‘an ‘ibaada tihee wa laa yastahsiroon
- Yusabbihoona laila wannahaara laa yafturoon
- Amit takhazooo aalihatam minal ardi hum yunshiroon
- Law kaana feehimaaa aalihatun illal laahu lafasadataa; fa-Subhaanal laahi Rabbil ‘Arshi ‘ammaa yasifoon
- Laa yus’alu ‘ammaa yaf’alu wa hum yus’aloon
- Amit takhazoo min doonihee aalihatan qul haatoo burhaanakum haaza zikru mam ma’iya wa zikru man qablee; bal aksaruhum laa ya’lamoonal haqqa fahum mu’ridoon
- Wa maaa arsalnaa min qablika mir Rasoolin illaa nooheee ilaihi annahoo laaa ilaaha illaaa Ana fa’budoon
- Wa qaalut takhazar Rahmaanu waladaa; Subhaanahu bal ‘ibaadum mukramoon
- Laa yasbiqoonahoo bil qawli wa hum bi amrihee ya’maloon
- Ya’lamu maa baina aideehim wa maa khalfahum wa laa yashfa’oona illaa limanir tadaa wa hum min khash yatihee mushfiqoon
- Wa mai yaqul minhum inneee ilaahum min doonihee fazaalika najzeehi Jahannam; kazaalika najziz zaalimeen (section 2)
- Awalam yaral lazeena kafarooo annas samaawaati wal arda kaanataa ratqan fafataqnaa humaa wa ja’alnaa minal maaa’i kulla shai’in haiyin afalaa yu’minoon
- Wa ja’alnaa fil ardi rawaasiya an tameeda bihim wa ja’alnaa feehaa fijaajan subulal la’allahum yahtadoon
- Wa ja’alnas samaaa’a saqfam mahfoozanw wa hum ‘an Aayaatihaa mu’ridoon
- Wa Huwal lazee khalaqal laila wannahaara washshamsa wal qamara kullun fee falakiny yasbahoon
- Wa maa ja’alnaa libasharim min qablikal khuld; afa immitta fahumul khaalidoon
- Kullu nafsin zaaa’iqatul mawt; wa nablookum bi sharri walkhairi fitnatanw wa ilainaa turja’oon
- Wa izaa ra aakal lazeena kafarooo iny-yattakhizoonaka illa huzuwan; ahaazal lazee yazkuru aalihatakum wa hum bi zikrir Rahmaani hum kaafiroon
- Khuliqal insaanu min ‘ajal; sa ureekum Aayaatee falaa tasta’jiloon
- Wa yaqooloona mataa haazal wa’du in kuntum saadiqeen
- Law ya’lamul lazeena kafaroo heena laa yakuffoona ‘anw wujoohihimun Naara wa laa ‘an zuhoorihim wa laa hum yunsaroon
- Bal ta’teehim baghtatan fatabhatuhum falaa yastatee’oona raddahaa wa laa hum yunzaroon
- Wa laqadis tuhzi’a bi-Rusulim min qablika fahaaqa billazeena sakhiroo minhum maa kaanoo bihee yastahzi’oon (section 3)
- Qul mai yakla ‘ukum billaili wannahaari minar Rahmaan; bal hum ‘an zikri Rabbihim mu’ridoon
- Am lahum aalihatun tamna’uhum min dooninaa; laa yastatee’oona nasra anfusihim wa laa hum minna yus-haboon
- Bal matta’naa haaa’ulaaa’i wa aabaaa’ahum hattaa taala ‘alaihimul ‘umur; afalaa yarawna anna na’til arda nanqusuhaa min atraafihaa; afahumul ghaaliboon
- Qul innamaaa unzirukum bilwahyi; wa laa yasma’us summud du’aaa ‘a izaa maa yunzaroon
- Wa la’in massat hum nafhatun min ‘azaabi Rabbika la yaqoolunna yaawailanaaa innnaa kunnaa zaalimeen
- Wa nada’ul mawaazeenal qista li Yawmil Qiyaamati falaa tuzlamu nafsun shai’aa; wa in kaana misqaala habbatim min khardalin atainaa bihaa; wa kafaa binaa haasibeen
- Wa laqad aatainaa Moosa wa haaroonal Furqaana wa diyaa’anw wa zikral lilmuttaqeen
- Allazeena yakhshawna Rabbahum bilghaibi wa hum minas Saa’ati mushfiqoon
- Wa haazaa Zikrum Mubaarakun anzalnaah; afa antum lahoo munkiroon (section 4)
- Wa laqad aatainaaa Ibraaheema rushdahoo min qablu wa kunnaa bihee ‘aalimeen
- Iz qaala li abeehi wa qawmihee maa haazihit tamaaseelul lateee antum lahaa ‘aakifoon
- Qaaloo wajadnaaa aabaaa’anaa lahaa ‘aabideen
- Qaala laqad kuntum antum wa aabaaa’ukum fee dalaalin mubeen
- Qaalooo aji’tanaa bil haqqi am anta minal laa’ibeen
- Qaala bar Rabbukum Rabbus samaawaati wal ardil lazee fatarahunna wa ana ‘alaa zaalikum minash shaahideen
- Wa tallaahi la akeedanna asnaamakum ba’da an tuwalloo mudbireen
- Faja’alahum juzaazan illaa kabeeral lahum la’allahum ilaihi yarji’oon
- Qaaloo man fa’ala haazaa bi aalihatinaaa innahoo laminaz zaalimeen
- Qaaloo sami’naa fatany yazkuruhum yuqaalu lahooo Ibraaheem
- Qaaloo fa’too bihee ‘alaaa a’yunin naasi la’allahum yash hadoon
- Qaalooo ‘a-anta fa’alta haazaa bi aalihatinaa yaaa Ibraaheem
- Qaala bal fa’alahoo kabeeruhum haazaa fas’aloohum in kaanoo yantiqoon
- Faraja’ooo ilaaa anfusihim faqaalooo innakum antumuz zaalimoon
- Summa nukisoo ‘alaa ru’oosihim laqad ‘alimta maa haaa’ulaaa’i yantiqoon
- Qaala afata’budoona min doonil laahi maa laa yanfa’ukum shai’anw wa laa yadurrukum
- Uffil lakum wa limaa ta’budoona min doonil laah; afalaa ta’qiloon
- Qaaloo harriqoohu wansurooo aalihatakum in kuntum faa’ileen
- Qulnaa yaa naaru koonee bardanw wa salaaman ‘alaaa Ibraaheem
- Wa araadoo bihee kaidan faja’alnaahumul akhsareen
- Wa najjainaahu wa Lootan ilal ardil latee baaraknaa feehaa lil ‘aalameen
- Wa wahabnaa lahooo Ishaaqa; wa Ya’qooba naafilah; wa kullan ja’alnaa saaliheen
- Wa ja’alnaahum a’immatany yahdoona bi amrinaa wa awhainaaa ilaihim fi’lal khairaati wa iqaamas Salaati wa eetaaa’az Zakaati wa kaanoo lanaa ‘aabideen
- Wa Lootan aatainaahu hukmanw wa ‘ilmanw wa najjainaahu minal qaryatil latee kaanat ta’malul khabaaa’is; innahum kaanoo qawma saw’in faasiqeen
- Wa adkhalnaahu fee rahmatinaa innahoo minas saaliheen (section 5)
- Wa noohan iz naadaa min qablu fastajabnaa lahoo fanajjainaahu wa ahlahoo minal karbil ‘azeem
- Wa nasarnaahu minal qawmil lazeena kazzaboo bi Aayaatinaa; innahum kaanoo qawma saw’in fa-aghraq naahum ajma’een
- Wa Daawooda wa Sulaimaana iz yahkumaani fil harsi iz nafashat feehi ghanamul qawmi wa kunnaa lihukmihim shaahideen
- Fafahhamnaahaa sulaimaan; wa kullan aatainaa hukmanw wa’ilmanw wa sakh kharnaa ma’a Daawoodal jibaala yusabbihna wattayr; wa kunnaa faa’ileen
- Wa ‘allamnaahu san’ata laboosil lakum lituhsinakum min ba’sikum fahal antum shaakiroon
- Wa li Sulaimaanar reeha ‘aasifatan tajree bi amriheee ilal ardil latee baaraknaa feehaa; wa kunnaa bikulli shai’in ‘aalimeen
- Wa minash Shayaateeni mai yaghoosoona lahoo wa ya’maloona ‘amalan doona zaalika wa kunna lahum haafizeen
- Wa Ayyooba iz naadaa Rabbahooo annee massaniyad durru wa Anta arhamur raahimeen
- Fastajabnaa lahoo fakashaf naa maa bihee min durrinw wa aatainaahu ahlahoo wa mislahum ma’ahum rahmatan min ‘indinaa wa zikraa lil’aabideen
- Wa Ismaa’eela wa Idreesa wa Zal Kifli kullum minas saabireen
- Wa adkhalnaahum fee rahmatinaa innahum minas saaliheen
- Wa Zan Nooni iz zahaba mughaadiban fa zannaa al lan naqdira ‘alaihi fanaadaa fiz zulumaati al laaa ilaaha illaaa Anta Subhaanaka innee kuntu minaz zaalimeen
- Fastajabnaa lahoo wa najjainaahu minal ghamm; wa kazaalika nunjil mu’mineen
- Wa Zakariyyaaa iz naadaa Rabbahoo Rabbi laa tazarnee fardanw wa Anta khairul waariseen
- Fastajabnaa lahoo wa wahabnaa lahoo Yahyaa Wa aslahnaa lahoo zawjah; innahum kaanoo yusaari’oona fil khairaati wa yad’oonanaa raghabanw wa rahabaa; wa kaanoo lanaa khaashi’een
- Wallateee ahsanat farjahaa fanafakhnaa feehaa min roohinaa wa ja’alnaahaa wabnahaaa Aayatan lil’aalameen
- Inna haaziheee ummatukum ummatanw waahidatanw wa Ana Rabbukum fa’budoon
- Wa taqatta’ooo amrahum bainahum kullun ilainaaa raaji’oon (section 6)
- Famai ya’mal minas saalihaati wa huwa mu’minun falaa kufraana lisa’yihee wa innaa lahoo kaatiboon
- Wa haraamun ‘alaa qaryatin ahlaknaahaaa annahum laa yarji’oon
- Hattaaa izaa futihat Ya’jooju wa Ma’jooju wa hum min kulli hadabiny yansiloon
- Waqtarabal wa’dul haqqu fa-izaa hiya shaakhisatun absaarul lazeena kafaroo yaawailanaa qad kunna fee ghaflatin min haaza bal kunnaa zaalimeen
- Innakum wa maa ta’budoona min doonil laahi hasabu Jahannama antum lahaa waaridoon
- Law kaana haaa’ulaaa’i aalihatan maa waradoohaa wa kullun feehaa khaalidoon
- Lahum feehaa zafeerunw wa hum feehaa laa yasma’oon
- Innal lazeena sabaqat lahum minnal husnaaa ulaaa’ika ‘anhaa mub’adoon
- Laa yasma’oona hasee sahaa wa hum fee mash tahat anfusuhum khaalidoon
- Laa yahzunuhumul faza’ul akbaru wa tatalaq qaahumul malaaa’ikatu haazaa Yawmukumul lazee kuntum too’adoon
- Yawma natwis samaaa’a kataiyis sijilli lilkutub; kamaa bada’naa awwala khalqin nu’eeduh; wa’dan ‘alainaa; innaa kunna faa’ileen
- Wa laqad katabnaa fiz Zaboori min ba’diz zikri annal arda yarisuhaa ‘ibaadi yas saalihoon
- Inna fee haaza labalaa ghal liqawmin ‘aabideen
- Wa maaa arsalnaaka illaa rahmatal lil’aalameen
- Qul innamaa yoohaa ilaiya annamaaa ilaahukum illaahunw Waahid, fahal antum muslimoon
- Fa in tawallaw faqul aazantukum ‘alaa sawaaa’; wa in adreee aqareebun am ba’eedun maa too’adoon
- Innahoo ya’lamul jahra minal qawli wa ya’lamu maa taktumoon
- Wa in adree la’allahoo fitnatul lakum wa mataa’un ilaaheen
- Qaala Rabbih kum bil haqq; wa Rabbunar Rahmaa nul musta’aanu ‘alaa maa tasifoon (section 7)
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
- Their reckoning draweth nigh for mankind, while they turn away in heedlessness.
- Never cometh there unto them a new reminder from their Lord but they listen to it while they play,
- With hearts preoccupied. And they confer in secret. The wrong-doers say: Is this other than a mortal like you? Will ye then succumb to magic when ye see (it)?
- He saith: My Lord knoweth what is spoken in the heaven and the earth. He is the Hearer, the Knower.
- Nay, say they, (these are but) muddled dreams; nay, he hath but invented it; nay, he is but a poet. Let him bring us a portent even as those of old (who were Allah’s messengers) were sent (with portents).
- Not a township believed of those which We destroyed before them (though We sent them portents): would they then believe?
- And We sent not (as Our messengers) before thee other than men, whom We inspired. Ask the followers of the Reminder if ye know not?
- We gave them not bodies that would not eat food, nor were they immortals.
- Then we fulfilled the promise unto them. So we delivered them and whom We would, and We destroyed the prodigals.
- Now We have revealed unto you a Scripture wherein is your Reminder. Have ye then no sense?
- How many a community that dealt unjustly have We shattered, and raised up after them another folk!
- And, when they felt Our might, behold them fleeing from it!
- (But it was said unto them): Flee not, but return to that (existence) which emasculated you and to your dwellings, that ye may be questioned.
- They cried: Alas for us! we were wrong-doers.
- And this their crying ceased not till We made them as reaped corn, extinct.
- We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them in play.
- If We had wished to find a pastime, We could have found it in Our presence – if We ever did.
- Nay, but We hurl the true against the false, and it doth break its head and lo! it vanisheth. And yours will be woe for that which ye ascribe (unto Him).
- Unto Him belongeth whosoever is in the heavens and the earth. And those who dwell in His presence are not too proud to worship Him, nor do they weary;
- They glorify (Him) night and day; they flag not.
- Or have they chosen gods from the earth who raise the dead?
- If there were therein gods beside Allah, then verily both (the heavens and the earth) had been disordered. Glorified be Allah, the Lord of the Throne, from all that they ascribe (unto Him).
- He will not be questioned as to that which He doeth, but they will be questioned.
- Or have they chosen other gods beside Him? say: Bring your proof (of their godhead). This is the Reminder of those with me and those before me, but most of them know not the Truth and so they are averse.
- And We sent no messenger before thee but We inspired him, (saying): There is no Allah save Me (Allah), so worship Me.
- And they say: The Beneficent hath taken unto Himself a son. Be He Glorified! Nay, but (those whom they call sons) are honoured slaves;
- They speak not until He hath spoken, and they act by His command.
- He knoweth what is before them and what is behind them, and they cannot intercede except for him whom He accepteth, and they quake for awe of Him.
- And one of them who should say: Lo! I am a god beside Him, that one We should repay with hell. Thus We Repay wrong-doers.
- Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were of one piece, then We parted them, and we made every living thing of water? Will they not then believe?
- And We have placed in the earth firm hills lest it quake with them, and We have placed therein ravines as roads that haply they may find their way.
- And we have made the sky a roof withheld (from them). Yet they turn away from its portents.
- And He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They float, each in an orbit.
- We appointed immortality for no mortal before thee. What! if thou diest, can they be immortal!
- Every soul must taste of death, and We try you with evil and with good, for ordeal. And unto Us ye will be returned.
- And when those who disbelieve behold thee, they but choose thee out for mockery, (saying): Is this he who maketh mention of your gods? And they would deny all mention of the Beneficent.
- Man is made of haste. I shall show you My portents, but ask Me not to hasten.
- And they say: When will this promise (be fulfilled), if ye are truthful?
- If those who disbelieved but knew the time when they will not be able to drive off the fire from their faces and from their backs, and they will not be helped!
- Nay, but it will come upon them unawares so that it will stupefy them, and they will be unable to repel it, neither will they be reprieved.
- Messengers before thee, indeed, were mocked, but that whereat they mocked surrounded those who scoffed at them.
- Say: Who guardeth you in the night or in the day from the Beneficent? Nay, but they turn away from mention of their Lord!
- Or have they gods who can shield them from Us? They cannot help themselves nor can they be defended from Us.
- Nay, but We gave these and their fathers ease until life grew long for them. See they not how we aim to the land, reducing it of its outlying parts? Can they then be the victors?
- Say ( O Muhammad, unto mankind): I warn you only by the Inspiration. But the deaf hear not the call when they are warned.
- And if a breath of thy Lord’s punishment were to touch them, they assuredly would say: Alas for us! Lo! we were wrong-doers.
- And We set a just balance for the Day of Resurrection so that no soul is wronged in aught. Though it be of the weight of a grain of mustard seed, We bring it. And We suffice for reckoners.
- And We verily gave Moses and Aaron the Criterion (of right and wrong) and a light and a Reminder for those who keep from evil,
- Those who fear their Lord in secret and who dread the Hour (of doom).
- This is a blessed Reminder that we have revealed: Will ye then reject it?
- And We verily gave Abraham of old his proper course, and We were Aware of him,
- When he said unto his father and his folk: What are these images unto which ye pay devotion?
- They said: We found our fathers worshippers of them.
- He said: Verily ye and your fathers were in plain error.
- They said: Bringest thou unto us the truth, or art thou some jester?
- He said: Nay, but your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, Who created them; and I am of those who testify unto that.
- And, by Allah, I shall circumvent your idols after ye have gone away and turned your backs.
- Then he reduced them to fragments, all save the chief of them, that haply they might have recourse to it.
- They said: Who hath done this to our gods? Surely it must be some evil-doer.
- They said: We heard a youth make mention of them, who is called Abraham.
- They said: Then bring him (hither) before the people’s eyes that they may testify.
- They said: Is it thou who hast done this to our gods, O Abraham?
- He said: But this, their chief hath done it. So question them, if they can speak.
- Then gathered they apart and said: Lo! ye yourselves are the wrong-doers.
- And they were utterly confounded, and they said: Well thou knowest that these speak not.
- He said: Worship ye then instead of Allah that which cannot profit you at all, nor harm you?
- Fie on you and all that ye worship instead of Allah! Have ye then no sense?
- They cried: Burn him and stand by your gods, if ye will be doing.
- We said: O fire, be coolness and peace for Abraham,
- And they wished to set a snare for him, but We made them the greater losers.
- And We rescued him and Lot (and brought them) to the land which We have blessed for (all) peoples.
- And We bestowed upon him Isaac, and Jacob as a grandson. Each of them We made righteous.
- And We made them chiefs who guide by Our command, and We inspired in them the doing of good deeds and the right establishment of worship and the giving of alms, and they were worshippers of Us (alone).
- And unto Lot we gave judgment and knowledge, and We delivered him from the community that did abominations. Lo! they were folk of evil, lewd.
- And We brought him in unto Our mercy. Lo! he was of the righteous.
- And Noah, when he cried of old, We heard his prayer and saved him and his household from the great affliction.
- And delivered him from the people who denied Our revelations. Lo! they were folk of evil, therefor did We drown them all.
- And David and Solomon, when they gave judgment concerning the field, when people’s sheep had strayed and browsed therein by night; and We were witnesses to their judgment.
- And We made Solomon to understand (the case); and unto each of them We gave judgment and knowledge. And we subdued the hills and the birds to hymn (His) praise along with David. We were the doers (thereof).
- And We taught him the art of making garments (of mail) to protect you in your daring. Are ye then thankful?
- And unto Solomon (We subdued) the wind in its raging. It set by his command toward the land which We had blessed. And of everything We are Aware.
- And of the evil ones (subdued We unto him) some who dived (for pearls) for him and did other work, and We were warders unto them.
- And Job, when he cried unto his Lord, (saying): Lo! adversity afflicteth me, and Thou art Most Merciful of all who show mercy.
- Then We heard his prayer and removed that adversity from which he suffered, and We gave him his household (that he had lost) and the like thereof along with them, a mercy from Our store, and a remembrance for the worshippers;
- And (mention) Ishmael, and Idris, and Dhu’l-Kifl. All were of the steadfast.
- And We brought them in unto Our mercy. Lo! they are among the righteous.
- And (mention) Dhu’n-Nun, when he went off in anger and deemed that We had no power over him, but he cried out in the darkness, saying: There is no Allah save Thee. Be Thou Glorified! Lo! I have been a wrong-doer.
- Then we heard his prayer and saved him from the anguish. Thus we save believers.
- And Zachariah, when he cried unto his Lord: My Lord! Leave me not childless, though Thou art the Best of inheritors.
- Then We heard his prayer, and bestowed upon him John, and adjusted his wife (to bear a child) for him. Lo! they used to vie one with the other in good deeds, and they cried unto Us in longing and in fear, and were submissive unto Us.
- And she who was chaste, therefor We breathed into her (something) of Our Spirit and made her and her son a token for (all) peoples.
- Lo! this, your religion, is one religion, and I am your Lord, so worship Me.
- And they have broken their religion (into fragments) among them, (yet) all are returning unto Us.
- Then whoso doeth some good works and is a believer, there will be no rejection of his effort. Lo! We record (it) for him.
- And there is a ban upon any community which We have destroyed: that they shall not return.
- Until, when Gog and Magog are let loose, and they hasten out of every mound,
- And the True Promise draweth nigh; then behold them, staring wide (in terror), the eyes of those who disbelieve! (They say): Alas for us! We (lived) in forgetfulness of this. Ah, but we were wrong-doers!
- Lo! ye (idolaters) and that which ye worship beside Allah are fuel of hell. Thereunto ye will come.
- If these had been gods they would not have come thither, but all will abide therein.
- Therein wailing is their portion, and therein they hear not.
- Lo! those unto whom kindness hath gone forth before from Us, they will be far removed from thence.
- They will not hear the slightest sound thereof, while they abide in that which their souls desire.
- The Supreme Horror will not grieve them, and the angels will welcome them, (saying): This is your Day which ye were promised;
- The Day when We shall roll up the heavens as a recorder rolleth up a written scroll. As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it. (It is) a promise (binding) upon Us. Lo! We are to perform it.
- And verily we have written in the Scripture, after the Reminder: My righteous slaves will inherit the earth:
- Lo! there is a plain statement for folk who are devout.
- We sent thee not save as a mercy for the peoples.
- Say: It is only inspired in me that your Allah is One Allah. Will ye then surrender (unto Him)?
- But if they are averse, then say: I have warned you all alike, although I know not whether nigh or far is that which ye are promised.
- Lo! He knoweth that which is said openly, and that which ye conceal.
- And I know not but that this may be a trial for you, and enjoyment for a while.
- He saith: My Lord! Judge Thou with truth. Our Lord is the Beneficent, Whose help is to be implored against that which ye ascribe (unto Him).
[From Holy Quran Translation by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall]
Importance of Surah Al-Anbiya’
اقْتَرَبَ لِلنَّاسِ حِسَابُهُمْ (The reckoning of the people has drawn near – 21:1) It means that the time is near when people will have to give an account of their deeds. Here, the reference is to the Day of Judgment, and its approach is in relation to bygone ages, as the ummah of Sayyidna Muhammad Al-Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is the last of them all. And if the meaning of the word حِسَاب reckoning) is taken in its general sense then reckoning in the grave is also included, which each individual faces immediately after death. It is for this reason that an individual’s death is regarded as his Day of Reckoning. مَن مَات فقد قامت قیامتہ for a person who has died his Day of Reckoning has arrived) so the latter explanation makes the verse very clear in that the individual reckoning for everyone is not very far, no matter how long one lives, because death is certain and no one knows when it will befall. The underlying message of this verse is to warn those people, whether believers or non-believers, who are in a state of slumber due to indulgence in worldly affairs, unmindful of the certainty that all this will come to an end one day. In fact it is this disregard of the Day of Judgment which is the root cause of all ills.
بَلْ قَالُـوْٓا اَضْغَاثُ اَحْلَامٍۢ بَلِ افْتَرٰىهُ بَلْ هُوَ شَاعِرٌ ښ فَلْيَاْتِنَا بِاٰيَةٍ كَمَآ اُرْسِلَ الْاَوَّلُوْنَ
بَلْ قَالُوا أَضْغَاثُ أَحْلَامٍ (they said, [ The Further Qur’an is ] a mixture of hotch-potch dreams. – 21:5.) Dreams having an element of personal and shaitanic thoughts are called أَضْغَاثُ أَحْلَامٍ. That is why this term (أَضْغَاثُ أَحْلَامٍ ) has been translated as “hotch-potch dreams”. What it means is that in the first place the unbelievers called the Qur’an as magic, then they described it as a collection of disturbed dreams, and then they said it was a forgery and fabrication against Allah Ta’ ala to call it His words; and finally they said that he (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was a poet and the Qur’an represented his poetic compositions.
فَلْيَأْتِنَا بِآيَةٍ (So let him bring to us a sign – 21:5) It means that the unbelievers demanded from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) certain specific miracles to be shown as a proof of his being a real Prophet. In response to this demand, Allah Ta` ala said in this verse that the same demand for miracles was also made by the people in the past from other prophets, and when their request was met, it was of no avail. They did not submit to Allah even after witnessing the miracles of their choice. And Allah has decreed that people who do not submit to Him even after they have seen the miracle of their choice are subjected to His wrath even in this world and are destroyed. Allah, in His Divine Mercy and in view of the honoured position of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had granted to his Ummah immunity from the terrible punishment which is the inevitable fate of those people who defy the Will of Allah. It was not, therefore, considered desirable to show them miracles of their choice because if they, like the earlier people, persisted in their unbelief even after seeing those miracles, they too would invite the wrath of Allah Ta` ala.
وَمَآ اَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ اِلَّا رِجَالًا نُّوْحِيْٓ اِلَيْهِمْ فَسْــَٔـلُوْٓا اَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ اِنْ كُنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُوْنَ
فَاسْأَلُوا أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ (So, ask the people (having the knowledge) of the message, if you do not know. – 21:7) In this verse, scholars of Injil Evangele) and Torah are referred to as أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ (people of the message), who had accepted the Holy Prophet’s prophethood. Therefore, what it actually means is that if you are not aware whether the prophets of the past were angels or ordinary men then you should find out from the scholars of Injil and Torah as they know perfectly well that all prophets were human beings. It is, therefore, quite possible that here the term اَھلَ :(people of the message) refers to all Jews and Christians (even though they have not believed in the Holy prophethood of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)).
Ruling: Qurtubi has said in his exegesis that this verse has made it clear that ignorant persons who are not acquainted with the rules of Shari’ah must seek knowledge from scholars and then follow them accordingly.
وَكَمْ قَصَمْنَا مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ كَانَتْ ظَالِمَةً وَّاَنْشَاْنَا بَعْدَهَا قَوْمًا اٰخَرِيْنَ
These verses describe the destruction of those settlements which some exegesists have taken as Fladhura’ ) حضُوراء) and Qilabah (قلابہ) of Yemen. Allah Ta` ala had sent there a prophet about whose name there are different versions. Some say he was Musa Ibn Misha while others say his name was Shu` aib, in which case he was a different prophet from the one who lived in Madyan. This Prophet was killed by his people, who were, as a punishment annihilated by the infidel King Nabucad Nazzar.
This King was placed in authority over them just as he was used as an instrument for the punishment of Bani Isra’i1 when they strayed from the righteous path in Palestine. In fact, Qur’an has not identified any specific settlement. Hence it will be apt to leave the subject open, so that these settlements of Yemen may also come in its ambit. واللہ (Only Allah knows best).
وَمَا خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاۗءَ وَالْاَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا لٰعِبِيْنَ
وَمَا خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاءَ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا لَاعِبِينَ (And We did not create the heavens and the earth … 21:16.) It means that we have not created the sky and the earth, and everything that lies in between them for mere amusement. In the preceding verses a reference has been made to the annihilation of certain settlements. In this verse there is a suggestion that just as the creation of the earth and the sky and all other created things was according to a set design, the destruction of the settlements was also the result of a definite purpose. Having witnessed the marvels and wonders of creation which are so abundantly spread all over, manifesting Allah’s omnipotence and omniscience, do they still think that all these things are futile and without significance?
The word لَاعِبِينَ is taken from لِعَب (play), which means having no useful objective (Raghib) while لَھَو (pastime) means an act which has no purpose at all except to provide amusement in free time. The disbelievers who argue against the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and the Holy Qur’an and reject the Oneness of Allah and deny His Power, despite its abundant manifestations, then it is apparent that they have a notion that all this creation is meant for amusement and pastime. The verse rejects this false view and says that Allah’s creation is not for fun and pastime. A little reflection will show that even the minutest particle of the universe has its utility and each and everything created by Allah has a purpose which speaks by itself for His omniscience and Oneness.
لَـوْ اَرَدْنَآ اَنْ نَّتَّخِذَ لَهْوًا لَّاتَّخَذْنٰهُ مِنْ لَّدُنَّآ ڰ اِنْ كُنَّا فٰعِلِيْنَ
لَوْ أَرَدْنَا أَن نَّتَّخِذَ لَهْوًا لَّاتَّخَذْنَاهُ مِن لَّدُنَّا إِن كُنَّا فَاعِلِينَ (Had We intended to have a pastime, We would have had it from Our own, if We were to do so. – 21:17) It means that if We were to create something for amusement, there was no need to create the earth and the sky, and We could have done so from the things around Us.
In Arabic language the word لَو is used for imaginary and non-existent things. Here also it is used in the same sense i.e. those foolish people who regard all the wonderful things of the earth and the sky objects of fun and frolic do not realize that creation on such a gigantic scale cannot be undertaken for amusement. The suggestion here is that even a person of ordinary common sense would not indulge in a project which has no serious purpose, to say nothing of Allah Ta` ala who is Supreme and Exalted.
The commonly accepted meaning of لَھو is a purposeless pastime, and this meaning has been adopted in translating this verse. According to some commentators this word لَھو is also used sometimes for wife or children in which case the meaning of the verse would be a denial of the belief of the Jews and Christians, who thought that Sayyidna ` Uzair and Sayyidna Masih (علیہما السلام) were God’s sons. If Allah wished to have children why should they be from humans and not from other creatures around Him. (Allah knows best).
بَلْ نَقْذِفُ بِالْحَقِّ عَلَي الْبَاطِلِ فَيَدْمَغُهٗ فَاِذَا هُوَ زَاهِقٌ ۭ وَلَـكُمُ الْوَيْلُ مِمَّا تَصِفُوْنَ
بَلْ نَقْذِفُ بِالْحَقِّ عَلَى الْبَاطِلِ فَيَدْمَغُهُ فَإِذَا هُوَ زَاهِقٌ (Instead, We launch the truth against the falsehood, which smashes it, and in no time it is nothing. – 21:18) The literal meaning of قَذَف is to throw horizontally which has been translated above as launching) یدمَغُ means to hit on the head (to smash it) and زَاھِق means something which is gone or vanishes without leaving a trace.
This verse explains that Allah has not created this marvelous universe with earth and the sky for amusement. This creation is the result of a carefully thought out plan which aims at distinguishing right from wrong. Observation of Nature’s creations leads people along the righteous path and protects them from evil. This idea is conveyed in the verse by saying that virtue is hurled against evil and smashes its head so completely that it disappears without a trace.
وَ لَهٗ مَنْ فِي السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضِ ۭ وَ مَنْ عِنْدَهٗ لَا يَسْـتَكْبِرُوْنَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهٖ وَ لَا يَسْتَحْسِرُوْنَ
وَمَنْ عِندَهُ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَلَا يَسْتَحْسِرُونَ (And those who are near Him are not arrogant against His worship, nor are they sluggish. – 21:19) It means that Allah’s servants who are with Him i.e. angels pray to Him all the time without ceasing. So, if the humans do not pray to Him, it will not make any difference to Him, but they themselves will be the losers. It is human nature to judge others by applying one’s own situation to them. Hence there are two possibilities preventing a person from offering acts of worship ceaselessly. One, that he regards it below his dignity to bow down before any one and therefore does not pray to Allah Ta` ala. Secondly, it is physically not possible for a man to worship without a break because he needs to rest in between. In view of these two human constraints, it is explained towards the end of the verse that the angels are free from these compulsions. They do not regard it below their dignity to worship Allah constantly nor do they get tired or need any rest or sleep.
يُسَبِّحُوْنَ الَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لَايَفْتُرُوْنَ
This point has been brought to a conclusion in the next verse by saying يُسَبِّحُونَ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لَا يَفْتُرُونَ , (They proclaim His purity night and day, never slackening – 21:20).
Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn Harith (رض) عنہ said that he asked Ka` b al-Abbar (رض) how it was that angels kept reciting tasbih (proclaiming Allah’s purity) all the time. Did they not have anything else to do? And if they did how could they do both things simultaneously, that is reciting tasbih and do other things. To this Ka’b replied “0 my nephew! Does performance of any of your jobs prevent you from breathing?” The truth is that tasbih comes to angels just as breathing comes to human beings which continues without stopping whatever else he may be doing.(Qurtubi, Al-Bahr ul-Muhit)
لَوْ كَانَ فِيْهِمَآ اٰلِهَةٌ اِلَّا اللّٰهُ لَفَسَدَتَا ۚ فَسُبْحٰنَ اللّٰهِ رَبِّ الْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُوْنَ
Only a Being which has these powers is worthy of being worship لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّـهُ لَفَسَدَتَا (Had there been gods in them [ the heavens and the earth ] other than Allah, both would have fallen in disorder. – 21:22). This is an argument of common nature in favour of the Oneness of Allah which is based on common practice. It is also a logical proof of the oneness of God and a great deal of literature is available to explain it in the books on theology (عِلمُ الکلَام). The argument of common nature is that if there were two Gods, each independent and sovereign, then the commands of both would prevail on the earth and in the sky which is not possible, because it is inconceivable that both of them would have common views on all matters. And if there are differences of opinion which is inevitable where power is shared, there could be conflict, which would always lead to chaos and confusion. The suggestion that the two Gods could consult each other before passing orders has been adequately discussed, and rejected, in the books of theology. The thing to note is that if the two Gods had to take decisions jointly, then neither of them would have been sovereign, and a god with divided sovereignty is not God.
اَمِ اتَّخَذُوْا مِنْ دُوْنِهٖٓ اٰلِهَةً ۭ قُلْ هَاتُوْا بُرْهَانَكُمْ ۚ ھٰذَا ذِكْرُ مَنْ مَّعِيَ وَذِكْرُ مَنْ قَبْلِيْ ۭ بَلْ اَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُوْنَ ۙ الْحَقَّ فَهُمْ مُّعْرِضُوْنَ
هَـٰذَا ذِكْرُ مَن مَّعِيَ وَذِكْرُ مَن قَبْلِي (Here is the Message for those with me and the Message for those before me. – 21: 24) One explanation of this verse on which the translation is based is that ذِکر means Message and “Message for those with me” refers to Qur’an, while “the Message for those before me” refers to Torah, Injil (Evangel) and Zabur (Psalms), the earlier divine books. According to this interpretation, the meaning of the verse is that neither the Qur’an (which is the Book for the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and his followers) nor the older books contain anything to suggest worship of anyone else but Allah. Despite the fact that the texts of Torah and Injil (Evangel) have been altered, it is not suggested in either of them that Allah has partners with whom he shares His authority. Another explanation of the verse is given in Al-Bahr ul-Muhit according to which the word (dhikr) means here “description”, and the sense is that this Qur’an is a description for the people who were in the days of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) which describes for them the rules of Shari’ah and invites them to the correct way of life. At the same time it is a description of those who were before the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) because it keeps alive the stories and the traditions of people long gone by.
اَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِيْنَ كَفَرُوْٓا اَنَّ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنٰهُمَا ۭ وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاۗءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ ۭ اَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُوْنَ
أَوَلَمْ يَرَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا (Have the disbelievers not seen. – 21:30) Here the word رُؤیَت (to see, to think) is used in its general sense i.e. knowledge, whether acquired by visual observation or by way of logical conclusion. The discussion which follows refers partly to actual observation and partly to logical inference.
أَنَّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ كَانَتَا رَتْقًا فَفَتَقْنَاهُمَا (The heavens and the earth were closed, then We opened them. – 30) The word رَتَق (ratq) means to close and فَتَق (fatq) means to open. When used in combination the words mean full control in the management and execution of a job. The translation of the verse is that the earth and the sky were closed and Allah opened them up. Different exegesists have explained differently the sense of the words “closing” and “opening”, but the meanings which the companions of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and the majority of the exegesists have adopted are that closing of sky and earth means shutting off rainfall from the sky and vegetation from the earth, and opening means the opening of these two i.e. the rainfall and vegetation.
The following story about Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Umar (رض) has been related in Ibn Kathir’s commentary on the authority of Ibn Abi Hatim. A man went to Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Umar (رض) and requested him to explain the meaning of this verse to him. He pointed out towards Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) and told him to go to him for an explanation of the verse. He also requested him to let him know the explanation that Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) gave to him.
The man went to Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) and asked him what do the words رَتَقاً (ratqan) and فَتَقنَا (fata¬qna) mean in the verse. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) replied that originally the sky was closed and there was no rainfall, likewise the earth was closed and there was no growth on it. When Allah Ta’ala sent down man on earth to live here He opened up rainfall from the sky and the vegetation from the earth. After learning the explanation of the verse the man went back to Sayyidna Ibn ` Umar (رض) and repeated to him what he had learnt from Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) . Then Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Umar (رض) remarked that he was then left in no doubt that Allah Ta’ala had graciously bestowed upon Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) a complete knowledge of Qur’an. He further said that previously he used to consider Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas’s (رض) explanations of the Holy Qur’an as bold attempts, of which he did not approve. But now he was convinced that Allah Ta’ala had granted to him special insight into the meaning of Qur’an, and that the explanation he gave of the words رَتق و فَتق was absolutely correct.
This story of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) is also reported in Ruh ul-Ma` ani through Ibn Mundhir and Abu Nu’aim, and a group of the scholars of hadith including Hakim, the writer of Mustadark, who has accepted the tradition as correct.
After reporting this narration Ibn Ibn ` Atiyyah al-‘Aufi says that this interpretation is hasan and comprehensive, and is compatible with the text of the Qur’an. It contains a lesson and argument against the infidels and also mentions about the Omnipotence and the special bounties of Allah Ta’ala, which is the basis of His Oneness and recognition of His attributes. The following sentence وَالسَّمَاءِ ذَاتِ الرَّجْعِ ﴿١١﴾ وَالْأَرْضِ ذَاتِ الصَّدْعِ ﴿١٢﴾ (and We created from water every living thing) also corroborates this interpretation. Al-Bahr ul-Muhit has also adopted the same interpretation. Qurtubi has declared this explanation to be that of ` Ikrimah as well and said that another verse also endorses this meaning.’
Tabari has also adopted this very interpretation.
وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ (And We created from water every living thing. – 21:30) Water is an essential element in the creation of all living things. According to the latest research it is not only the humans and animals which possess both life and soul but also plants and minerals. Water plays a very important role in the creation, growth and evolution of all living things.
- The author has explained the interpretation of this verse as adopted by many authorities. But the miraculous style of the Holy Qur’ an is that the words used by it may have different possibilities for interpretation. The words ratq and fatq used here have another meaning which is ‘being compact’ and ‘being separated’. If these words are taken in this sense, the verse may also be translated as, “The heavens and the earth were compact, then We separated them.” In this case the verse will refer to an event of the early creation, meaning thereby that the heavens and the earth were originally a single body. Thereafter Allah separated the earth from the heavens. The contemporary research about the Big Bang is close to this description. But it should always be kept in mind that the Qur’anic descriptions are independent of any scientific theory and the Qur’an should not be made subject to ever-changing theories. (Muhammad Taqi Usmani)
Ibn Kathir has quoted Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض) on the authority of Imam Ahmad (رح) ، that he requested the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) to tell him how things were created. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) replied that everything was created from water. Then Abu Hurairah (رض) asked about the acts that lead one to the Jannah. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) replied:
اَفش السّلام وأطعم و صل الأرحام وقم بالّیل والناس نیام ثُمّ ادخل الجنّة بسلام (تفرد بہ أحمد و هذا إسناد علی شرط الشیخین الخ)
“Make greeting with Salam common between you, and feed (others) and observe the rights of kinship, and stand (in prayers) at night when people are asleep. Then enter the Jannah with peace”.
وَمَا جَعَلْنَا لِبَشَرٍ مِّنْ قَبْلِكَ الْخُلْدَ ۭ اَفَا۟ىِٕنْ مِّتَّ فَهُمُ الْخٰلِدُوْنَ
وَمَا جَعَلْنَا لِبَشَرٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ الْخُلْدَ (And We did not assign immortality to any human (even) before you. – 21:34) The preceding verses give a strong and logical rebuttal of the unfounded and exaggerated beliefs of the infidels and polytheists to the effect that Sayyidna Masih and Sayyidna ` Uzair (علیہما السلام) are the associates of God or that Masih and the Angels are God’s children. Unable to come up with a satisfactory answer to the rational and logical arguments given by the Qur’an, the infidels of Makkah were in despair and wished for the death of the Holy Prophet صلی اللہ علیہ وسلمٍ. This has been mentioned in some other verses also, like e.g. نَّتَرَبَّصُ بِهِ رَيْبَ الْمَنُونِ (52:30). In this verse (34) Allah Ta` ala has given two answers to their pitiable wish. One, that even if the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) died early how would it help them? If they thought that they could use the death of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) as an argument against his prophethood, they were very much mistaken, because all the other Prophets (علیہم السلام) whose prophethood they themselves had accepted, also died when their time came. Thus, if the death of their own prophets did not alter their position as prophets, how could the death of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) change his position? Secondly, if their purpose in wishing for his early death was only to appease their frustration, then they should have known that death is universal, and everybody has to die sooner or later.
اگر بمرد عدو جأٰے شادمانی نیست کہ زندگانیء مانیز جاودانی نیست
If an enemy dies, it is not to be rejoiced, because our own life is not eternal.
كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَاۗىِٕقَةُ الْمَوْتِ ۭ وَنَبْلُوْكُمْ بِالشَّرِّ وَالْخَيْرِ فِتْنَةً ۭ وَاِلَيْنَا تُرْجَعُوْنَ
What is death?
Allah has said كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ ‘Every soul has to taste death’. Here the word soul refers to the living things of the earth, who must all face death, but does not include the angels. There is a difference of opinion about whether the angels will also die or not on the Day of Judgment. Some say that every living thing will die, though momentarily, irrespective of whether they are of the earth or the skies. But others maintain that angels and hurs and ghilman of Paradise are excluded from this general rule. (Only God knows best) (Ruh ul-Ma` ani) Majority of the scholars believe that death is the departure of soul from the mortal human frame, while soul itself is a subtle ethereal living thing which is made of light and resides in human body just as fragrance resides in the rose. Ibn al-Qayyim has convincingly proved this point in his book. (Ruh ul-Ma` ani)
The term ذَائِقَةُ الْمَوْتِ means that every individual will feel the pain of death – 21:35, because considering the manner in which body and soul are conjoined together their separation should obviously entail some pain. There are some saintly persons who regard death as a deliverance from the trials and tribulations of the worldly life and a means of bringing them closer to their Supreme love, that is Allah. This pleasure does not negate the agony of death, because where the reward is high, a little pain is easily tolerated.
Worldly comforts and discomforts are a test
وَنَبْلُوكُم بِالشَّرِّ وَالْخَيْرِ فِتْنَةً
And We test you all through bad and good (situations) with a trial. – 21:35
It means that man is tested both by good things and by bad things. شَر (bad) includes unpleasant things such as illness, grief, pain, poverty etc. while خَیر (good) means desirable things, like good health, happiness, comfort and abundance. Man is subjected to these conditions in this world for test and the test is that he should show patience and endurance in the face of adversity and should offer thanks to Allah when his life is peaceful and comfortable. Wise men have said that, it is more difficult to be steadfast and consistent in offering thanks to Allah for His gifts than to persevere and show patience in difficult circumstances. Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) is reported to have said:
بُلینا بالضّراء فصبرنا و بلینا بالسّراء فلم نصبر (روح المعانی)
“We were tested by discomforts and We bore it with patience, but when we were tested by pleasures, we could not observe patience (i.e. we could not offer gratitude to Allah as was due) “. (Ruh ul-Ma’ani)
خُلِقَ الْاِنْسَانُ مِنْ عَجَلٍ ۭ سَاُورِيْكُمْ اٰيٰتِيْ فَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلُوْنِ
Haste is undesirable
خُلِقَ الْإِنسَانُ مِنْ عَجَلٍ (Man is made of haste. – 21:37). عَجَل (‘ajal) means haste or hurry. The word is used in situations when one desires things to happen before their time, and this trait is bad by its very nature. In another place also the word is used to denote human weakness. For instance وَكَانَ الْإِنسَانُ عَجُولًا i.e. Man is prone to haste – 17:11, meaning that he is very impatient. When Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) went to the mount Tur in a hurry leaving his people behind, he was censured by Allah Ta` ala.
Prophets (علیہم السلام) and the devout people who try to excel each other in the performance of righteous deeds have been commended and their zeal to do good deeds does not constitute haste and hurry because they do not try to do these deeds before their time. In fact they do the deeds on time, but try to excel each other in quantity and quality.
Here خُلِقَ الْإِنسَانُ مِنْ عَجَلٍ (Man is made of haste – 21:37) means that haste and hurry is one of the many weaknesses which are inherent in human nature. When a man is identified by some intrinsic trait of his character, me Arabs used to say that he is ‘made of that trait. For instance a short tempered man would be called a ‘man made of anger’.
سَأُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِي فَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلُونِ (I shall show you my signs -.21:37) Here the word آیات (signs) refers to those miracles and events which bear evidence to the honesty of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and the truth of his message. (Qurtubi)
These miracles also occurred during the battle of Badr (غزوہ بدر) when the Muslims who were considered weak and worthy of contempt gained a great victory over their enemies.
وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِيْنَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيٰمَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَـيْــــــًٔا ۭ وَ اِنْ كَانَ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ اَتَيْنَا بِهَا ۭ وَكَفٰى بِنَا حٰسِـبِيْنَ
Weighing of actions on the Day of Judgment and the scales to be used for this purpose
وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ (And We shall place scales to do justice on the Day of Judgment – 21:47) The مَوَازِین word is plural of مِیزان ، which means a scale. In this verse the word is used plural which some exegesists have explained by saying that for measuring deeds and actions of people many scales will be used. Different balances may be used for different individuals, or different balances may be used for different types of deeds.
But majority of scholars agree that there will be only one balance to weigh all the deeds, and that the word has been used in plural because it will serve the purpose of many balances and measure the deeds of all the children of Sayyidna ‘Adam (عليه السلام) from the earliest time to the Day of Judgment, whose count only Allah knows. قِسط (Qist) means justice and fairness. Thus the meaning of the verse is that the balance will measure fairly and justly and no injustice will be done to anyone. Mustadrak of Hakim has reported through Sayyidna Salman رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said that the balance that will be used on the Day of Judgment for weighing deeds and actions will be so enormous in size and span that it could enclose the earth and the sky within its fold for measurement. (Mazhari)
Hafiz Abu al-Qasim Lalkai has narrated in his Sunan (سُئن) through Sayyidna Anas (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said that an angel will be posted on the balance and every man will be brought before it. In case his good deeds overweigh his sins the angel will announce loudly, which everyone present will hear, that so and so has passed his test and now he will never be deprived of anything. And if the sins of a person overweigh his virtues, then the angel will announce that the wretched so and so has failed his test and has been made destitute forever. Hafiz has also reported on the authority of Sayyidna Hudhaifah (رض) ، that the angel who will be posted on the balance on the Day of Judgment is none other but Sayyidna Jibra’il (عليه السلام) .
Hakim, Baihaqi and ‘Ajurri have narrated through Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) that she enquired from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) whether he will remember his family members on the Day of Judgment; to which he replied that on that Day there will be three occasions when no one will remember any one. Firstly, when people will be brought before the scale of justice for the weighment of their deeds. Until it is known whether one’s virtues overweigh the sins or otherwise, everyone would forget everyone else. Secondly, when the records of deeds will be thrown in the air, until they are either placed in the right hand (which will be a sign of salvation) or in the left hand or from behind (which will be a sign of punishment) it would indicate God’s wrath. Thirdly, the occasion to cross the bridge of Sirat (صِرَاط) i.e. until this bridge is crossed, no one will remember any one else. (Mahari)
وَإِن كَانَ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍ أَتَيْنَا بِهَا (And even if it (any act, good or evil) is to the measure of a mustard seed, we will bring it forth – 21:47) It means that on the Day of Reckoning, all the deeds of every person, big or small, good or bad, will be brought forth so that they may be subjected to reckoning and weighment.
Method of the weighment of deeds
One possibility is that deeds and actions of a person recorded by angels will be weighed as indicated by the famous Hadith generally known as حَدِیث البِطَقَۃ . (hadith al-bitaqahl). The other possibility is that deeds of a person will be converted into absolute substances which will then be weighed. By and large the traditions support the second view, and a majority of scholars have adopted this version. The verse وَوَجَدُوا مَا عَمِلُوا حَاضِرًا (And they will find what they did all there – 18:49) and the like in the Holy Qur’an and many traditions also confirm the second view.
Accountability of Deeds
Tirmidhi has reported through Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) that a man came to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and narrated to him that he had two slaves who called him a liar, were dishonest in their dealings and did not obey his orders. In retaliation he scolded them and also beat them. How then would his chastisement of his slaves be judged in relation to their misconduct. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) replied that their misdeed would be weighed against the punishment which he inflicted on them and if the two were equally balanced, then the matter would rest there, but in case their crimes exceed his punishment it would be regarded as a favour bestowed on them by him. But, on the other hand, if the punishment awarded to them exceeded their misdeeds, then he would be made subject to punishment and retaliation for his excess. Then the man rose and sat down in a corner and started weeping. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) asked him whether he had not read this verse وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ (And We shall place scales to do justice on the day of judgment – 21:47). Then the man said that he had no choice but to free his slaves so that he might escape accountability. (Qurtubi)
- The author has referred here to a long hadith in which it is mentioned that while reckoning a person’s deeds, a card will be placed in the balance on which the kalimah لا إلہ إلا اللہ will be written. This card will weigh more than a heap of bad deeds. (Muhammad Taqi Usmani)
وَلَقَدْ اٰتَيْنَا مُوْسٰى وَهٰرُوْنَ الْـفُرْقَانَ وَضِيَاۗءً وَّذِكْرًا لِّـلْمُتَّـقِيْنَ
الْفُرْقَانَ وَضِيَاءً وَذِكْرًا لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ (Criterion and light and an advice for the God-fearing – 21:48) The three attributes which belong to Torah are فُرْقَانَ (criterion) which differentiates between right and wrong second is 4 ‘ (light) which provides light and manifestation of truth to hearts, and the third is ذِکر (advice) which is a source of guidance for the people. Some explain فُرْقَانَ as help from God which was available to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) all times. It was manifest when he was raised in the Pharaoh’s house, then at the time of his contest with the Egyptian magicians which resulted in the Pharaoh’s discomfiture, and again when he was pursued by the Pharaoh and his army and Allah saved him by causing dry passageways to appear in the river and, after the Bani Isra’il had crossed over to the other side, by drowning the Pharaoh and his army. Even after this incident Allah’s help was available to him at all times. Qurtubi has pointed out that whereas (ضِيَاءً light) and ذِکر (advice) are the attributes of Torah, o4 (criterion) is something else and not an attribute of Torah, because of the use of the conjunctive letter Wa.’o (و) after the word فُرْقَانَ (Allah knows best).
وَتَاللّٰهِ لَاَكِيْدَنَّ اَصْنَامَكُمْ بَعْدَ اَنْ تُوَلُّوْا مُدْبِرِيْنَ
وَتَاللَّـهِ لَأَكِيدَنَّ أَصْنَامَكُم (And I swear by Allah that I will do something to your idols – 21:57) The wording of the verse indicates that Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) spoke these words before his community. But this explanation leaves a little doubt in one’s mind because Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) had excused himself from going to the Eid festival by pleading illness إِنِّي سَقِيمٌ – I am sick – 37:89). And when they found their idols broken, they started a search for the culprit. If they already knew what he had said about their idols and that he had stayed behind alone when they had gone to attend the Eid function, then it was fairly obvious that he had broken the idols. Then where was the need for them to go looking for the offender?
There are more than one explanations to this situation. One, that since Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) was the only one holding these views and enjoyed no standing in the community, people might have ignored and even forgotten what he had said as something of no consequence. (Bayan ul-Qur’an). Two, that those who were looking for the culprit were a different lot of people and were not aware of what he (Sayyidna Ibrahim عليه السلام) had said about their idols. While in a third version Mujahid and Qatadah are of the view that Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) did not speak these words before other people, but only pictured the situation in his mind, or had said that only at heart, or he might have spoken them before one or two old persons after the people had left for the festival. Later, when the idols were found broken and the people started looking for the one who did it, these old men revealed the secret to them. (Qurtubi)
فَجَــعَلَهُمْ جُذٰذًا اِلَّا كَبِيْرًا لَّهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ اِلَيْهِ يَرْجِعُوْنَ
فَجَعَلَهُمْ جُذَاذًا (21:58) The word جُذَاذً is the plural for جُذَ. which means fragment or piece. Thus its meaning is that Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) broke the idols into small pieces.
إِلَّا كَبِيرًا لَّهُمْ (Save the big one of them – 21:58) That is, only the biggest idol was left intact and all the rest were broken. It is possible that the one which was left unbroken was either bigger in size or higher in esteem with the unbelievers.
لَعَلَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ يَرْجِعُونَ (So that they may come back to him – 21:58) There can be three explanations to this expression. One, if the object of إِلَيْهِ (to him) is Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) then the meaning would be that he himself wanted the unbelievers to ask him why he had broken the idols which would give him a chance to sneer at them that what they worshipped could not even look after themselves. The second meaning of إِلَيْهِ يَرْجِعُونَ could be that he destroyed the idols in the hope that when the unbelievers saw them in pieces it might convince them of the futility of idol-worship and cause their return toward the religion of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) . The third explanation is given by Kalbi. He says that the object of إِلَيْهِ is کَبِیر (the big). In that case the explanation would be that when the unbelievers, on their return saw the idols in pieces except the big one, who had a hammer resting on his shoulder, they might turn towards it for an explanation and getting no response from it they would see for themselves the helplessness of the idol.
قَالَ بَلْ فَعَلَه ٗٗ ڰ كَبِيْرُهُمْ ھٰذَا فَسْـَٔــلُوْهُمْ اِنْ كَانُوْا يَنْطِقُوْنَ
The words of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) were not untrue, but only allusions
قَالَ بَلْ فَعَلَهُ كَبِيرُهُمْ هَـٰذَا فَاسْأَلُوهُمْ إِن كَانُوا يَنطِقُونَ (He said, “Rather, this is done by this chief of theirs. So, ask them if they were to speak.” – 21:63) When the community of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) got hold of him and asked him to confess his guilt, he said “The big one among them has done it. Why don’t you ask him, if he can speak”?
The point to consider here is that the idols were broken by Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) and its denial and attributing the deed to the big idol, was contrary to fact and constituted an untruth. The exalted position of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) renders such a conclusion untenable. The exegesists have put forward several explanations to sort out this matter. One of them is that his statement is in the nature of an assumption i.e. why not considering the possibility that the deed was done by the big idol? And a supposition which is contrary to facts is not a lie as the Qur’ an itself says إِن كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ وَلَدٌ فَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْعَابِدِينَ (If the Ralhman [ All-Merciful ] has a son then I am the first to serve him – 43:81). But the most convincing and straight forward explanation is the one adopted by al-Bahr ul-Muhit, Qurtubi and Ruh ul-Ma` ani, which says that it is a metaphoric attribution (اَسنَاد مجَازی), that is the act which was done by Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) was attributed to the big idol by way of metaphoric attribution because it was this idol which, by reason of the reverence that it commanded in the whole community, persuaded Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) to do what he did with the smaller idols. It is like amputating a thief’ s hand and then telling him that none but his own misdeeds are responsible for the amputation.
Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) had also attributed the breaking of the idols to the big idol by placing an axe on its shoulder or in its hands, thus pointing an accusing finger towards it. He reinforced this suspicion by his word when he suggested to the unbelievers that they should enquire from the big idol as to who had destroyed the other idols. It is a case of metaphoric attribution (اسناد مجازی) which is very well illustrated in an Arabic saying انبت الربیہع البقلۃ ، that is the spring rains have raised crops. Although in actual fact it is God who produces and nourishes the crops, yet it has been ascribed to a visible cause, and no one can call it a lie. In the same manner Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) was not telling an untruth when he attributed the act to the big idol. His adoption of this act of dissimulation in fact served many religious interests; one of them being to make the people aware of the possibility that perhaps the big idol was infuriated with the smaller idols because they too were worshipped with the same degree of reverence as itself. If they could be made to think on these lines, it could have opened the route to belief in the Oneness of Allah. If the big idol was not willing to accept the idols as objects of worship how could Allah, the Creator of all living things, agree to share His authority with anyone?
Secondly, perhaps they also wondered that if the idols whom they worshipped were really as powerful as they thought them to be, how could anyone have broken them with impunity? Thirdly, if the charge of breaking the smaller idols could be laid against the big idol, then it would be quite pertinent to ask that in that event it should also have the power of speech. That is why Sayyidna Ibrahim I said فَاسْأَلُوهُمْ إِن كَانُوا يَنطِقُونَ (So, ask them if they were to speak. – 21:63). Thus it is really not necessary to put farfetched meanings into his words which should be interpreted in a plain, straight forward manner. He attributed the deed to the big idol by way of metaphoric attribution. This was not contrary to facts nor did it constitute an untruth.
Three untruths ascribed to Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام)
Now the point to consider is that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) himself has said according to some authentic traditions that انّ ابراھیم (عليه السلام) لم یکذب غیر ثلاث (Bukhari and Muslim). That is Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) never spoke an untruth except on three occasions, and then those three occasions have been described in the same hadith in some detail. The saying goes on to narrate that two out of the three untruths were spoken solely in the way of Allah. One of them is this verse بَلْ فَعَلَهُ كَبِيرُهُمْ (Rather this is done by this chief – 21:63). The second one relates to Eid day when he said to his familyإِنِّي سَقِيمٌ (I am sick – 37:89), and the third one was spoken to save his wife, from harm. This happened when he was travelling with his wife Sayyidah Sarah (رض) ، and passed through a settlement whose ruler was cruel and depraved and who used to seize the wives of other people and subject them to sexual abuse. However, he spared those who were accompanied by their fathers or brothers. When Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) reached this city, the ruler was informed about the arrival of the couple. So he got Sayyidah Sarah (رض) arrested and brought before him. When the ruler’s men came to arrest her, they enquired from Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) about his relationship with her.
Fearing the evil intentions of the wicked ruler Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) said that she was his sister. (It is this episode which is referred to in the hadith as the third lie) Despite this declaration they took her away with them. Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) had already briefed her that she should also tell the ruler that she was his sister, because according to Islamic relationship they were brother and sister as they were the only two Muslims in that land and hence according to Muslim brotherhood that relationship was valid. Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) lacked the strength to defend himself and his wife against the ruler and his men, so he started praying to invoke Allah’s Mercy. When Sayyidah Sarah (رض) was brought before the ruler, he started making advances to her, and in punishment he was turned into a cripple. Then he begged her to pray for him to return to normal in which case he would let her go without harm.
When Sayyidah Sarah (رض) prayed for him and he returned to normal, he broke his promise and again tried to molest her and again became a cripple. This was repeated thrice and ultimately he gave up and sent back Sayyidah Sarah (رض) to Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) . This is a summary of the hadith. However, three lies have been ascribed to Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) clearly in this hadith which is against the position and dignity of the prophethood. But the hadith contains in itself a refutation of this charge i.e. none of the three episodes reveal that a deliberate lie was told. They were mere dissimulations (تَورِیَہ) which are permissible and legitimate if spoken in defense of oneself from cruelty and do not fall within the definition of a lie. The reasoning for this is given in the hadith itself i.e. Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) had told Sayyidah Sarah (رض) that he had informed the ruler’s men that she was his sister and that she should also say the same, because they were indeed brother and sister in the wider sense of universal Muslim brotherhood.
This is called tauriyah (dissembling) where the words used may be interpreted differently, so that the listener understands them one way whereas the speaker means something else. Tauriyah is permissible by consensus of Islamic jurists if used to save oneself from injustice. This is totally different from Shiite’s Taqqiyah (تَقِّیَہ), which is an outright lie. In Taqqaiya one does not only speak a lie but also acts on it, while in the case of tauriyah it is not a lie in the real sense as the speaker uses words which are capable of conveying his intentions as in the case of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) calling Sayyidah Sarah (رض) as his sister which was true in the sense that both were Muslims and Islam constitutes a universal brotherhood. Same argument can be put forward in the case of his other two utterances. It has been explained above that he said بَلْ فَعَلَهُ كَبِيرُهُمْ as a tauriyah to refer the act toward the big idol by way of metaphor (اسناد مجازی). As for his saying, إِنِّي سَقِيمٌ, in common parlance the word Saqeem (سقیم) means sick but it also means depressed, dejected, despondent and weak. Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) said in the latter sense which was absolutely true keeping in considering his feelings against the unbelievers, but the people took it in the popular sense i.e. sickness. Then the wording of the hadith that two out of the three lies were to promote belief in the One and true Allah suggests that they were not sins, because no one can hope to please Allah by committing an act of sin.
It is sheer ignorance to deny the authenticity of the lies of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام)
Some Muslims who are influenced by the writings of western orientalists and Mirza Qadyani have declared this saying as unauthentic despite the fact that its narrators are reliable persons, because it accuses Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) of lying which is against the spirit of Qur’an, and that it is better to declare all the narrators of the saying as unreliable rather than to label Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) as a liar. From this they also made a rule that any saying, no matter how authentic its source might be, should be rejected if it is in conflict with the teachings of Qur’an. This ruling is absolutely valid and acceptable to entire Ummah, but the point is that the religious scholars have spent all their lives in researching each and every hadith, and none of those which they have accepted as authentic conflicts with the teachings of the Qur’an.
Such people lacking knowledge and being misguided do not hesitate to reject a hadith and then justify the rejection by arguing that it is in conflict with the Qur’an. In the present case the saying itself makes it clear that the words which may be interpreted as lies is only tauriyah. As for the question why the words of tauriyah are called lies in the saying, the answer is that the slightest slip of those who are close to God is taken seriously, as can be seen in the previous Surah Taha when Sayyidna ‘Adam’s (عليه السلام) slip and mistake is referred by the word عصٰی (disobeyed – 21:121) and غَوٰی (got misled – 20:121). It can be seen that whereas small mistakes can be forgiven and set aside in the case of common people, the same slips are considered as serious offences when committed by those who are dear to Allah Ta` ala.
The Holy Qur’an recounts at many places Allah’s displeasure over prophets in such situations. The hadith of Shafa` ah (intercession before Allah Ta` ala) which is famous and well known says that on the Day of Resurrection all people will gather together, and request prophets from Sayyidna ‘Adam (عليه السلام) upto the last prophet who came before the coming of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) one by one for Shaf ‘ah (intercession) that they be judged quickly. Every prophet will excuse himself from Shafa` ah (intercession) recounting one or more of his slips or mistakes. At last the entire humanity will approach the last of the prophets Sayyidna Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and he will perform ashshafa’ah al-kubra. According to this saying Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) will excuse himself quoting these utterances which though said as tauriyah and were, therefore, not lies in actual fact, were, none the less, below the dignity of a prophet. This lapse has been described as a lie in the hadith. This was well within the prerogative of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، and to the extent of narration of this saying we too may repeat it. But it is not permitted to anyone, except, when quoting the Qur’an or this hadith, to say that Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) had told a lie. The same view has been taken by Qurtubi and al-Bahr ul-Muhit in the commentary of Surah Ta-Ha in connection with Sayyidna Adam (عليه السلام) .
Reference to a delicate hint regarding sincerity of action arising from the saying
Out of the three lies which have been attributed to Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) in the saying two are said to be in the way of Allah Ta ala, but the third lie which was about Sayyidah Sarah (رض) was not said to be in the way of Allah Ta` ala, although saving the chastity of one’s wife is very much- a part of religious duty. On this point, in the commentary by Qurtubi, a very delicate suggestion by Qazi Abu Bakr Ibn Al-` Arabi has been reproduced which is apt to shatter the peace of mind of the pious and God fearing persons: in saving the chastity of one’s wife, though an act of religious duty, there was also an element of personal interest in protecting his wife’s honour. Because of the mixed motives this third incident has been excluded from the category of acts which are performed for Allah Ta` ala, because Allah Ta` ala has said أَلَا لِلَّـهِ الدِّينُ الْخَالِصُ (Look, to Allah alone belongs the pure faith – 39:3). Had some common man like us been involved in such an incident, then the act would have surely qualified as an act which are performed to win the goodwill of God. But in view of the exalted position of the prophets, the smallest degree of personal motive was regarded against the perfect quality of their devotion.
How the fire of Namrud turned into pleasant garden for Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام)
Those who do not believe in miracles and supernatural events have given strange meaning to this episode. The philosophical assumption: that attributes which are attached with and complementary to something are not separable – is by itself fallacious. The fact is that nothing in this world is essential to or inseparable from something else. God gave to fire an attribute that it should burn and to water that it should cool, but these attributes are customary and habitual but not rationally necessary. No philosopher has so for been able to advance a convincing argument about these attributes being rational.
Thus these attributes being only habitual, they can be changed whenever God so wills. If God so wills, fire can act as a coolant and water as a burning agent, and it cannot be held as rationally impossible. This is what happens when Allah Ta’ ala reveals His miracles in support of the missions of His prophets. Thus He commanded the fire of Namrud to cool down and the fire obeyed, and if the word بَرداً (cool) was not followed by the word سلَامَاً (safe) the fire would have cooled like ice and would have caused him harm. The Qur’ an says about the people of Nuh (عليه السلام) when they were drowned in water that أُغْرِقُوا فَأُدْخِلُوا نَارًا (they were drowned, and admitted into a Fire – 71:25).
حَرِّقُوهُ (Burn him – 21:68) that is the entire community and Namrud decided to burn him in fire. The historic version is that for full one month the entire population of the city were busy collecting fire wood for this purpose. Then after lighting the fire wood they fanned it to make it burn ferociously for the next seven days, until the flames rose high up into the sky. When the fire blazed with full ferocity they decided to throw Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) into it. But the fire was burning with such intensity that no one dared to approach it.
Then the Shaitan gave them the idea to use a catapult to throw him into the fire. While people were preparing to throw Allah’s Friend (خلِیل) into the sea of fire all the angels and all the creatures of the earth and sky cried out in unison at the fate that lay in store for Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) . At that Allah Ta` ala permitted them all to help Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) . When the angels asked Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) whether he needed their help. He replied that Allah was enough to help him and that He was watching over him. Jibra’il al-Ameen (عليه السلام) enquired whether he could render him any help to which Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) replied, “of course I need help, but from Allah, not from you”. (Mazhari)
ڌوَلُوْطًا اٰتَيْنٰهُ حُكْمًا وَّعِلْمًا وَّنَجَّيْنٰهُ مِنَ الْقَرْيَةِ الَّتِيْ كَانَتْ تَّعْمَلُ الْخَـبٰۗىِٕثَ ۭ اِنَّهُمْ كَانُوْا قَوْمَ سَوْءٍ فٰسِقِيْنَ
The name of the city from which Sayyidna Lut (عليه السلام) was saved and which has been mentioned in these verses was Sodom. There were seven other townships under this city which were thrown upside down by Jibra’il (عليه السلام) except one which was left intact for Lut (عليه السلام) and his followers. (Ibn ` Abbas, Qurtubl)
تَّعْمَلُ الْخَبَائِثَ (21:74) خَبَائِثَ (Khaba’ith) is the plural of خَبِئیثَہ meaning wickedness. Too many wicked things collectively are called Khaba’ith (خَبَائِثَ ). Their most abominable practice in which even the animals do not indulge, was sodomy or homosexuality. It is possible that because of its extreme wicked nature this practice is referred to as خَبَائِثَ that is in plural instead of خَبِئیثَہ in singular, as some commentators have explained. The second explanation is that the people of Sodom also indulged in other bad habits such as drinking, singing, shaving off beard, growing moustaches, wearing silk clothes, stone throwing, whistling etc. (Ruh ul-Ma` ani).
وَنُوْحًا اِذْ نَادٰي مِنْ قَبْلُ فَاسْتَجَبْنَا لَهٗ فَنَجَّيْنٰهُ وَاَهْلَهٗ مِنَ الْكَرْبِ الْعَظِيْمِ
وَنُوحًا إِذْ نَادَىٰ مِن قَبْلُ
And (remember) Nuh, when he called (for help) earlier – 21:76
Here مِن قَبْلُ (earlier) means before the time of Sayyidna Ibrahim and Sayyidna Lut (علیہما السلام) ، whose account has just preceded in previous verses. As for the prayer of Nuh عليه السلام which is referred to here briefly, the version given in Surah Nuh is that Sayyidna Nuh (عليه السلام) had cursed his people, رَّبِّ لَا تَذَرْ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ دَيَّارًا (My Lord, leave not upon the earth of the unbelievers even one – 71:26). It is reported at another place that when the people of Nuh (عليه السلام) did not listen to him at all, he prayed to Allah Ta` ala أَنِّي مَغْلُوبٌ فَانتَصِرْ (I am vanquished; do Thou succour me! – 54:10) so You take revenge from them.
فَاسْتَجَبْنَا لَهُ فَنَجَّيْنَاهُ وَأَهْلَهُ مِنَ الْكَرْبِ الْعَظِيمِ (So, We responded to him and saved him and his family from the terrible agony – 21:76) Here the expression ‘terrible agony’ either refers to the drowning in the deluge which annihilated the entire people or the torture which he and his followers suffered at the hands of those people.
فَفَهَّمْنٰهَا سُلَيْمٰنَ ۚ وَكُلًّا اٰتَيْنَا حُكْمًا وَّعِلْمًا ۡ وَّسَخَّرْنَا مَعَ دَاوٗدَ الْجِبَالَ يُسَبِّحْنَ وَالطَّيْرَ ۭ وَكُنَّا فٰعِلِيْنَ
فَفَهَّمْنَاهَا سُلَيْمَانَ (So We enabled Sulayman to understand it – 21:79). This expression means that Allah Ta` ala had made known to Sayyidna Sulayman (عليه السلام) the judgment which was better. Although the judgment passed by Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) was not in conflict with religious jurisprudence, but the one adjudged by Sulayman (عليه السلام) was inspired by Allah and was therefore, more appropriate because it benefitted both the parties without hurting either.
Imam Baghawi (رح) has reported this story on authority of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) and Qatadah and Zuhri that two persons came to Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) . One of them had a flock of goats and the other one owned a field on which he grew crops. The latter made a complaint against the former that his goats entered his field at night and ate up his crop (It appears that the respondent had accepted the petitioner’s complaint and presumably the value of the flock of goats was equal to the value of the crop).
Thus Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) announced his judgment that the owner of the goats should give his entire flock to the other man in compensation for his loss. (This judgment was in line with the religious jurisprudence which requires that if goods valued by a price are destroyed by someone, the amount of compensation will be determined according to that price. In this case, the value of the crop was the same as the value of the flock; hence the judgment. When these two men i.e. the complainant and the respondent, emerged from the court of Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) they met Sayyidna Sulayman (عليه السلام) at the door.
He enquired from them about the judgment of their case, which they related to him. After hearing the judgment he remarked that if he were the judge in this case his verdict would have been different, which would be to the benefit of both parties. Then he went to his father Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) and repeated the same thing. Thereupon Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) enquired from him as to what kind of verdict he had in mind which would be more beneficial to both the parties. He replied that it would be more just and equitable if the flock of goats is given to the owner of the field so that he could use to his own benefit their milk, wool etc. and his field is given to the goats-man who should cultivate it and grow crops in it. When the field returns to the same condition in which it was before it was eaten by the goats, then the two men should get back their respective properties. Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) approved this judgment, called back the two men and announced the second judgment to them. (Mahari, Qurtubi, etc.)
Can the verdict of a Judge (Qadi) be changed or annulled after it has been announced?
It will be observed that Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) had pronounced a judgment which he revoked after hearing the views of Sayyidna Sulayman عليه السلام . Here a question arises whether a Qadi (Judge) has the authority to change his own verdict pronounced by him earlier.
Qurtubi has discussed this and similar matters in great detail, the gist of which is that where a Qadi (Judge) has given a verdict which is in conflict with the religious jurisprudence or is contrary to the views held by the people at large, then, by consensus of the Ummah, such a verdict is not valid. Then it is not only permissible but mandatory on any other Qadi (Judge) to nullify the verdict and to issue a fresh judgment in line with religious jurisprudence, and also to remove the incompetent Qadi from his position of authority.
But, if the judgment of a Qadi is based on religious jurisprudence and Ijtihad (اِجتِھاد) then it is not permissible for any other Qadis (Judges) to revoke that judgment, because if this is allowed, the whole judicial system will collapse and Islamic Law will become a plaything in the hands of different people. However, if a Qadi, after passing a verdict according to the dictates of Ijtihad realizes that he had erred in his earlier judgment and Ijtihad, then it is allowed, rather preferable, that he himself should change the verdict. In a detailed letter which Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) wrote to Abu Musa al-Asha` ri elaborating the principles governing the administration of justice and disposal of court cases, he said that in case Ijtihad (اِجتِھاد) changes after announcing a judgment then the judgment should be changed to conform to the changed Ijtihad (اِجتِھاد) (This letter is reported by Dar Qutni).
According to great commentator (امام تفسیر)Mujahid (رح) both the judgments are bona fide and correct in their own respective right. The verdict passed by Sayyidna Dawud عليه السلام was strictly judicial, whereas the judgment made by Sayyidna Sulayman عليه السلام was in the nature of a compromise between the two parties. The Holy Qur’an itself says , وَالصُّلْحُ خَيْرٌ (And compromise is better – 4:128). That is why the second judgment was praised by Allah Ta` ala. (Mazhari)
Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) had instructed all his Qadis (Judges) that when a dispute was raised before them, they should try to arrange a compromise between the parties. If a compromise was not possible, only then they should pass their judgment according to religious jurisprudence. The advantage in following this procedure, as he described it, was that in a legal judgment the loser has no option but to accept it, but at heart he develops a sense of hostility and hatred against his rival which is not healthy between the two Muslims. On the other hand, in the case of a compromise between the contesting parties, the element of hatred and ill will is removed. (From Mu’inal-Hukkam)
Therefore, according to the explanation propounded by Mujahid (رح) it was not a case of revoking or changing an earlier verdict, rather a compromise was willingly agreed between both the parties to the dispute, before they left the court.
If two Mujtahids by their separate Ijtihad pass two conflicting verdicts, should both be regarded as valid or should one of them be rejected?
A number of commentators have discussed this subject briefly or in detail whether all Mujtahideen (` مُجتَھِدِینَ ) be regarded as correct in their judgment (مُصِیب) and two opposing verdicts be taken as valid or, in case of conflict, one judgment be accepted and the other rejected. Qurtubi has dealt this subject in great detail. Religious scholars have held different views on the subject from the very beginning, while projecting their reasoning. All have derived support for their views from this very verse.
Those who support the argument that even conflicting verdicts are valid base their reasoning on the last sentence of the verse viz وَكُلًّا آتَيْنَا حُكْمًا وَعِلْمًا (And to each one of them We gave wisdom and knowledge – 21:79). The sentence points out in clear terms that Allah Ta` ala had bestowed wisdom and knowledge to both Sayyidna Dawud and Sulayman (علیہما السلام) and there is no admonition to the former, nor is he warned for any error on his part. Therefore it proves that both the judgments given by Sayyidna Dawud عليه السلام and Sulayman عليه السلام were correct and valid. However, the judgment given by Sulayman (عليه السلام) was preferred because it was advantageous to both the parties.
As for those who argue that in the event of an Ijtihadi (اِجتِھادی) difference only one judgment can be correct and the other must be rejected as invalid, they too offer the first sentence of this very verse i.e. فَفَهَّمْنَاهَا سُلَيْمَانَ (So, We enabled Sulayman (عليه السلام) to understand it – 21:79) in support of their argument. They say that there is a specific reference to Sulayman (عليه السلام) to whom the correct decision was revealed by Allah. It, therefore, follows that the verdict announced by Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) was not right even though he might have arrived at this decision through his Ijtihad (اِجتِہھاد) and was, therefore, free from all blame. This subject has been discussed in great detail in the books of jurisprudence. Here one should keep in mind that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said that if someone did Ijtihad (اِجتِہھاد) and gave a decision in accordance with the religious principles governing Ijtihad اِجتِہھاد ، and his Ijtihad is correct, he will be granted two rewards one for the the labour involved in making the Ijtihad, and the other for arriving at the right decision. But if he erred in his Ijtihad he would still get one reward for just his labour. (This Hadith is reported in most books of authoritative ahadith). This Hadith also explains that the difference among the scholars on this issue is one of semantics only.
For those who believe that both the conflicting judgment are valid, the consequences are that for the erring Mujtahid مُجتَھِد as well as his followers that Ijtihad اِجتِہھاد is correct and acting upon it will lead to their salvation. As for the view that only one verdict is correct and the other is wrong, the consequence of that also is no more than that the reward of the erring Mujtahid will be lesser because his Ijtihad fell short of the absolute right decision. However, he will be free from all blame and his followers will not be regarded as sinners. (Those who wish to see further details on the subject are advised to refer to Qurtub s commentary, where the subject is discussed in great detail).
The question of animals of a person harming another person or damaging his property
One can deduce from the verdict passed by Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) that if the animals of someone damage the property of a person at night, the owner of the animals will have to compensate the suffering party for his loss. However, it does not follow that a verdict given in accordance with the legal code of Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) must ipso facto be adopted in the Shari’ah of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) also. This is why there is a difference of opinion among the cardinal jurists on this issue. The ruling given by Imam Shafi` i (رح) says that if someone’s animals damage the fields of another person at night, the owner of the animals will have to compensate for the loss, but if the animals damage the field during day time, then there shall be no compensation due on the owner of the animals. This ruling can be said to be drawn from the judgment of Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) also, but, in fact he has based his ruling on a saying of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، which has been reported in Muwatta’ of Imam Malik as Mursal (مُرسَل).
This hadith concerns an incident in which a camel belonging to Sayyidna Bara’ Ibn ` Azib (رض) entered someone’s orchard and damaged it. The matter when reported to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، he ruled that the responsibility for protecting these fields and orchards at night rested on the owners, but if in spite of all reasonable measures adopted by them, the animals damaged the crop, then the owner of the animals shall be required to compensate for the loss.
On the other hand the Imam Azam Abu Hanifah (رح) and other jurists of Kufa School hold the view that if the owner or the shepherd is with the animals, and yet they damage the field or the orchard due to his negligence, then the compensation for the loss rests with the owner irrespective of whether the damage is caused during day or night. But where unattended animal wandered into somebody’s field damaging the same without any negligence on the part of the owner, then the owner of the animals will not be held liable for compensation, regardless of the time of day or night when the damage is caused. Imam Abu Hanifah (رح) has based this ruling on the Hadith جَبَّار جرح العجمَا – (the wound caused by an animal is not compensated) which is reported by Bukhari and Muslim and all other Scholars of Hadith. It means that the owner of the animal is not bound to compensate the owner of the field for any loss caused by his animal (provided that the owner or the shepherd is not with the animal at the time of the damage). This saying has set the rule that irrespective of the time of day or night, if the animal has not been let loose deliberately by its owner into somebody’s field and the animal has escaped, then the owner is not liable to make good the loss caused by his animal.
Glorification of Allah by birds and mountains
وَسَخَّرْنَا مَعَ دَاوُودَ الْجِبَالَ يُسَبِّحْنَ وَالطَّيْرَ وَكُنَّا فَاعِلِينَ (And with Dawud We subjugated the mountains that proclaimed the purity of Allah, and the birds as well. And We were the One who did (it) – 21:79.) Allah Ta` ala had granted Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) a melodious voice among the other outward absolute excellences. When he used to recite Zabur the birds would stop in their flight and join him in recitation. In the same way the mountains and the trees used to produce sounds as if they were singing praises to glorify Allah. A melodious voice was an external attribute granted to him by Allah and the joining with him of the birds and the mountains in praising Allah with him was a miracle. Now, for a miracle to happen it is not necessary that the birds and the mountains must necessarily possess life and intelligence; rather a miracle can give intelligence and knowledge to those objects which were without these attributes earlier. However .scientific research has proved that rocks and mountains do have life and knowledge to a limited extent. Among the companions Sayyidna Abu Musa al-Ash` ari (رح) had a very sweet voice. Once the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) passed by him when he was reciting the Holy Qur’an. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) stopped and listened to the recitation. Then he remarked that Allah Ta` ala had granted him the sweet voice of Dawud (عليه السلام) . When Abu Musa (رض) learnt that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) had been listening to his recitation, he said” Had I known that you were listening, I would have tried to recite with greater care”.
وَعَلَّمْنٰهُ صَنْعَةَ لَبُوْسٍ لَّكُمْ لِتُحْصِنَكُمْ مِّنْۢ بَاْسِكُمْ ۚ فَهَلْ اَنْتُمْ شٰكِرُوْنَ
The art of making armor was granted to Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) by Allah Ta` ala
وَعَلَّمْنَاهُ صَنْعَةَ لَبُوسٍ لَّكُمْ (And We taught him making of armor as dress for you – 21:80) Lexically, the word لَبُوسٍ is used for anything which is worn in the neck for protection. Here it is used for armor which is used in battle for protection against enemy. In another verse Allah Ta` ala says وَأَلَنَّا لَهُ الْحَدِيدَ that is ‘We softened for him iron’- 34:10). This means that either the iron used to become soft like wax in Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) hands or he was taught to heat it up to make it soft and then mould it, a practice which is used in the foundries today.
Skills beneficial to humanity are desirable and are like acts of prophets
The above verse also explains the benefit of the industry of the armor making i.e. لِتُحْصِنَكُم مِّن بَأْسِكُمْ (to protect you from what may harm you [ in combat ] – 21:80). This is a need which is felt universally both for religious and worldly purposes. That is why Allah Ta’ ala has said that He had taught this skill to Dawud (عليه السلام) which was a gift to him. It therefore follows that the learning and teaching of any skill which serves the need of people is an act of virtue, provided it is meant for the good of people, and not merely for the monetary gain. Different prophets are known to have been engaged in different skills in their time. For instance Sayyidna ‘Adam (عليه السلام) used his skill in farming. The Holy Prophet صلی اللہ عليه وسلم said that an industrialist producing his product with the intention of serving people is like the mother of Musa (عليه السلام) who fed her own child and also got paid for her services. Similarly, an industrialist who sets before him the service of humanity as his ideal draws double benefit – one for serving people and the other in the form of material gain from marketing his industrial products.
Making the air subservient to Sulayman i and related matters
Hasan al-Basri (رح) has narrated the following story. Once Sayyidna Sulayman (عليه السلام) was inspecting his cavalry horses and got so engrossed in the inspection that he missed the ` Asr prayer. When he realized his lapse, he was very sorry, and removed these horses from service since they were the cause of this lapse. As this action was taken to win the goodwill of Allah and to atone for his negligence, Allah rewarded him by making the wind subservient to him, which is a superior and faster conveyance. Details of this event will appear with the commentary of the relevant verses of Surah Sad (سُورہ ص) insh’ Allah .
وَلِسُلَيْمٰنَ الرِّيْحَ عَاصِفَةً تَجْرِيْ بِاَمْرِهٖٓ اِلَى الْاَرْضِ الَّتِيْ بٰرَكْنَا فِيْهَا ۭ وَكُنَّا بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عٰلِمِيْنَ
وَلِسُلَيْمَانَ الرِّيحَ عَاصِفَةً (And for Sulayman [ We subjugated ] the violent wind – 21:81) This sentence is a continuation of an earlier verse وَسَخَّرْنَا مَعَ دَاوُودَ (And with Dawad We subjugated – 21:79). Thus it means that just as Allah Ta’ ala had made birds and hills subservient to Dawud (عليه السلام) who used to sing in praise of Allah while he recited the Zabur, in the same way He made the wind subservient to Sulayman (عليه السلام) who used to fly on its wings swiftly wherever he wanted to go. It is worth noting here that while describing subservience of birds and hills for Dawud (عليه السلام) the word معَ (with) has been used, but the subservience of wind for Sulayman (عليه السلام) has been described using the letter لام (which means ‘for’ ). In this there is a subtle hint that the subservience in both these cases was different. In the case of Dawud (عليه السلام) the birds and hills used to sing praise of Allah with him simultaneously without any command from him. But in the case of Sulayman (عليه السلام) the wind acted according to his commands and carried him where and when he desired. (Ruh ul-Ma’ ani, with reference to A1-Baidawi).
Ibn Kathir in his commentary has described in fair detail the platform on which Sayyidna Sulayman (عليه السلام) was carried by the wind. It was made of wood and was of an enormous size which could accomodate him and all the functionaries of the government as well as the army alongwith their weapons, and the wind carried them all wherever it was commanded to go, covering two month’s journey in one day.
Ibn Abi Hatim has narrated on the authority of Sayyidna Said Ibn Jubair (رض) that 600, 000 six hundred thousand chairs were placed on this platform on which humans who were also believers sat in front with Sayyidna Sulayman (عليه السلام) and behind them sat the believing Jinns. Then the birds were commanded to fly above the platform and protect it from the heat of the sun. Then by the command of Sulayman (عليه السلام) the wind would take the platform to a specified destination. Some traditions report that throughout this aerial journey, Sulayman عليه السلام used to sit with his head bowed down praying to and thanking Allah Ta` ala in all humility and not turning his head to the right or to the left.
عَاصِفَةً (violent) Literal meaning of is strong and violent wind. At another place in the Holy Qur’an the attribute of this wind is given as رِیحُ عَاصِفَةً which means a mild breeze, which neither raises dust nor creates turbulence. On the face of it, these attributes are contradictory, but they can be reconciled in that whereas in itself it was so strong that it could accomplish two month’s Journey in one day, yet it did not create. any turbulence. It is reported that when this platform used to fly in the air, no birds were ever harmed due to velocity of the wind.
وَمِنَ الشَّيٰطِيْنِ مَنْ يَّغُوْصُوْنَ لَهٗ وَيَعْمَلُوْنَ عَمَلًا دُوْنَ ذٰلِكَ ۚ وَكُنَّا لَهُمْ حٰفِظِيْنَ
Subservience of Jinns and shaitans to Sulayman (عليه السلام)
وَمِنَ الشَّيَاطِينِ مَن يَغُوصُونَ لَهُ وَيَعْمَلُونَ عَمَلًا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ ۖ وَكُنَّا لَهُمْ حَافِظِينَ (And from the devils, (We subjugated for him) those who dived in water for him and did jobs other than that. And We were the One who kept watch over them. – 21:82) That is, Allah made the satan jinn subservient to Sulayman (عليه السلام) and they used to dive in the rivers fishing pearls for him. Apart from this, they used to perform other jobs for him, some of which are mentioned in other verses.
يَعْمَلُونَ لَهُ مَا يَشَاءُ مِن مَّحَارِيبَ وَتَمَاثِيلَ وَجِفَانٍ كَالْجَوَابِ That is (“Fashioning for him whatsoever he would – places of worship, statues, porringers like water-troughs – 34:13). Sulayman (عليه السلام) also used to put them to hard labour and make them work in different projects.
These are ethereal beings made of fire, who possess intelligence and understanding and are obligated to follow the laws of Shari` ah like humans. Those beings who fulfill these conditions are described by the word Jinn, while those among them who disobey the rules of Shari’ah and persist in their unbelief are called satans. It is obvious that all Jinns were made subservient to Sayyidna Sulayman (عليه السلام) whether they were believers or unbelievers. However, the believers regarded it as their religious duty to obey his wishes even before they were formally placed under his command, and there was no need to make a specific mention of their being placed under subservience to Sulayman (عليه السلام) . Hence in the context of the Jinns being made subservient to Sayyidna Sulayman (عليه السلام) the reference is to shaitans (unbelieving Jinns) only. They were made to obey him despite their unbelief and defiance. Perhaps, it is for this reason that a sentence is added at the end of the verse saying, “We alone kept watch over them”. Sulayman (عليه السلام) was exposed to danger from the unbelieving Jinns, but Allah was his protector and they could do him no harm.
It will be observed that while in the case of Sayyidna Dawad (عليه السلام) Allah Ta` ala had made subservient to him things which are extremely hard and dense, like iron and mountains, Sulayman (عليه السلام) was given mastery over things which are ethereal and cannot even be perceived e.g. wind and Jinn. This shows that He is omnipotent and that His authority extends over all created things. (Commentary by Ra’zi)
وَاَيُّوْبَ اِذْ نَادٰي رَبَّهٗٓ اَنِّىْ مَسَّنِيَ الضُّرُّ وَاَنْتَ اَرْحَمُ الرّٰحِمِيْنَ
Story of Sayyidna Ayyub (عليه السلام)
The story of Sayyidna Ayyub (عليه السلام) is based mostly on Jewish legends. Those which are considered as historically reliable by scholars of hadith are being reproduced here. The Holy Qur’an tells us only that he suffered from some serious disease but he endured his suffering with fortitude. Ultimately he prayed to Allah for recovery which was granted. During his illness all his family members and friends disappeared. They either died or just abandoned him to his fate. Then Allah Ta` ala restored him to complete health and gave him back all his children and also an equal number in addition. The remaining elements of this story have come down to us either through authentic sayings or by way of historical accounts. Hafiz Ibn Kathir has recorded the story as follows:
Allah Ta` ala had bestowed upon Sayyidna Ayyub (عليه السلام) ، in the early days of his life, all sorts of material comforts such as wealth, property, magnificent houses, children, servants and attendants. But later he faced a trial whereby the prophets are normally tested by Allah, and was deprived of all these comforts. Moreover he suffered from a serious disease which was like leprosy and which affected his whole body except the heart and the tongue. In this miserable condition too he spent his time in prayers and in giving thanks to Allah Ta` ala with his heart and tongue. Because of this serious illness all his relatives, friends and neighbors avoided him and placed him near a garbage-dump outside the city.
Nobody went near him except his wife who used to take care of him. She was either the daughter or grand daughter of Sayyidna Yusuf (عليه السلام) and her name was Layya daughter of Misha Ibn Yusuf (عليه السلام) . (Ibn Kathir) All his wealth having been lost, she worked and earned a living for him and for herself and also nursed him in his illness. The ordeal of Sayyidna Ayyub (عليه السلام) was nothing new, nor something to be wondered at. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said اژدّ النّاس بلاء الانبیاء چّم الصّالحُون چّم الامثل فالامثل that is the prophets face the most severe tests, and then come the other believers according to their degree of piety.
In another tradition it is reported that every man is tested according to his adherence and devotion to religion. The stronger his beliefs, the harder is the test to which he is subjected, so that his rewards are in proportion to his sufferings. Sayyidna Ayyub (عليه السلام) occupies a distinctive position among all the prophets for firmness in his devotion and endurance in his sufferings in the same manner as Dawud (عليه السلام) enjoyed distinction for offering thanks to Allah Ta` ala. Sayyidna Ayyub (عليه السلام) is a model of endurance and fortitude in the most trying circumstances. Yazid Ibn Maisara reports that when Allah Ta` ala deprived him of all his worldly possessions and subjected him to a severe ordeal, he concentrated all his mind and efforts upon the sole purpose of remembering Allah Ta’ ala and offering prayers to Him. While thanking Allah Ta’ ala for all sorts of worldly comforts and children granted to him earlier and whose love had filled his heart completely, he also thanked Him for their total withdrawal because nothing remained to distract him from total devotion to Allah Ta’ ala.
The invocation of Sayyidna Ayyub I is not counter to patience
The ordeal of Sayyidna Ayyub (عليه السلام) was very severe indeed. He not only lost all his worldly possessions but was also afflicted by a terrible disease because of which people avoided his company. He spent seven years and some months lying near a garbage dump outside the city, but never once did he lose his heart nor did he ever utter a word of complaint about his fate. His wife, Layya once asked him to pray to Allah for His Mercy as his sufferings had become unbearable, to which he replied that having enjoyed for seventy years the best of health surrounded by all the luxuries that money could buy, it would be unworthy of him to complain because a mere seven years has been spent in pain and poverty. His firm prophetic resolve, self-discipline and fortitude prevented him from beseeching Allah Ta` ala’s mercy on his condition, lest it should be construed as an act contrary to the unquestioning submission to the will of Allah Ta` ala (Although to invoke Allah’s Mercy for relief from sufferings does not mean absence of fortitude). Ultimately something happened which made him pray to Allah Ta` ala for His Mercy but as mentioned earlier this was just a prayer and did not express a sense of complaint. As such Allah Ta` ala has put His seal in acknowledgment of his extreme endurance in these words إِنَّا وَجَدْنَاهُ صَابِرًا (Surely We found him a steadfast man – 38:44). There are numerous versions of this story which have been omitted for their length.
Ibn Abi Hatim has reported on the authority of Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Abbas (رض) that when Sayyidna Ayyub’s (عليه السلام) supplication was granted, he was told to rub his heels on the ground and a stream of fresh and clear water would gush forth. He should then bathe himself in the water and also drink it, and the disease would disappear. Sayyidna Ayyub (عليه السلام) did as he was told and in no time his body, which was covered with boils and was reduced to skin and bones regained its original shape and health. Allah Ta’ ala sent him garments from Paradise which he wore and sat down in a corner away from the garbage dump. His wife came to see him as usual and when she did not find him, she started crying. She did not recognize Ayyub (عليه السلام) who was sitting nearby in a corner because his appearance had changed completely. Then she turned to him and asked him if he had any information about the sick man who was lying there, and whether he had gone somewhere or had been eaten up by dogs and wolves. She spoke to him for some time without realizing that the man was none other than her husband. Then Sayyidna Ayyub (عليه السلام) revealed himself, but even then she did not recognize him and asked him why he was making fun of her. Sayyidna Ayyub (عليه السلام) then told her to look at him again and try to recognize him. He also informed her that Allah Ta’ ala had healed his body after he invoked His Mercy. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) reports that after this, Allah Ta’ ala restored to him all his wealth and children and gave him more children equal in number to the children which he had before (Ibn Kathir).
Sayyidna Ibn Masud (رض) says that Sayyidna Ayyub (عليه السلام) had seven sons and seven daughters but they all died while he was undergoing the ordeal. When his days of hardship were over, his children were brought back to life by Allah Ta` ala and his wife also gave birth to as many more children, to which the Qur’an refers to as وَمِثْلَهُم مَّعَهُمْ (and the like thereof alongwith them – 21:84). According to Tha’labi this version is closer to the text of the Qur’an. (Qurtubi)
Some scholars say that he was granted as many new children as he had before and the word مِثل (the like) refers to an equal number of grand children. (Only Allah knows best).
وَاِسْمٰعِيْلَ وَاِدْرِيْسَ وَذَا الْكِفْلِ ۭ كُلٌّ مِّنَ الصّٰبِرِيْنَ
Whether Sayyidna Dhul-Kifl was a prophet or a saint and his strange story
Three persons are mentioned in the above two verses. Out of these three there is no doubt about the prophethood of Sayyidna Isma1 (عليه السلام) and Sayyidna Idris (عليه السلام) as they are mentioned in the Qur’an as such several times. Ibn Kathir is of the opinion that the mention of the name of Sayyidna Dhul-Kifl along with the other two prophets in the above verse shows that he too was a prophet. However, some other versions do not include him in the category of prophets. They say that he was a saint or a pious person.
Imam of Tafsir Ibn Jarir (رح) has reported on the authority of Mujahid (رح) that where Sayyidna Yasa’ (عليه السلام) (who is referred to as a prophet in the Holy Qur’an) became old and weak, he thought of appointing someone who could perform the duties of a prophet on his behalf during his life time. He assembled all his companions for this purpose and told them of his desire to appoint someone who would act as his deputy but who must fulfill three conditions namely that he should fast all the year round, should spend the nights in prayers and does not ever lose his temper. A relatively unknown person who was held in contempt by the people, stood up and offered himself for the job. Sayyidna Yasa’ (عليه السلام) asked him whether he fasted all the year round, spent his nights in prayers and never lost his temper. The man replied in the affirmative and confirmed that he fulfilled all the three conditions. Perhaps Sayyidna Yasa’ (عليه السلام) did not believe his claim and rejected him. After a few days Sayyidna Yasa’ (عليه السلام) reconvened the meeting and repeated his conditions and asked his companions if any of them met the requirements. Everyone remained seated but the same man stood up again and claimed that he fulfilled the three conditions. Then Yasa’ (عليه السلام) appointed him his deputy. When Shaitan realized that Sayyidna Dhul-Kifl had been selected as a deputy to Yasa’ (عليه السلام) he asked all his aides to go to Sayyidna Dhul-Kifl and inveigle him into doing something which would result in his removal from the post of deputy. All his aides excused themselves and said that he was beyond their power to harm. The Satan (Iblis) then said “Alright, leave him to me. I will take care of him.”
Sayyidna Dhul-Kifl, true to his claim, used to fast during the day and pray the whole night and had a little nap in the afternoon. Satan went to him just when he was about to take his afternoon nap and knocked at the door. He got up and enquired who was there. The Shaitan replied “I am an old tortured man”. So he opened the door and let him in. The Shaitan came in and started a yarn about the cruelty and injustice which he suffered at the hands of his community and relatives. He stretched the story so long that no time was left for Sayyidna Dhul-Kifl to take his usual nap. So, he told the old man (Shaitan) that he should come to him at the time when he came out, and he would cause justice to be done to him.
Later on Sayyidna Dhul-Kifl sat in his court and waited for the old man but he did not turn up. Next morning he again waited for the old man in his court but again he did not come. Then in the afternoon when he was about to have his nap, the old man came and started beating at the door. He enquired who he was, and the Shaitan replied again – “an old tortured man” so, he opened the door and asked him “Didn’t I tell you to come to my court yesterday but you failed to appear, nor did you come this morning?” To this the Shaitan answered “Sir, my enemies are very wicked people; when they learnt that you were sitting in your court and would force them to give back to me what was my due, they agreed to settle the matter out of court. But as soon as you left your court, they went back on their promise’. Sayyidna Dhul-Kifl asked him again to come to his court when he was there. All this conversation continued for such a long time that he could not have his usual nap on that day also.
He then went to the court and waited for the old man, who again did not turn up. The next day again he waited for him until late in the noon but to no avail. When he returned home on that day, he was very sleepy because of lack of sleep for last two days. Therefore, he asked the family members not to allow anyone to knock at the door. The old man came again and wanted to knock at the door but the family members stopped him, so he entered the house through a ventilator, and started knocking at the door of his room, Sayyidna Dhul-Kifl got up again and saw that the old man had come inside the house while the door was still closed. So he asked him as to how he had entered the house.
Then suddenly he became aware that the man standing before him was Shaitan and asked him “Are you the God’s enemy Iblis?” He admitted that he was Shaitan and remarked, “You have thwarted all my plans and frustrated all my efforts to entice you in my design. My intention was to make you angry somehow, so that one of your claims before Yasa’ (عليه السلام) could be proved false.” It was because of this episode that he was given the title Dhul-Kifl, which means a person who is true to his covenant and performs his duties faithfully, and this title was fully deserved by him. (Ibn Kathir)
Another narrative is quoted in Masnad of Ahmad but has the name of the person Alkifl instead of Dhul-Kifl. That is why Ibn Kathir has observed after quoting this narrative that he was a different person and not Dhul-Kifl, who is mentioned in this verse. The narrative is as follows:
Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Umar (رض) has reported that he had heard a hadith (حَدِیث) from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) not once, but more than seven times that there was a man by the name Kifl among the Bani Isra’il who did not abstain from any type of sin. Once a woman came to him and he persuaded her to have sexual intercourse with him on payment of sixty guineas. When he got down starting the intercourse, the woman started crying and trembling. So he enquired from her as to what the matter was because he had not used any kind of force on her. The woman replied that the cause of her distress was that she had never in all her life committed adultery and that it was only her adverse circumstances which had forced her to agree to the act. Hearing this, the man got up and told her to go away and keep the money he had given her. He also promised her that he would never again indulge in any sin. Then it so happened that he died the same night and in the morning it was seen that there was a hidden writing on his door that Kifl had been pardoned by Allah غَفَرَاللہ لکدفل . Ibn Kathir observed after quoting this from Masnad of Ahmad that none of the six authentic books on hadith has reported this tradition and its authority is weak. Even if the tradition is true, it mentioned the name as Kifl and not Dhul-Kifl, which means he was some other person. (Allah knows best).
The sum and substance of this story is that Dhul-Kifl was the deputy of Prophet Yasa’ (عليه السلام) and it is possible that because of his virtuous deeds his name has been mentioned along with prophets. It is also possible that initially he was the deputy of Sayyidna Yasa` (عليه السلام) and later on he was elevated to the status of a prophet by Allah Ta` ala.
وَذَا النُّوْنِ اِذْ ذَّهَبَ مُغَاضِبًا فَظَنَّ اَنْ لَّنْ نَّقْدِرَ عَلَيْهِ فَنَادٰي فِي الظُّلُمٰتِ اَنْ لَّآ اِلٰهَ اِلَّآ اَنْتَ سُبْحٰــنَكَ ڰ اِنِّىْ كُنْتُ مِنَ الظّٰلِمِيْنَ
وَذَا النُّونِ (21:87) The story of Sayyidna Yunus Ibn Matta (عليه السلام) appears in the Holy Qur’an in Surah Yanus, Surah Al-Anbiya’, Surah As-Saffat and Surah Nun. At some places he is mentioned by his real name and at others by the title as Dhunnun or Sahihul Hut. The meaning of Nun and Hut both is fish. Thus, Dhunnun and Sahibul Hut can be translated as man of the fish. Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) remained inside the stomach of a fish for a few days in very odd circumstances by the will of Allah. It is because of this episode that he is sometimes referred to as Dhunnun or Sahib Al-Hut.
The Story of Yunus (عليه السلام)
According to the commentary by Ibn Kathir, Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) was sent to preach Allah’s message among the people of Nineveh which is a township in the region of Mousel. Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) invited them towards Islam and asked them to follow the true religion and perform good deeds, but they rejected his call and behaved in an arrogant and defiant manner. Being dejected and annoyed, Yunus (عليه السلام) left the place after warning them that Allah’s wrath would descend upon them within three days. After he had departed from the township, the people realized that his warning might come true. (According to some versions they had actually seen the signs of the impending disaster). So they repented and asked pardon for their sins and the entire population retired to a forest with their cattle and animals.
Then they started lamenting and bewailing and invoked Allah’s forgiveness and protection. Allah Ta’ala accepted their sincere contrition and wailing over their sins and released them from the fear of the impending disaster. While all these events were taking place, Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) waited expecting the news about the destruction of his people. But when he learnt that the storm had passed and his people were safe and sound, he worried that they would regard him as a liar. According to some versions, it was customary with his people to execute a person if he was proved a liar. (Mazhari). Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) ، therefore, feared for his life and decided to go away to some other place rather than returning to his own people. He came across a river on his way and boarded a boat to cross it. While crossing the river it so happened that the boat was caught in a whirlpool and was in danger of sinking. The boatmen decided that if one of the passengers was off loaded from the boat the chances were that the rest of them would be saved from drowning. So they cast lots to decide as to who should be off-loaded. As luck would have it they drew the name of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) .
It seems that the boatmen were aware of his exalted position and they refused to throw him in the river. The lot was drawn a second and then a third time and his name was drawn on both occasions. This episode has been mentioned elsewhere in the Holy Qur’an in the following words: فَسَاهَمَ فَكَانَ مِنَ الْمُدْحَضِينَ (and cast lots, and was of the rebutted – 37:141). Thereupon Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) got up, took off the extra clothes which he was wearing and threw himself in the river. Immediately a fish from the Caspian Sea arrived on the scene as commanded by Allah Ta’ala and swallowed Yonus (عليه السلام) . (as reported by Ibn Masud (رض) . The fish was further commanded by Allah Ta’ ala that he was not to be taken for food, that no harm was to be done to his body (both flesh and bones) and that he was only to be held as a prisoner in its stomach for a few days. (Ibn Kathir)
There are references in the Qur’an that Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) earned Allah Ta` a1a’s displeasure when he left his people without His specific command and his stay for a few days in the stomach of the fish was a sign of Allah’s displeasure for his lapse.
It is safe to assume that the warning of Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) to his people about their imminent destruction within three days was not the outcome of his own judgment but was based on Divine revelations. Similarly, his dissociation from his people was nothing new and was in line with the practice of other prophets in similar situations and must, therefore, also have been done by the command and approval from Allah Ta` ala. So, upto this point there seems nothing to be wrong in his conduct which would deserve Allah Ta’ ala’s displeasure. But later on when Allah Ta’ ala accepted the genuine remorse and repentance of the people and released them from the fear of destruction, it was to be expected that Yunus (عليه السلام) would return to his people.
But his decision not to return to them and go away from them was based on his own judgment (اِجتِھَاد). He reasoned that if he returned to them, they would regard him as a liar and his teachings would be rendered ineffectual and fruitless. There was also the danger that he might have been taken and executed. For these reasons he was hopeful that his parting with his people would not be a reprehensible act before Allah Ta` ala. Although his decision to migrate was based on his personal judgment (Ijtihad اِجتِھَاد) without waiting for a clear direction from Allah Ta` ala, yet it did not constitute a sin. Nevertheless for a prophet to take a decision on his own without waiting for the revelation (وَحِی) from Allah Ta’ ala was not liked by Him. This was not a crime but an act which was not desirable. The status of the prophets and His closed ones is highly exalted and it is expected of them not to indulge even in such undesirable acts. The slightest lapse on their part is subjected to Allah’s displeasure and reproach from Him, and that is why he faced this hardship.
It is quoted in Tafsir al-Qurtubi from al-Qushairi that this had happened to Yunus (عليه السلام) when the tempest was removed from his people, which was against his wish and that his stay in the stomach of the fish for a few days was more of a reformatory measure than punishment, as sometimes people warn their young children and take reformatory measures against them. (Qurtubi)
After learning the background of the episode it would be easier to understand the meanings of the verses which is as follows:
ذَّهَبَ مُغَاضِبًا (he walked away in anger 21:87) It is obvious that the anger was against his own people. Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has explained it as such.
فَظَنَّ أَن لَّن نَّقْدِرَ عَلَيْهِ thought We will never put him to trouble – 21:87) Lexically the word نَّقْدِرَ has three different meanings: If it is derived from the meaning would be that Sayyidna Yunus (عليه السلام) imagined that Allah Ta` a1a would not be able to gain mastery over him. This is obviously an unacceptable explanation as no Muslim can ever entertain such thoughts in his mind, least of all a prophet of Allah. Alternatively if it is considered that the word نَّقْدِرَ is derived from قَدر then the meaning would be to straighten or narrow down, as the Qur’an says:
اللَّـهُ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَيَقْدِرُ لَهُ (Allah extends provision to whom He wills and straitens it.) The Imams of Tafsir Ata’, Said Ibn Jubair, Hasan Basri and many other scholars have adopted this interpretation, and therefore the meaning of the verse would be that Yunus (عليه السلام) thought that he would not be put in a straitened condition by Allah Ta` a1a if he abandoned his people. This second explanation is adopted by most commentators (and the translation of the text as appeared above is based on it). The third possibility is that نَقدِر is a derivative of تَقدِیر in which case the verse would mean that Yunus (عليه السلام) was sure that he would not be blamed if he dissociated himself from his people. Qatadah, Mujahid and Farra’ have adopted this explanation.
حَتّٰٓي اِذَا فُتِحَتْ يَاْجُوْجُ وَمَاْجُوْجُ وَهُمْ مِّنْ كُلِّ حَدَبٍ يَّنْسِلُوْنَ
حَتَّىٰ إِذَا فُتِحَتْ يَأْجُوجُ وَمَأْجُوجُ وَهُم مِّن كُلِّ حَدَبٍ يَنسِلُونَ (Until when the Ya’juj and Ma’juj (Gog and Magog) are released, while they run down from every height – 21:96.) In the previous verse it was said that those who died in a state of unbelief will never return to this world. The phrase “until the Ya’juj and Ma’juj appear”, really means that such people will never return, because the appearance of Ya’juj and Ma’juj will be a sign of near approach of the Dooms Day.
It is reported in Sahih of Muslim through Sayyidna Hudhaifah (رض) that he and some other Sahabah (رض) ، were in the midst of a discussion when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) came to them and enquired as to what were they deliberating. They replied that they were discussing about the Qiyamah (Dooms Day). Thereupon he said that Qiyamah will occur only after ten signs have become manifest, and the appearance of Ya’juj and Ma’juj will be one of them.
Here the word فُتِحَت (released) is used for Ya’juj Ma’juj which means to let loose, which suggests that until the appointed time they will remain under restraint and confined behind some barrier from which they will be released when Doomsday is near. It is evident from the Holy Qur’an that this restraint is the wall made by Dhulqarnain which will disappear near the Qiyamah. Ya’juj and Ma’ juj and Dhulqarnain have been described in fair detail in Surah Al-Kahf, to which the reader may refer.
مِّن كُلِّ حَدَبٍ يَنسِلُونَ (while they run down from every height – 21:96) The word حَدَبٍ ‘means an elevated place which may be a mountain or just a lump in the ground. We have also seen in Surah Al-Kahf that the place where Ya’ juj and Ma’juj have been confined is somewhere beyond the northern mountains. So when they will come out, they will be seen rushing down the mountain sides in their hordes.
اِنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُوْنَ مِنْ دُوْنِ اللّٰهِ حَصَبُ جَهَنَّمَ ۭ اَنْتُمْ لَهَا وٰرِدُوْنَ
إِنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّـهِ حَصَبُ جَهَنَّمَ (Surely, you and whatever you worship other than Allah are the fuel of Jahannam – 21:98) Here a question may arise as to the application of this verse to the case of Sayyidna Masih (عليه السلام) ، Sayyidna ` Uzair (عليه السلام) and angels who were also worshipped by some people. According to account given by Qurtubi in his Tafsir, this issue was adequately resolved by Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) who wondered that there is a verse in the Qur’an about which people have reservations, yet they do not question him about it. He went on to say that this may be due to the fact that either the people have found a convincing answer to their doubts or that they are totally indifferent and do not consider the matter important enough for any kind of investigation. When people asked him which particular verse he had in mind, he recited the verse إِنَّكُمْ وَمَا تَعْبُدُونَ and went on to say that when this verse was revealed, it made the unbelievers of Quraish very angry because they felt that it offended their gods. So they approached Ibn al-Ziba` ra (A scholar of the scriptures) and complained to him about it. He said that if he were present there, he would have given them a reply which would have confounded all of them. Pressed further he said that he would have asked them what they thought about Sayyidna Masih (عليه السلام) and about Sayyidna ` Uzair (عليه السلام) ، who were worshipped by the Christians and the Jews respectively (meaning whether they too مَعَاذَ اللہ would be sent to Hell). The unbelievers of Quraish were delighted to hear this and were sure that Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) would have no answer to their question.
يَوْمَ نَطْوِي السَّمَاۗءَ كَـطَيِّ السِّجِلِّ لِلْكُتُبِ ۭ كَمَا بَدَاْنَآ اَوَّلَ خَلْقٍ نُّعِيْدُهٗ ۭ وَعْدًا عَلَيْنَا ۭ اِنَّا كُنَّا فٰعِلِيْنَ
يَوْمَ نَطْوِي السَّمَاءَ كَطَيِّ السِّجِلِّ لِلْكُتُبِ (The Day when We roll up the sky like a scroll rolls up the writings. – 21:104.) According to Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) the word سِّجِلِّ means a sheet of a book. ` Ali Ibn Abi Talhah, ‘Aufi’, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ibn Jarir and Ibn Kathir have all adopted the same meaning of the word. The word کُتُب in the verse is used for المَکتُوب that is something written. So the meaning of the verse is that the sky will be rolled up like a scroll with its writings. (Ibn Kathir)
Sahih al-Bukhari contains a story on the authority of Sayyidna ` Abdullah Ibn ` Umar (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said that on the Day of Judgment Allah Ta` ala would roll up all the seven skies and the seven worlds along with all the created things thereon in His hand, and all of them together would be no more than a grain of rye in His hand. (Ibn Kathir)
وَلَقَدْ كَتَبْنَا فِي الزَّبُوْرِ مِنْۢ بَعْدِ الذِّكْرِ اَنَّ الْاَرْضَ يَرِثُهَا عِبَادِيَ الصّٰلِحُوْنَ
وَلَقَدْ كَتَبْنَا فِي الزَّبُورِ مِن بَعْدِ الذِّكْرِ أَنَّ الْأَرْضَ يَرِثُهَا عِبَادِيَ الصَّالِحُونَ (And We have written in Zabur (Psalms) after the Dhikr (the Torah) that the land will be inherited by My righteous slaves. – 21:105) The word لزَّبُورِ(zabur) is the plural of زُبُرّ (zuburr), which means book. It is also the name of the book which was revealed to Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) . Opinions differ as to the meaning of the word in the present context. According to a version attributed to Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) the word ذِکر in the verse refers to Torah, and زبور to all other books revealed after Torah i.e. Zabur (Psalms), Injil (Evangel) and Qur’an. (Ibn Jarir) The same explanation is adopted by Dahhak. However, Ibn Zaid has explained that ذِکر refers to لَوحِ مَحفُوظ (the Preserved Tablet) and زبور relates to all the books which were revealed to the prophets. Zajjaj has also adopted this explanation. (Ruh ul-Ma ani)
الْأَرْضَ (the word ‘land’ in – 21:105) All commentators agree that the word in this verse refers to the land of Paradise. Ibn Jarir has reported this explanation from Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) . The same explanation is also adopted by Mujahid, Ibn Jubair, Ikrimah, Suddi and Ab Al-` Aaliyah. Imam Razi has said that another verse of the Holy Qur’an supports this explanation. The verse is وَأَوْرَثَنَا الْأَرْضَ نَتَبَوَّأُ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ حَيْثُ نَشَاءُ (And has bequeathed upon us the earth for us to make our dwelling wheresoever we will in Paradise – 39:74) The words used in the verse that the pious will inherit the أَرْضَ also lend credence to the view that the word أَرْضَ means land of Paradise, because the land of the earth can be inherited by all, whether believers or non-believers. Also the phrase that the pious will inherit the land (أَرْضَ ) follows the mention of Qiyamah, and it is well known that after the Qiymah there will be no land of the earth but only the land of the Paradise. Another version of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) says that the word أَرْضَ means just land, and includes both the land of the earth as well as of Paradise. It is quite obvious that the land of the Paradise will be inherited by the pious people. As for the land of the world also it is stated in the Holy Qur’an at several places that there will be a time when the entire land of the world will belong to the pious believers. One of such verse is: إِنَّ الْأَرْضَ لِلَّـهِ يُورِثُهَا مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ۖ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ (Surely, the land belongs to Allah. He lets whomsoever He wills, from among His slaves, inherit it. And the end-result is in favour of the God-fearing. – 7:128).
In another verse it is said: وَعَدَ اللَّـهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ (Allah has promised those of you who believe and do good deeds that He will certainly make them (His) vicegerents in the land. – 24:55).
Yet another verse says: إِنَّا لَنَنصُرُ رُسُلَنَا وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْأَشْهَادُ (Surely, We shall help Our Messengers and those who have believed in the present life, and upon the day when the witnesses arise. – 40:51).
The history has already witnessed the control of the pious believers over the better part of the world, and it will again come under their control during the time of Sayyidna Mahdi (رض) . (Ruh ul-Ma` ani & Ibn Kathir)
وَمَآ اَرْسَلْنٰكَ اِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعٰلَمِيْنَ
وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً لِّلْعَالَمِينَ (And We have not. sent you but as mercy for all the worlds. – 21:107) عَالَمِينَ is plural of عَالَم which means ‘world’ and includes all creatures including humans, animals, plants, Jinns etc. In order to properly understand the meaning of the verse one should also understand that the true essence of the entire universe is the invocation of Allah Ta` ala and His worship. When this essence departs from this world and no one is left to worship Allah, everything in it will perish. In other words that is the day when Qiyamah would occur. When it is understood that the invocation and worship of Allah Ta` ala is the essence of all living things, then the reason for describing the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) as mercy to the Worlds becomes obvious because it is his teachings and the purity of his personal life alone which keep alive the worship of Allah Ta` ala until Qiyamah. That is why he declared “I am the blessing sent by Allah اَنَا رَحمَۃُ مُھدَاۃُ (Ibn ` Asakir quoting Abu Hurairah). Sayyidna Ibn ` Umar , has reported that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said اَنَا رَحمَۃُ مُھدَاۃُ بِرَفعِ قَومِ وَخفضِ آخرِینَ that is “I am the blessing sent by Allah so that I lift up the people (who obey Allah) and humble the other people (who disobey Allah). (Ibn Kathir)
It, therefore, follows that performing jihad against the unbelievers in order to lessen shirk and kufr (unbelief) and in the hope of reclaiming those who transgress the Divine Commands of Allah Ta` ala is an act of mercy.
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
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