Surah Isra In Arabic
الجزء ﴿ 15 ﴾
سُبْحَانَ الَّذِي أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ لَيْلًا مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الْأَقْصَى الَّذِي بَارَكْنَا حَوْلَهُ لِنُرِيَهُ مِنْ آيَاتِنَا ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ ﴿1﴾ وَآتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلْنَاهُ هُدًى لِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَلَّا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْ دُونِي وَكِيلًا ﴿2﴾ ذُرِّيَّةَ مَنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَبْدًا شَكُورًا ﴿3﴾ وَقَضَيْنَا إِلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ فِي الْكِتَابِ لَتُفْسِدُنَّ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَلَتَعْلُنَّ عُلُوًّا كَبِيرًا ﴿4﴾ فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ أُولَاهُمَا بَعَثْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ عِبَادًا لَنَا أُولِي بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ فَجَاسُوا خِلَالَ الدِّيَارِ ۚ وَكَانَ وَعْدًا مَفْعُولًا ﴿5﴾ ثُمَّ رَدَدْنَا لَكُمُ الْكَرَّةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَمْدَدْنَاكُمْ بِأَمْوَالٍ وَبَنِينَ وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ أَكْثَرَ نَفِيرًا ﴿6﴾ إِنْ أَحْسَنْتُمْ أَحْسَنْتُمْ لِأَنْفُسِكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ أَسَأْتُمْ فَلَهَا ۚ فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ الْآخِرَةِ لِيَسُوءُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَلِيَدْخُلُوا الْمَسْجِدَ كَمَا دَخَلُوهُ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَلِيُتَبِّرُوا مَا عَلَوْا تَتْبِيرًا ﴿7﴾ عَسَىٰ رَبُّكُمْ أَنْ يَرْحَمَكُمْ ۚ وَإِنْ عُدْتُمْ عُدْنَا ۘ وَجَعَلْنَا جَهَنَّمَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ حَصِيرًا ﴿8﴾ إِنَّ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ يَهْدِي لِلَّتِي هِيَ أَقْوَمُ وَيُبَشِّرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ أَجْرًا كَبِيرًا ﴿9﴾ وَأَنَّ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ أَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا ﴿10﴾ وَيَدْعُ الْإِنْسَانُ بِالشَّرِّ دُعَاءَهُ بِالْخَيْرِ ۖ وَكَانَ الْإِنْسَانُ عَجُولًا ﴿11﴾ وَجَعَلْنَا اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ آيَتَيْنِ ۖ فَمَحَوْنَا آيَةَ اللَّيْلِ وَجَعَلْنَا آيَةَ النَّهَارِ مُبْصِرَةً لِتَبْتَغُوا فَضْلًا مِنْ رَبِّكُمْ وَلِتَعْلَمُوا عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالْحِسَابَ ۚ وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ فَصَّلْنَاهُ تَفْصِيلًا ﴿12﴾ وَكُلَّ إِنْسَانٍ أَلْزَمْنَاهُ طَائِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ ۖ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلْقَاهُ مَنْشُورًا ﴿13﴾ اقْرَأْ كِتَابَكَ كَفَىٰ بِنَفْسِكَ الْيَوْمَ عَلَيْكَ حَسِيبًا ﴿14﴾ مَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَهْتَدِي لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيْهَا ۚ وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ ۗ وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّىٰ نَبْعَثَ رَسُولًا ﴿15﴾ وَإِذَا أَرَدْنَا أَنْ نُهْلِكَ قَرْيَةً أَمَرْنَا مُتْرَفِيهَا فَفَسَقُوا فِيهَا فَحَقَّ عَلَيْهَا الْقَوْلُ فَدَمَّرْنَاهَا تَدْمِيرًا ﴿16﴾ وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِنَ الْقُرُونِ مِنْ بَعْدِ نُوحٍ ۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِرَبِّكَ بِذُنُوبِ عِبَادِهِ خَبِيرًا بَصِيرًا ﴿17﴾ مَنْ كَانَ يُرِيدُ الْعَاجِلَةَ عَجَّلْنَا لَهُ فِيهَا مَا نَشَاءُ لِمَنْ نُرِيدُ ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَا لَهُ جَهَنَّمَ يَصْلَاهَا مَذْمُومًا مَدْحُورًا ﴿18﴾ وَمَنْ أَرَادَ الْآخِرَةَ وَسَعَىٰ لَهَا سَعْيَهَا وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَٰئِكَ كَانَ سَعْيُهُمْ مَشْكُورًا ﴿19﴾ كُلًّا نُمِدُّ هَٰؤُلَاءِ وَهَٰؤُلَاءِ مِنْ عَطَاءِ رَبِّكَ ۚ وَمَا كَانَ عَطَاءُ رَبِّكَ مَحْظُورًا ﴿20﴾ انْظُرْ كَيْفَ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ وَلَلْآخِرَةُ أَكْبَرُ دَرَجَاتٍ وَأَكْبَرُ تَفْضِيلًا ﴿21﴾ لَا تَجْعَلْ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَٰهًا آخَرَ فَتَقْعُدَ مَذْمُومًا مَخْذُولًا ﴿22﴾ وَقَضَىٰ رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا ۚ إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِنْدَكَ الْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلَاهُمَا فَلَا تَقُلْ لَهُمَا أُفٍّ وَلَا تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُلْ لَهُمَا قَوْلًا كَرِيمًا ﴿23﴾ وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَقُلْ رَبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا ﴿24﴾ رَبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا فِي نُفُوسِكُمْ ۚ إِنْ تَكُونُوا صَالِحِينَ فَإِنَّهُ كَانَ لِلْأَوَّابِينَ غَفُورًا ﴿25﴾ وَآتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَىٰ حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَلَا تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيرًا ﴿26﴾ إِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِينَ كَانُوا إِخْوَانَ الشَّيَاطِينِ ۖ وَكَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ لِرَبِّهِ كَفُورًا ﴿27﴾ وَإِمَّا تُعْرِضَنَّ عَنْهُمُ ابْتِغَاءَ رَحْمَةٍ مِنْ رَبِّكَ تَرْجُوهَا فَقُلْ لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَيْسُورًا ﴿28﴾ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ يَدَكَ مَغْلُولَةً إِلَىٰ عُنُقِكَ وَلَا تَبْسُطْهَا كُلَّ الْبَسْطِ فَتَقْعُدَ مَلُومًا مَحْسُورًا ﴿29﴾ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرًا بَصِيرًا ﴿30﴾ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ خَشْيَةَ إِمْلَاقٍ ۖ نَحْنُ نَرْزُقُهُمْ وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ قَتْلَهُمْ كَانَ خِطْئًا كَبِيرًا ﴿31﴾ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَا ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا ﴿32﴾ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۗ وَمَنْ قُتِلَ مَظْلُومًا فَقَدْ جَعَلْنَا لِوَلِيِّهِ سُلْطَانًا فَلَا يُسْرِفْ فِي الْقَتْلِ ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مَنْصُورًا ﴿33﴾ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا مَالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلَّا بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ ۚ وَأَوْفُوا بِالْعَهْدِ ۖ إِنَّ الْعَهْدَ كَانَ مَسْئُولًا ﴿34﴾ وَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ إِذَا كِلْتُمْ وَزِنُوا بِالْقِسْطَاسِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا ﴿35﴾ وَلَا تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ ۚ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولَٰئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْئُولًا ﴿36﴾ وَلَا تَمْشِ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَرَحًا ۖ إِنَّكَ لَنْ تَخْرِقَ الْأَرْضَ وَلَنْ تَبْلُغَ الْجِبَالَ طُولًا ﴿37﴾ كُلُّ ذَٰلِكَ كَانَ سَيِّئُهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ مَكْرُوهًا ﴿38﴾ ذَٰلِكَ مِمَّا أَوْحَىٰ إِلَيْكَ رَبُّكَ مِنَ الْحِكْمَةِ ۗ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَٰهًا آخَرَ فَتُلْقَىٰ فِي جَهَنَّمَ مَلُومًا مَدْحُورًا ﴿39﴾ أَفَأَصْفَاكُمْ رَبُّكُمْ بِالْبَنِينَ وَاتَّخَذَ مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنَاثًا ۚ إِنَّكُمْ لَتَقُولُونَ قَوْلًا عَظِيمًا ﴿40﴾ وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ لِيَذَّكَّرُوا وَمَا يَزِيدُهُمْ إِلَّا نُفُورًا ﴿41﴾ قُلْ لَوْ كَانَ مَعَهُ آلِهَةٌ كَمَا يَقُولُونَ إِذًا لَابْتَغَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِي الْعَرْشِ سَبِيلًا ﴿42﴾ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يَقُولُونَ عُلُوًّا كَبِيرًا ﴿43﴾ تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَاوَاتُ السَّبْعُ وَالْأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهِنَّ ۚ وَإِنْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ إِلَّا يُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَلَٰكِنْ لَا تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ ۗ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورًا ﴿44﴾ وَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ الْقُرْآنَ جَعَلْنَا بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْآخِرَةِ حِجَابًا مَسْتُورًا ﴿45﴾ وَجَعَلْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَنْ يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا ۚ وَإِذَا ذَكَرْتَ رَبَّكَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ وَحْدَهُ وَلَّوْا عَلَىٰ أَدْبَارِهِمْ نُفُورًا ﴿46﴾ نَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَسْتَمِعُونَ بِهِ إِذْ يَسْتَمِعُونَ إِلَيْكَ وَإِذْ هُمْ نَجْوَىٰ إِذْ يَقُولُ الظَّالِمُونَ إِنْ تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا رَجُلًا مَسْحُورًا ﴿47﴾ انْظُرْ كَيْفَ ضَرَبُوا لَكَ الْأَمْثَالَ فَضَلُّوا فَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ سَبِيلًا ﴿48﴾ وَقَالُوا أَإِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا وَرُفَاتًا أَإِنَّا لَمَبْعُوثُونَ خَلْقًا جَدِيدًا ﴿49﴾ قُلْ كُونُوا حِجَارَةً أَوْ حَدِيدًا ﴿50﴾ أَوْ خَلْقًا مِمَّا يَكْبُرُ فِي صُدُورِكُمْ ۚ فَسَيَقُولُونَ مَنْ يُعِيدُنَا ۖ قُلِ الَّذِي فَطَرَكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ۚ فَسَيُنْغِضُونَ إِلَيْكَ رُءُوسَهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَىٰ هُوَ ۖ قُلْ عَسَىٰ أَنْ يَكُونَ قَرِيبًا ﴿51﴾ يَوْمَ يَدْعُوكُمْ فَتَسْتَجِيبُونَ بِحَمْدِهِ وَتَظُنُّونَ إِنْ لَبِثْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا ﴿52﴾ وَقُلْ لِعِبَادِي يَقُولُوا الَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ ۚ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَنْزَغُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ كَانَ لِلْإِنْسَانِ عَدُوًّا مُبِينًا ﴿53﴾ رَبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِكُمْ ۖ إِنْ يَشَأْ يَرْحَمْكُمْ أَوْ إِنْ يَشَأْ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ ۚ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكِيلًا ﴿54﴾ وَرَبُّكَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ وَلَقَدْ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَ النَّبِيِّينَ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۖ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا ﴿55﴾ قُلِ ادْعُوا الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ فَلَا يَمْلِكُونَ كَشْفَ الضُّرِّ عَنْكُمْ وَلَا تَحْوِيلًا ﴿56﴾ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ يَبْتَغُونَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمُ الْوَسِيلَةَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ وَيَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَهُ وَيَخَافُونَ عَذَابَهُ ۚ إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ كَانَ مَحْذُورًا ﴿57﴾ وَإِنْ مِنْ قَرْيَةٍ إِلَّا نَحْنُ مُهْلِكُوهَا قَبْلَ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ أَوْ مُعَذِّبُوهَا عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا ۚ كَانَ ذَٰلِكَ فِي الْكِتَابِ مَسْطُورًا ﴿58﴾ وَمَا مَنَعَنَا أَنْ نُرْسِلَ بِالْآيَاتِ إِلَّا أَنْ كَذَّبَ بِهَا الْأَوَّلُونَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا ثَمُودَ النَّاقَةَ مُبْصِرَةً فَظَلَمُوا بِهَا ۚ وَمَا نُرْسِلُ بِالْآيَاتِ إِلَّا تَخْوِيفًا ﴿59﴾ وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لَكَ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ أَحَاطَ بِالنَّاسِ ۚ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّؤْيَا الَّتِي أَرَيْنَاكَ إِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِلنَّاسِ وَالشَّجَرَةَ الْمَلْعُونَةَ فِي الْقُرْآنِ ۚ وَنُخَوِّفُهُمْ فَمَا يَزِيدُهُمْ إِلَّا طُغْيَانًا كَبِيرًا ﴿60﴾ وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ قَالَ أَأَسْجُدُ لِمَنْ خَلَقْتَ طِينًا ﴿61﴾ قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَكَ هَٰذَا الَّذِي كَرَّمْتَ عَلَيَّ لَئِنْ أَخَّرْتَنِ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا ﴿62﴾ قَالَ اذْهَبْ فَمَنْ تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَاؤُكُمْ جَزَاءً مَوْفُورًا ﴿63﴾ وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ مِنْهُمْ بِصَوْتِكَ وَأَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِمْ بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ وَعِدْهُمْ ۚ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا ﴿64﴾ إِنَّ عِبَادِي لَيْسَ لَكَ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانٌ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِرَبِّكَ وَكِيلًا ﴿65﴾ رَبُّكُمُ الَّذِي يُزْجِي لَكُمُ الْفُلْكَ فِي الْبَحْرِ لِتَبْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا ﴿66﴾ وَإِذَا مَسَّكُمُ الضُّرُّ فِي الْبَحْرِ ضَلَّ مَنْ تَدْعُونَ إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ ۖ فَلَمَّا نَجَّاكُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ أَعْرَضْتُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ الْإِنْسَانُ كَفُورًا ﴿67﴾ أَفَأَمِنْتُمْ أَنْ يَخْسِفَ بِكُمْ جَانِبَ الْبَرِّ أَوْ يُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ حَاصِبًا ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُوا لَكُمْ وَكِيلًا ﴿68﴾ أَمْ أَمِنْتُمْ أَنْ يُعِيدَكُمْ فِيهِ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ فَيُرْسِلَ عَلَيْكُمْ قَاصِفًا مِنَ الرِّيحِ فَيُغْرِقَكُمْ بِمَا كَفَرْتُمْ ۙ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُوا لَكُمْ عَلَيْنَا بِهِ تَبِيعًا ﴿69﴾ وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُمْ مِنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٍ مِمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلًا ﴿70﴾ يَوْمَ نَدْعُو كُلَّ أُنَاسٍ بِإِمَامِهِمْ ۖ فَمَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَقْرَءُونَ كِتَابَهُمْ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا ﴿71﴾ وَمَنْ كَانَ فِي هَٰذِهِ أَعْمَىٰ فَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ أَعْمَىٰ وَأَضَلُّ سَبِيلًا ﴿72﴾ وَإِنْ كَادُوا لَيَفْتِنُونَكَ عَنِ الَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ لِتَفْتَرِيَ عَلَيْنَا غَيْرَهُ ۖ وَإِذًا لَاتَّخَذُوكَ خَلِيلًا ﴿73﴾ وَلَوْلَا أَنْ ثَبَّتْنَاكَ لَقَدْ كِدْتَ تَرْكَنُ إِلَيْهِمْ شَيْئًا قَلِيلًا ﴿74﴾ إِذًا لَأَذَقْنَاكَ ضِعْفَ الْحَيَاةِ وَضِعْفَ الْمَمَاتِ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَكَ عَلَيْنَا نَصِيرًا ﴿75﴾ وَإِنْ كَادُوا لَيَسْتَفِزُّونَكَ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ لِيُخْرِجُوكَ مِنْهَا ۖ وَإِذًا لَا يَلْبَثُونَ خِلَافَكَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا ﴿76﴾ سُنَّةَ مَنْ قَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا قَبْلَكَ مِنْ رُسُلِنَا ۖ وَلَا تَجِدُ لِسُنَّتِنَا تَحْوِيلًا ﴿77﴾ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُودًا ﴿78﴾ وَمِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ نَافِلَةً لَكَ عَسَىٰ أَنْ يَبْعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَامًا مَحْمُودًا ﴿79﴾ وَقُلْ رَبِّ أَدْخِلْنِي مُدْخَلَ صِدْقٍ وَأَخْرِجْنِي مُخْرَجَ صِدْقٍ وَاجْعَلْ لِي مِنْ لَدُنْكَ سُلْطَانًا نَصِيرًا ﴿80﴾ وَقُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ ۚ إِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقًا ﴿81﴾ وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ مَا هُوَ شِفَاءٌ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۙ وَلَا يَزِيدُ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا خَسَارًا ﴿82﴾ وَإِذَا أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَى الْإِنْسَانِ أَعْرَضَ وَنَأَىٰ بِجَانِبِهِ ۖ وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ الشَّرُّ كَانَ يَئُوسًا ﴿83﴾ قُلْ كُلٌّ يَعْمَلُ عَلَىٰ شَاكِلَتِهِ فَرَبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ هُوَ أَهْدَىٰ سَبِيلًا ﴿84﴾ وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ ۖ قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي وَمَا أُوتِيتُمْ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا ﴿85﴾ وَلَئِنْ شِئْنَا لَنَذْهَبَنَّ بِالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَكَ بِهِ عَلَيْنَا وَكِيلًا ﴿86﴾ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً مِنْ رَبِّكَ ۚ إِنَّ فَضْلَهُ كَانَ عَلَيْكَ كَبِيرًا ﴿87﴾ قُلْ لَئِنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الْإِنْسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلَىٰ أَنْ يَأْتُوا بِمِثْلِ هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ لَا يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيرًا ﴿88﴾ وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَثَلٍ فَأَبَىٰ أَكْثَرُ النَّاسِ إِلَّا كُفُورًا ﴿89﴾ وَقَالُوا لَنْ نُؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّىٰ تَفْجُرَ لَنَا مِنَ الْأَرْضِ يَنْبُوعًا ﴿90﴾ أَوْ تَكُونَ لَكَ جَنَّةٌ مِنْ نَخِيلٍ وَعِنَبٍ فَتُفَجِّرَ الْأَنْهَارَ خِلَالَهَا تَفْجِيرًا ﴿91﴾ أَوْ تُسْقِطَ السَّمَاءَ كَمَا زَعَمْتَ عَلَيْنَا كِسَفًا أَوْ تَأْتِيَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ قَبِيلًا ﴿92﴾ أَوْ يَكُونَ لَكَ بَيْتٌ مِنْ زُخْرُفٍ أَوْ تَرْقَىٰ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَنْ نُؤْمِنَ لِرُقِيِّكَ حَتَّىٰ تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْنَا كِتَابًا نَقْرَؤُهُ ۗ قُلْ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّي هَلْ كُنْتُ إِلَّا بَشَرًا رَسُولًا ﴿93﴾ وَمَا مَنَعَ النَّاسَ أَنْ يُؤْمِنُوا إِذْ جَاءَهُمُ الْهُدَىٰ إِلَّا أَنْ قَالُوا أَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ بَشَرًا رَسُولًا ﴿94﴾ قُلْ لَوْ كَانَ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَلَائِكَةٌ يَمْشُونَ مُطْمَئِنِّينَ لَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَلَكًا رَسُولًا ﴿95﴾ قُلْ كَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِ خَبِيرًا بَصِيرًا ﴿96﴾ وَمَنْ يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ الْمُهْتَدِ ۖ وَمَنْ يُضْلِلْ فَلَنْ تَجِدَ لَهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِهِ ۖ وَنَحْشُرُهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمْ عُمْيًا وَبُكْمًا وَصُمًّا ۖ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ كُلَّمَا خَبَتْ زِدْنَاهُمْ سَعِيرًا ﴿97﴾ ذَٰلِكَ جَزَاؤُهُمْ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَقَالُوا أَإِذَا كُنَّا عِظَامًا وَرُفَاتًا أَإِنَّا لَمَبْعُوثُونَ خَلْقًا جَدِيدًا ﴿98﴾ أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّ اللَّهَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ قَادِرٌ عَلَىٰ أَنْ يَخْلُقَ مِثْلَهُمْ وَجَعَلَ لَهُمْ أَجَلًا لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ فَأَبَى الظَّالِمُونَ إِلَّا كُفُورًا ﴿99﴾ قُلْ لَوْ أَنْتُمْ تَمْلِكُونَ خَزَائِنَ رَحْمَةِ رَبِّي إِذًا لَأَمْسَكْتُمْ خَشْيَةَ الْإِنْفَاقِ ۚ وَكَانَ الْإِنْسَانُ قَتُورًا ﴿100﴾ وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ تِسْعَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ ۖ فَاسْأَلْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ إِذْ جَاءَهُمْ فَقَالَ لَهُ فِرْعَوْنُ إِنِّي لَأَظُنُّكَ يَا مُوسَىٰ مَسْحُورًا ﴿101﴾ قَالَ لَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَا أَنْزَلَ هَٰؤُلَاءِ إِلَّا رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ بَصَائِرَ وَإِنِّي لَأَظُنُّكَ يَا فِرْعَوْنُ مَثْبُورًا ﴿102﴾ فَأَرَادَ أَنْ يَسْتَفِزَّهُمْ مِنَ الْأَرْضِ فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُ وَمَنْ مَعَهُ جَمِيعًا ﴿103﴾ وَقُلْنَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِ لِبَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اسْكُنُوا الْأَرْضَ فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ الْآخِرَةِ جِئْنَا بِكُمْ لَفِيفًا ﴿104﴾ وَبِالْحَقِّ أَنْزَلْنَاهُ وَبِالْحَقِّ نَزَلَ ۗ وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا ﴿105﴾ وَقُرْآنًا فَرَقْنَاهُ لِتَقْرَأَهُ عَلَى النَّاسِ عَلَىٰ مُكْثٍ وَنَزَّلْنَاهُ تَنْزِيلًا ﴿106﴾ قُلْ آمِنُوا بِهِ أَوْ لَا تُؤْمِنُوا ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ إِذَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ يَخِرُّونَ لِلْأَذْقَانِ سُجَّدًا ﴿107﴾ وَيَقُولُونَ سُبْحَانَ رَبِّنَا إِنْ كَانَ وَعْدُ رَبِّنَا لَمَفْعُولًا ﴿108﴾ وَيَخِرُّونَ لِلْأَذْقَانِ يَبْكُونَ وَيَزِيدُهُمْ خُشُوعًا ۩ ﴿109﴾ قُلِ ادْعُوا اللَّهَ أَوِ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَٰنَ ۖ أَيًّا مَا تَدْعُوا فَلَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ وَلَا تَجْهَرْ بِصَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تُخَافِتْ بِهَا وَابْتَغِ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا ﴿110﴾ وَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًا وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي الْمُلْكِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ وَلِيٌّ مِنَ الذُّلِّ ۖ وَكَبِّرْهُ تَكْبِيرًا ﴿111﴾
Transliteration in English
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Subhaanal lazeee asraa bi’abdihee lailam minal Masjidil Haraami ilal Masjidil Aqsal-lazee baaraknaa haw lahoo linuriyahoo min aayaatinaa;innahoo Huwas Samee’ul-Baseer
- Wa aatainaa Moosal-Kitaaba wa ja’alnaahu hudal-liBaneee Israaa’eel;
allaa tat-takhizoo min doonee wakeelaa.
- Zurriyyata man hamalnaa ma’a Noohin innahoo kaana ‘abdan shakooraa
- Wa qadainaaa ilaa Baneee Israaa’eela fil Kitaabi latufsidunna fil ardi marratain; wa lata’lunna’uluwwan kabeeraa
- Fa-izaa jaaa’a wa’duoolaahumaa ba’asnaaa ‘alykum ‘ibaadal-lanaaa ulee baasin shadeedin fajaasoo khilaalad diyaar; wa kaana wa’dam maf’oolaa
- Summa radadnaa lakumul karrata ‘alaihim wa amdad-naakum-bi amwaalinuw wa baneen; wa ja’alnaakum aksara nafeeraa
- In ahsantum ahsantum li anfusikum wa in asaatum falahaa; fa izaa jaaa’a wa’dul aakhirati liyasooo’oo wujoo hakum wa liyadkhulul masjida kamaa dakhaloohu awwala marratinw wa liyutabbiroo maa a’law tatbeera
- ‘Asaa rabbukum anyyarhamakum; wa in ‘uttum ‘udnaa; wa ja’alnaa jahannama lilkaafireena haseera
- Inna haazal Quraana yahdee lillatee hiya aqwamu wa yubashshirul mu’mineenal lazeena ya’maloonas saalihaati anna lahum ajran kabeeraa
- Wa annal lazeena laa yu’minoona bil aakhirati a’tadnaa lahum ‘azaaban aleemaa (section 1)
- Wa yad’ul insaanu bishsharri du’aaa ‘ahoo bilkhayr; wa kaanal insaanu ‘ajoola
- Wa ja’alnal laila wannahaara Aayatayni famahawnaaa Aayatal laili wa ja’alnaaa Aayatan nahaari mubsiratal litabtaghoo fadlam mir Rabbikum wa lita’lamoo ‘adadas sineena walhisaab; wa kulla shai’in fassalnaahu tafseelaa
- Wa kulla insaanin alzamnaahu taaa’irahoo fee ‘unuqihee wa nukhriji lahoo Yawmal Qiyaamati kitaabany yalqaahu manshooraa
- Iqra kitaabaka kafaa bi nafsikal Yawma ‘alaika haseebaa
- Manihtadaa fa innamaa yahtadee linafsihee wa man dalla fa innamaa yadillu ‘alaihaa; wa laa taziru waaziratunw wizra ukhraa; wa maa kunnaa mu’azzibeena hatta nab’asa Rasoola
- Wa izaaa aradnaaa an nuhlika qaryatan amarnaa mutrafeehaa fafasaqoo feehaa fahaqqa ‘alaihal qawlu fadammarnaahaa tadmeeraa
- Wa kam ahlaknaa minal qurooni min ba’di Nooh; wa kafaa bi Rabbika bizunoobi ‘ibaadihee Khabeeram Baseeraa
- Man kaana yureedul ‘aajilata ‘ajjalnaa lahoo feehaa maa nashaaa’u liman nureedu summa ja’alnaa lahoo Jahannama yaslaahaa mazmoomammad hooraa
- Wa man araadal Aakhirata wa sa’aa lahaa sa’yahaa wa huwa mu’minun fa ulaaa’ika kaana sa’yuhum mashkooraa
- Kullan numiddu haaa ‘ulaaa’i wa haaa’ulaaa’i min ‘ataaa’i rabbik; wa maa kaana ‘ataaa’u rabbika mahzooraa
- Unzur kaifa faddalnaa ba’dahum ‘alaa ba’d; wa lal Aakhiratu akbaru darajaatinw wa akbaru tafdeelaa
- Laa taj’al ma’al laahi ilaahan aakhara fataq’uda mazoomam makhzoolaa (section 2)
- Wa qadaa Rabbuka allaa ta’budooo illaaa iyyaahu wa bilwaalidaini ihsaanaa; immaa yablughanna ‘indakal kibara ahaduhumaaa aw kilaahumaa falaa taqul lahumaaa uffinw wa laa tanharhumaa wa qullahumaa qawlan kareemaa
- Wakhfid lahumaa janaahaz zulli minar rahmati wa qur Rabbir hamhumaa kamaa rabbayaanee sagheera
- Rabbukum a’lamu bimaa fee nufoosikum; in takoonoo saaliheena fa innahoo kaana lil awwaabeena Ghafoooraa
- Wa aati zal qurbaa haqqahoo walmiskeena wabnas sabeeli wa laa tubazzir tabzeeraa
- Innal mubazzireena kaanoo ikhwaanash shayaateeni wa kaanash shaytaanu li Rabbihee kafooraa
- Wa immaa tu’ridanna ‘anhum ubtighaaa’a rahmatim mir rabbika tarjoohaa faqul lahum qawlam maisooraa
- Wa laa taj’al yadaka maghloolatan ilaa ‘unuqika wa laa tabsut haa kullal basti fataq’uda maloomam mahsooraa
- Inna Rabbaka yabsuturrizqa limai yashaaa’u wa yaqdir; innahoo kaana bi’ibaadihee Khabeeran Baseera (section 3)
- Wa laa taqtulooo awlaadakum khashyata imlaaqin nahnu narzuquhum wa iyyaakum; inna qatlahum kaana khit ‘an kabeeraa
- Wa laa taqrabuz zinaaa innahoo kaana faahishatanw wa saaa’a sabeelaa
- Wa laa taqtulun nafsal latee harramal laahu illaa bilhaqq; wa man qutila mazlooman faqad ja’alnaa liwaliyyihee sultaanan falaa yusrif fil qatli innahoo kaana mansooraa
- Wa laa taqraboo maalal yateemi illaa billatee hiya ahsanu hattaa yablugha ashuddah; wa awfoo bil’ahd, innal ‘ahda kaana mas’oolaa
- Wa awful kaila izaa kiltum wa zinoo bilqistaasil mustaqeem; zaalika khairunw wa ahsanu ta’weelaa
- Wa laa taqfu maa laisa laka bihee ‘ilm; innas sam’a walbasara walfu’aada kullu ulaaa’ika kaana ‘anhu mas’oolaa
- Wa laa tamshi fil ardi marahan innaka lan takhriqal arda wa lan tablughal jibaala toola
- Kullu zaalika kaana sayyi’uhoo inda Rabbika makroohaa
- Zaalika mimmaaa awhaaa ilaika Rabbuka minal hikmah; wa laa taj’al ma’allaahi ilaahan aakhara fatulqaa fee Jahannama maloomam mad hooraa
- Afa asfaakum rabbukum bilbaneena wattakhaza minal malaaa’ikati inaasaa; innakum lataqooloona qawlan ‘azeema (section 4)
- Wa laqad sarrafnaa fee haazal Quraani liyazzakkaroo wa maa yazeeduhum illaa nufooraa
- Qul law kaana ma’ahooo aalihatun kamaa yaqooloona izal labtaghaw ilaa zil ‘Arshi Sabeela
- Subhaanahoo wa Ta’aalaa ‘ammaa yaqooloona ‘uluwwan kabeeraa
- Tusabbihu lahus samaawaatus sab’u wal ardu wa man feehinn; wa im min shai’in illaa yusabbihu bihamdihee wa laakil laa tafqahoona tasbeehahum; innahoo kaana Haleeman Ghafooraa
- Wa izaa qara’ tal Quraana ja’alnaa bainaka wa bainal lazeena laa yu’minoona bil aakhirati hijaabam mastooraa
- Wa ja’alnaa ‘alaa quloo bihim akinnatan any yafqahoohu wa feee aazaanihim waqraa; wa izaa zakarta Rabbaka fil Quraani wahdahoo wallaw ‘alaaa adbaarihim nufooraa
- Nahnu a’lamu bimaa yastami’oona biheee iz yastami’oona ilaika wa iz hum najwaaa iz yaqooluz zaalimoona in tattabi’oona illaa rajulam mas hooraa
- Unzur kaifa daraboo lakal amsaala fadalloo falaa yastatee’oona sabeelaa
- Wa qaalooo ‘a izaa kunnaa ‘izaamanw wa rufaatan ‘a innaa lamab’oosoona khalqan jadeedaa
- Qul koonoo hijaaratan aw hadeedaa
- Aw khalqam mimmaa yakburu fee sudoorikum; fasa yaqooloona mai yu’eedunaa qulil lazee fatarakum awwala marrah; fasa yunghidoona ilaika ru’oosahum wa yaqooloona mataahoo; qul ‘asaaa any yakoona qareeba
- Yawma yad’ookum fatastajeeboona bihamdihee wa tazunnoona il labistum illaa qaleela (section 5)
- Wa qul li’ibaadee yaqoolul latee hiya ahsan; innash shaitaana yanzaghu bainahum; innash shaitaana kaana lil insaani ‘aduwwam mubeenaa
- Rabbukum a’lamu bikum iny yasha’ yarhamkum aw iny yasha’ yu’azzibkum; wa maaa arsalnaaka ‘alaihim wakeelaa
- Wa Rabbuka a’lamu biman fis samaawaati wal ard; wa laqad faddalnaa ba’dan Nabiyyeena ‘alaa ba’dinw wa aatainaaa Daawooda Zabooraa
- Qulid ‘ul lazeena za’amtum min doonihee falaa yamlikoona kashfad durri’ankum wa laa tahweelaa
- Ulaaa’ikal lazeena yad’oona yabtaghoona ilaa Rabbihimul waseelata ayyuhum aqrabu wa yarjoona rahmatahoo wa yakhaafoona ‘azaabah; inna ‘azaaba rabbika kaana mahzooraa
- Wa in min qaryatin illaa Nahnu muhlikoohaa qabla Yawmil Qiyaamati aw mu’az ziboohaa ‘azaaban shadeedaa; kaana zaalika fil Kitaabi mastooraa
- Wa maa mana’anaaa an nursila bil aayaati illaaa an kazzaba bihal awwaloon; wa aatainaa Samoodan naaqata mubsiratan fazalamoo bihaa; wa maa nursilu bil aayaati illaa takhweefaa
- Wa iz qulnaa laka inna rabbaka ahaata binnaas; wa maa ja’alnar ru’yal lateee arainaaka illaa fitnatal linnaasi washshajaratal mal’oonata fil quraan; wa nukhaw wifuhum famaa yazeeduhum illa tughyaanan kabeeraa(section 6)
- Wa iz qulnaa lil malaaa’ikatis judoo li Aadama fasajadooo illaaa Ibleesa qaala ‘a-asjudu liman khalaqta teena
- Qaala ara’aytaka haazal lazee karramta ‘alaiya la’in akhartani ilaa Yawmil Qiyaamati la ahtanikanna zurriyyatahooo illaa qaleelaa
- Qaalaz hab faman tabi’aka minhum fa inna Jahannama jazaaa’ukum jazaaa’am mawfooraa
- Wastafziz manis tata’ta minhum bisawtika wa ajlib ‘alaihim bikhailika wa rajilika wa shaarik hum fil amwaali wal awlaadi wa ‘idhum; wa maa ya’iduhumush Shaitaanu illaa ghurooraa
- Inna ‘ibaadee laisa laka ‘alaihim sultaan; wa kafaa bi Rabbika Wakeelaa
- Rabbukumul lazee yuzjee lakumul fulka fil bahri litabtaghoo min fadlih; innahoo kaana bikum Raheemaa
- Wa izaa massakumuddurru fil bahri dalla man tad’oona illaaa iyyaahu falammaa najjaakum ilal barri a’radtum; wa kaanal insaanu kafooraa
- Afa amintum any yakhsifa bikum jaanibal barri aw yursila ‘alaikum haasiban summa laa tajidoo lakum wakeelaa
- Am amintum any yu’eedakum feehi taaratan ukhraa fa yursila ‘alaikum qaasifam minar reehi fa yugh riqakum bimaa kafartum summa laa tajidoo lakum ‘alainaa bihee tabee’aa
- Wa laqad karramnaa Baneee aadama wa hamalnaahum fil barri walbahri wa razaqnaahum minat taiyibaati wa faddalnaahum ‘alaa kaseerim mimman khalaqnaa tafdeelaa (section 7)
- Yawma nad’oo kulla unaasim bi imaamihim faman ootiya kitaabahoo bi yameenihee fa ulaaa’ika yaqra’oona kitaabahum wa laa yuzlamoona fateelaa
- Wa man kaana fee haaziheee a’maa fahuwa fil aakhirati a’maa wa adallu sabeelaa
- Wa in kaadoo la yaftinoonaka ‘anil lazeee awhainaaa ilaika litaftariya ‘alainaaa ghairahoo wa izallat takhazooka khaleelaa
- Wa law laaa an sabbatnaaka laqad kitta tarkanu ilaihim shai’an qaleela
- Izal la azaqnaaka di’fal hayaati wa di’fal mamaati summa laa tajidu laka ‘alainaa naseeraa
- Wa in kaadoo la yastafizzoonaka minal ardi liyukhri jooka minhaa wa izal laa yalbasoona khilaafaka illaa qaleelaa
- Sunnata man qad arsalnaa qablakamir Rusulinaa wa laa tajidu lisunnatinaa tahweelaa
- Aqimis Salaata liduloo kish shamsi ilaa ghasaqil laili wa quraanal Fajri inna quraa nal Fajri kaana mashhoodaa
- Wa minal laili fatahajjad bihee naafilatal laka ‘asaaa any yab’asaka Rabbuka Maqaamam Mahmoodaa
- Wa qur Rabbi adkhilnee mudkhala sidqinw wa akhrijnee mukhraja sidqinw waj’al lee milladunka sultaanan naseeraa
- Wa qul jaaa’al haqqu wa zahaqal baatil; innal baatila kaana zahooqaa
- Wa nunazzilu minal quraani maa huwa shifaaa’unw wa rahmatullil mu’mineena wa laa yazeeduz zaalimeena illaa khasaaraa
- Wa izaaa an’amnaa ‘alal insaani a’rada wa na-aa bijaani bihee wa izaa massahush sharru kaana ya’oosaa
- Qul kulluny ya’malu ‘alaa shaakilatihee fa rabbukum a’lamu biman huwa ahdaa sabeelaa (section 9)
- Wa yas’aloonaka ‘anirrooh; qulir roohu min amri rabbee wa maaa ooteetum minal ‘ilmi illaa qaleelaa
- Wa la’in shi’naa lanaz habanna billazeee awhainaaa ilaika summa laa tajidu laka bihee ‘alainaa wakeelaa
- Illaa rahmatam mir Rabbik; inna fadlahoo kaana ‘alaika kabeeraa
- Qul la’inij tama’atil insu waljinnu ‘alaaa any ya’too bimisli haazal quraani laa ya’toona bimislihee wa law kaana ba’duhum liba ‘din zaheeraa
- Wa laqad sarrafnaa linnaasi fee haazal quraani min kulli masalin fa abaaa aksarun naasi illaa kufooraa
- Wa qaaloo lan nu’mina laka hattaa tafjura lanaa minal ardi yamboo’aa
- Aw takoona laka jannatum min nakheelinw wa ‘inabin fatufajjiral anhaara khilaalahaa tafjeeraa
- Aw tusqitas samaaa’a kamaa za’amta ‘alainaa kisafan aw ta’tiya billaahi wal malaaa’ikati qabeelaa
- Aw yakoona laka baitum min zukhrufin aw tarqaa fis samaaa’i wa lan nu’mina liruqiyyika hatta tunazzila ‘alainaa kitaaban naqra’uh; qul Subhaana Rabbee hal kuntu illaa basharar Rasoolaa(section 10)
- Wa maa mana’an naasa any yu’minooo iz jaaa’ahumul hudaaa illaaa an qaalooo aba’asal laahu basharar Rasoolaa
- Qul law kaana fil ardi malaaa ‘ikatuny yamshoona mutma’in neena lanazzalnaa ‘alaihim minas samaaa’i malakar Rasoolaa
- Qul kafaa billaahi shaheedam bainee wa bainakum; innahoo kaana bi’ibaadihee Khabeeram Baseeraa
- Wa mai yahdil laahu fahuwal muhtad; wa mai yudlil falan tajida lahum awliyaaa’a min doonih; wa nahshuruhum Yawmal Qiyaamati ‘alaa wujoohihim umyanw wa bukmanw wa summaa; ma’waahum Jahannamu kullamaa khabat zidnaahum sa’eeraa
- Zaalika jazaa’uhum bi annahum kafaroo bi aayaatinaa wa qaalooo ‘a izaa kunnaa ‘izaamanw wa rufaatan ‘a innaa la mab’oosoona khalqan jadeedaa
- Awalam yaraw annal laahal lazee khalaqas samaawaati wal arda qaadirun ‘alaaa any yakhluqa mislahum wa ja’ala lahum ajalal laa raiba fee; fa abaz zaalimoona illaa kufooraa
- Qul law antum tamlikoona khazaaa’ina rahmati Rabbeee izal la amsaktum khash yatal infaaq; wa kaanal insaanu qatooraa (section 11)
- Wa laqad aatainaa Moosaa tis’a Aayaatim baiyinaatin fas’al Baneee Israaa’eela iz jaaa’ahum faqaala lahoo Fir’awnu inee la azunnuka yaa Moosaa mas hooraa
- Qaala laqad ‘alimta maaa anzala haaa’ulaaa’i illaa Rabbus samaawaati wal ardi basaaa’ira wa innee la azun nuka yaa Fir’awnu masbooraa
- Fa araada any yastafizzahum minal ardi fa aghraqnaahu wa mam ma’ahoo jamee’aa
- Wa qulnaa min ba’dihee li Baneee Israaa’eelas kunul arda fa izaa jaaa’a wa’dul aakhirati ji’naa bikum lafeefaa
- Wa bilhaqqi anzalnaahu wa bilhaqqi nazal; wa maaa arsalnaaka illaa mubash shiranw wa nazeeraa
- Wa quraanan faraqnaahu litaqra ahoo ‘alan naasi ‘alaa muksinw wa nazzalnaahu tanzeelaa
- Qul aaminoo biheee aw laa tu’minoo; innal lazeena ootul ‘ilma min qabliheee izaa yutlaa ‘alaihim yakhirroona lil azqaani sujjadaa
- Wa yaqooloona Subhaana Rabbinaaa in kaana wa’du Rabbinaa lamaf’oolaa
- Wa yakhirroona lil azqaani yabkoona wa yazeeduhum khushoo’aa (make sajda)
- Qulid’ul laaha awid’ur Rahmaana ayyam maa tad’oo falahul asmaaa’ul Husnaa; wa laa tajhar bi Salaatika wa laa tukhaafit bihaa wabtaghi baina zaalika sabeela
- Wa qulil hamdu lillaahil lazee lam yattakhiz waladanw wa lam yakul lahoo shareekun fil mulki wa lam yakul lahoo waliyyum minaz zulli wa kabbirhu takbeeraa (section 12)
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
- Glorified be He Who carried His servant by night from the Inviolable Place of Worship to the Far distant place of worship the neighbourhood whereof We have blessed, that We might show him of Our tokens! Lo! He, only He, is the Hearer, the Seer.
- We gave unto Moses the Scripture, and We appointed it a guidance for the children of Israel, saying: Choose no guardian beside Me.
- (They were) the seed of those whom We carried (in the ship) along with Noah. Lo! he was a grateful slave.
- And We decreed for the Children of Israel in the Scripture: Ye verily will work corruption in the earth twice, and ye will become great tyrants.
- So when the time for the first of the two came, We roused against you slaves of Ours of great might who ravaged (your) country, and it was a threat performed.
- Then we gave you once again your turn against them, and We aided you with wealth and children and made you more in soldiery.
- (Saying): If ye do good, ye do good for your own souls, and if ye do evil, it is for them (in like manner). So, when the time for the second (of the judgments) came (We roused against you others of Our slaves) to ravage you, and to enter the Temple even as they entered it the first time, and to lay waste all that they conquered with an utter wasting.
- It may be that your Lord will have mercy on you, but if ye repeat (the crime) We shall repeat (the punishment), and We have appointed hell a dungeon for the disbelievers.
- Lo! this Qur’an guideth unto that which is straightest, and giveth tidings unto the believers who do good works that theirs will be a great reward.
- And that those who believe not in the Hereafter, for them We have prepared a painful doom.
- Man prayeth for evil as he prayeth for good; for man was ever hasty.
- And We appoint the night and the day two portents. Then We make dark the portent of the night, and We make the portent of the day sight-giving, that ye may seek bounty from your Lord, and that ye may know the computation of the years, and the reckoning; and everything have We expounded with a clear expounding.
- And every man’s augury have We fastened to his own neck, and We shall bring forth for him on the Day of Resurrection a book which he will find wide open.
- (And it will be said unto him): Read thy Book. Thy soul sufficeth as reckoner against thee this day.
- Whosoever goeth right, it is only for (the good of) his own soul that he goeth right, and whosoever erreth, erreth only to its hurt. No laden soul can bear another’s load, We never punish until we have sent a messenger.
- And when We would destroy a township We send commandment to its folk who live at ease, and afterward they commit abomination therein, and so the Word (of doom) hath effect for it, and we annihilate it with complete annihilation.
- How many generations have We destroyed since Noah! And Allah sufficeth as Knower and Beholder of the sins of His slaves.
- Whoso desireth that (life) which hasteneth away, We hasten for him therein what We will for whom We please. And afterward We have appointed for him hell; he will endure the heat thereof, condemned, rejected.
- And whoso desireth the Hereafter and striveth for it with the effort necessary, being a believer; for such, their effort findeth favour (with their Lord).
- Each do We supply, both these and those, from the bounty of thy Lord. And the bounty of thy Lord can never be walled up.
- See how We prefer one of them above another, and verily the Hereafter will be greater in degrees and greater in preferment.
- Set not up with Allah any other god ( O man) lest thou sit down reproved, forsaken.
- Thy Lord hath decreed, that ye worship none save Him, and (that ye show) kindness to parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age with thee, say not “Fie” unto them nor repulse them, but speak unto them a gracious word.
- And lower unto them the wing of submission through mercy, and say: My Lord! Have mercy on them both as they did care for me when I was little.
- Your Lord is Best Aware of what is in your minds. If ye are righteous, then lo! He was ever Forgiving unto those who turn (unto Him).
- Give the kinsman his due, and the needy, and the wayfarer, and squander not (thy wealth) in wantonness.
- Lo! the squanderers were ever brothers of the devils, and the devil was ever an ingrate to his Lord.
- But if thou turn away from them, seeking mercy from thy Lord, for which thou hopest, then speak unto them a reasonable word.
- And let not thy hand be chained to thy neck nor open it with a complete opening, lest thou sit down rebuked, denuded.
- Lo! thy Lord enlargeth the provision for whom He will, and straiteneth (it for whom He will). Lo, He was ever Knower, Seer of His slaves.
- Slay not your children, fearing a fall to poverty, We shall provide for them and for you. Lo! the slaying of them is great sin.
- And come not near unto adultery. Lo! it is an abomination and an evil way.
- And slay not the life which Allah hath forbidden save with right. Whoso is slain wrongfully, We have given power unto his heir, but let him not commit excess in slaying. Lo! he will be helped.
- Come not near the wealth of the orphan save with that which is better till he come to strength; and keep the covenant. Lo! of the covenant it will be asked.
- Fill the measure when ye measure, and weigh with a right balance; that is meet, and better in the end.
- ( O man), follow not that whereof thou hast no knowledge. Lo! the hearing and the sight and the heart – of each of these it will be asked.
- And walk not in the earth exultant. Lo! thou canst not rend the earth, nor canst thou stretch to the height of the hills.
- The evil of all that is hateful in the sight of thy Lord.
- This is (part) of that wisdom wherewith thy Lord hath inspired thee ( O Muhammad). And set not up with Allah any other god, lest thou be cast into hell, reproved, abandoned.
- Hath your Lord then distinguished you ( O men of Makka) by giving you sons, and hath chosen for Himself females from among the angels? Lo! verily ye speak an awful word!
- We verily have displayed (Our warnings) in this Qur’an that they may take heed, but it increaseth them in naught save aversion.
- Say ( O Muhammad, to the disbelievers): If there were other gods along with Him, as they say, then had they sought a way against the Lord of the Throne.
- Glorified is He, and High Exalted above what they say!
- The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein praise Him, and there is not a thing but hymneth His praise; but ye understand not their praise. Lo! He is ever Clement, Forgiving.
- And when thou recitest the Qur’an we place between thee and those who believe not in the Hereafter a hidden barrier;
- And We place upon their hearts veils lest they should understand it, and in their ears a deafness; and when thou makest mention of thy Lord alone in the Qur’an, they turn their backs in aversion.
- We are Best Aware of what they wish to hear when they give ear to thee and when they take secret counsel, when the evil-doers say: Ye follow but a man bewitched.
- See what similitudes they coin for thee, and thus are all astray, and cannot find a road!
- And they say: When we are bones and fragments, shall we forsooth, be raised up as a new creation?
- Say: Be ye stones or iron
- Or some created thing that is yet greater in your thoughts! Then they will say: Who shall bring us back (to life). Say: He Who created you at the first. Then will they shake their heads at thee, and say: When will it be? Say: It will perhaps be soon;
- A day when He will call you and ye will answer with His praise, and ye will think that ye have tarried but a little while.
- Tell My bondmen to speak that which is kindlier. Lo! the devil soweth discord among them. Lo! the devil is for man an open foe.
- Your Lord is Best Aware of you. If He will, He will have mercy on you, or if He will, He will punish you. We have not sent thee ( O Muhammad) as a warden over them.
- And thy Lord is Best Aware of all who are in the heavens and the earth. And we preferred some of the prophets above others, and unto David We gave the Psalms.
- Say: Cry unto those (saints and angels) whom ye assume (to be gods) beside Him, yet they have no power to rid you of misfortune nor to change.
- Those unto whom they cry seek the way of approach to their Lord, which of them shall be the nearest; they hope for His mercy and they fear His doom. Lo! the doom of thy Lord is to be shunned.
- There is not a township but We shall destroy it ere the Day of Resurrection, or punish it with dire punishment. That is set forth in the Book (of Our decrees).
- Naught hindereth Us from sending portents save that the folk of old denied them. And We gave Thamud the she-camel – a clear portent save to warn.
- And (it was a warning) when we told thee: Lo! thy Lord encompasseth mankind, and We appointed the sight which We showed thee as an ordeal for mankind, and (likewise) the Accursed Tree in the Qur’an. We warn them, but it increaseth them in naught save gross impiety.
- And when We said unto the angels: Fall down prostrate before Adam and they fell prostrate all save Iblis, he said: Shall I fall prostrate before that which Thou hast created of clay?
- He said: Seest Thou this (creature) whom Thou hast honoured above me, if Thou give me grace until the Day of Resurrection I verily will seize his seed, save but a few.
- He said: Go, and whosoever of them followeth thee – lo! hell will be your payment, ample payment.
- And excite any of them whom thou canst with thy voice, and urge thy horse and foot against them, and be a partner in their wealth and children, and promise them. Satan promiseth them only to deceive.
- Lo! My (faithful) bondmen – over them thou hast no power, and thy Lord sufficeth as (their) guardian.
- ( O mankind), your Lord is He Who driveth for you the ship upon the sea that ye may seek of His bounty. Lo! He was ever Merciful toward you.
- And when harm toucheth you upon the sea, all unto whom ye cry (for succour) fail save Him (alone), but when He bringeth you safe to land, ye turn away, for man was ever thankless.
- Feel ye then secure that He will not cause a slope of the land to engulf you, or send a sand-storm upon you, and then ye will find that ye have no protector?
- Or feel ye secure that He will not return you to that (plight) a second time, and send against you a hurricane of wind and drown you for your thanklessness, and then ye will not find therein that ye have any avenger against Us?
- Verily we have honoured the Children of Adam. We carry them on the land and the sea, and have made provision of good things for them, and have preferred them above many of those whom We created with a marked preferment.
- On the day when We shall summon all men with their record, whoso is given his book in his right hand – such will read their book and they will not be wronged a shred.
- Whoso is blind here will be blind in the Hereafter, and yet further from the road.
- And they indeed strove hard to beguile thee (Muhammad) away from that wherewith We have inspired thee, that thou shouldst invent other than it against Us; and then would they have accepted thee as a friend.
- And if We had not made thee wholly firm thou mightest almost have inclined unto them a little.
- Then had we made thee taste a double (punishment) of living and a double (punishment) of dying, then hadst thou found no helper against Us.
- And they indeed wished to scare thee from the land that they might drive thee forth from thence, and then they would have stayed (there) but a little after thee.
- (Such was Our) method in the case of those whom We sent before thee (to mankind), and thou wilt not find for Our method aught of power to change.
- Establish worship at the going down of the sun until the dark of night, and (the recital of) the Qur’an at dawn. Lo! (the recital of) the Qur’an at dawn is ever witnessed.
- And some part of the night awake for it, a largess for thee. It may be that thy Lord will raise thee to a praised estate.
- And say: My Lord! Cause me to come in with a firm incoming and to go out with a firm outgoing. And give me from Thy presence a sustaining Power.
- And say: Truth hath come and falsehood hath vanished away. Lo! falsehood is ever bound to vanish.
- And We reveal of the Qur’an that which is a healing and a mercy for believers though it increase the evil-doers in naught save ruin.
- And when We make life pleasant unto man, he turneth away and is averse; and when ill toucheth him he is in despair.
- Say: Each one doth according to his rule of conduct, and thy Lord is Best Aware of him whose way is right.
- They are asking thee concerning the Spirit. Say: The Spirit is by command of my Lord, and of knowledge ye have been vouchsafed but little.
- And if We willed We could withdraw that which We have revealed unto thee, then wouldst thou find no guardian for thee against Us in respect thereof.
- (It is naught) save mercy from thy Lord. Lo! His kindness unto thee was ever great.
- Say: Verily, though mankind and the jinn should assemble to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could not produce the like thereof though they were helpers one of another.
- And verily We have displayed for mankind in this Qur’an all kind of similitudes, but most of mankind refuse aught save disbelief.
- And they say: We will not put faith in thee till thou cause a spring to gush forth from the earth for us;
- Or thou have a garden of date-palms and grapes, and cause rivers to gush forth therein abundantly;\
- Or thou cause the heaven to fall upon us piecemeal, as thou hast pretended, or bring Allah and the angels as a warrant;
- Or thou have a house of gold; or thou ascend up into heaven, and even then we will put no faith in thine ascension till thou bring down for us a book that we can read. Say ( O Muhammad): My Lord be Glorified! Am I aught save a mortal messenger?
- And naught prevented mankind from believing when the guidance came unto them save that they said: Hath Allah sent a mortal as (His) messenger?
- Say: If there were in the earth angels walking secure, We had sent down for them from heaven an angel as messenger.
- Say: Allah sufficeth for a witness between me and you. Lo! He is Knower, Seer of His slaves.
- And he whom Allah guideth, he is led aright; while, as for him whom He sendeth astray, for them thou wilt find no protecting friends beside Him, and We shall assemble them on the Day of Resurrection on their faces, blind, dumb and deaf; their habitation will be hell; whenever it abateth, We increase the flame for them.
- That is their reward because they disbelieved Our revelations and said: When we are bones and fragments shall we, forsooth, be raised up as a new creation?
- Have they not seen that Allah Who created the heavens and the earth is Able to create the like of them, and hath appointed for them an end whereof there is no doubt? But the wrong-doers refuse aught save disbelief.
- Say (unto them): If ye possessed the treasures of the mercy of my Lord, ye would surely hold them back for fear of spending, for man was ever grudging.
- And verily We gave unto Moses nine tokens, clear proofs (of Allah’s Sovereignty). Do but ask the Children of Israel how he came unto them, then Pharaoh said unto him: Lo! I deem thee one bewitched, O Moses.
- He said: In truth thou knowest that none sent down these (portents) save the Lord of the heavens and the earth as proofs, and lo! (for my part) I deem thee lost, O Pharaoh.
- And he wished to scare them from the land, but We drowned him and those with him, all together.
- And We said unto the Children of Israel after him: Dwell in the land; but when the promise of the Hereafter cometh to pass We shall bring you as a crowd gathered out of various nations.
- With truth have We sent it down, and with truth hath it descended. And We have sent thee as naught else save a bearer of good tidings and a warner.
- And (it is) a Qur’an that We have divided, that thou mayst recite it unto mankind at intervals, and We have revealed it by (successive) revelation.
- Say: Believe therein or believe not, lo! those who were given knowledge before it, when it is read unto them, fall down prostrate on their faces, adoring,
- Saying: Glory to our Lord! Verily the promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.
- They fall down on their faces, weeping, and it increaseth humility in them.
- Say (unto mankind): Cry unto Allah, or cry unto the Beneficent, unto whichsoever ye cry (it is the same). His are the most beautiful names. And thou (Muhammad), be not loud-voiced in thy worship nor yet silent therein, but follow a way between.
- And say: Praise be to Allah, Who hath not taken unto Himself a son, and Who hath no partner in the Sovereignty, nor hath He any protecting friend through dependence. And magnify Him with all magnificence.
[From Holy Quran Translation by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall]
سُبْحٰنَ الَّذِيْٓ اَسْرٰى بِعَبْدِهٖ لَيْلًا مِّنَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ اِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ الْاَقْصَا الَّذِيْ بٰرَكْنَا حَوْلَهٗ لِنُرِيَهٗ مِنْ اٰيٰتِنَا ۭ اِنَّهٗ هُوَ السَّمِيْعُ الْبَصِيْرُ
Described in this verse is the event of Mi` raj (the Ascent to the heavens, or al-‘Isra’, the midnight journey of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) which is a signal honor and distinctive miracle of our Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم)). The word: أَسْرَىٰ (asra) is a derivation from: اِسْرَىٰ (isra’ ) which literally means to make someone travel at night. After that, the introduction of the word: لَيْلًا (lailan) also makes this sense very clear. Then, by placing this word as a common noun, the indication released was that during this event the time spent was that of a part of the night – not even that of the whole night. The journey from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-Masjid al-Aqsa mentioned in this verse is called al-‘Isra’ and the name of the journey from here to the seven heavens is al-Mi` raj. Isra’ stands proved under the definitive textual authority of this verse and the Mi` raj finds mention in the verses of Surah an-Najm and is proved by Ahadith appearing in an uninterrupted succession. The word: بِعَبْدِهِ (bi’abdihi: His servant) used here for the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is special. It shows that, in this magnificent setting of honor and welcome, when Allah Ta’ ala, on His own, elects to call someone His servant’, a unique bond of love lies embedded therein and that this is the highest honor any man could ever have.
This is similar to what has been said in another verse: عِبَادُ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الَّذِينَ يَمْشُونَ عَلَى الْأَرْضِ هَوْنًا (and the servants of Ar-Rahman [ the Most Merciful ] are those who walk on the Earth gently – al-Furqan, 25:63) where the objective is to increase the prestige of those who are acceptable with Him. From here, we also learn that the highest achievement man is capable of is to become a perfect servant of Allah – for, on this eve of special honour, the quality of ideal servitude, out of his many attributes of perfection, was chosen. Then, the presence of this expression yields yet another be¬neficial outcome in that no one gets the wrong impression of divinity from this wonderful journey by night which, from its beginning to the end, is full of extra-habitual miracles. This is something like what hap¬pened with the Christians who fell into deception over the event of Sayy¬idna ` Isa (عليه السلام) being raised unto the heavens. For this reason, by saying – (‘abd: servant), it was declared that, despite all those attributes, achievements and miracles, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was still a servant of Al¬lah, not god.
The Qur’an, Sunnah and ‘Ijma’ prove that the Mi` raj was physical
It is proved from the text of the Holy Qur’an, and from Ahadith com¬ing in uninterrupted succession mentioned later that the entire journey of the Isra’ and Mi` raj was not simply spiritual, instead, it was physical – like the journey of anyone else. The very first word of the Holy Qur’an in this Surah: سُبحَانَ (Subhan: Pure is He! ) carries a hint in this direction because this word is used to register wonder or introduce a great marvel. Had the Mi` raj been merely spiritual, just a matter of dream, what was there so unusual about it? As for a dream, every Muslim, even every human being, can see it and report that he or she went to the heavens, did this and did that.
The second indication embedded in the word: عَبد (‘abd: servant) also points out in the same direction because ` abd is no spirit all by itself, instead, it is the name of the combination of body and spirit.
In addition to that, when the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم related the event of Mi` raj to Sayyidah Umm Hani (رض) ، she advised him not to mention it before anyone otherwise people would falsify it even more. Had this been the matter of a dream, what was there in it that needed to be falsified?
After that, when he did tell people about it, the disbelievers of Mak¬kah called it a lie and made fun of him, so much so that some neo-Mus¬lims became apostates (murtadd) after hearing the news. If this would have been the matter of a dream, the likelihood of such reactions was least warranted. And that he had experienced some spiritual Mi` raj in the form of a dream, before this or after that, does not become contrary to it. According to the majority of Muslim scholars, the word: الرُّؤْيَا (ar-ru’ya) in the verse of the Qur’an: وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّؤْيَا الَّتِي أَرَيْنَاكَ (And We showed you the scene – 17:60) means: رُؤیۃ (ruyah: seeing). But, it has been expressed through the word: رؤیا (ru۔ ya, which is frequently used in the sense of seeing a dream). The reason for this expression could be that this thing has been called ru’ya in the sense of a simile. This is like someone seeing a dream. And if, ru’ ya is taken to mean dream itself, then, it is also not too far out to say that the event of Mi` raj, in addition to its being physical, also transpired, before or after it, in the form of a spiritu¬al Mi` raj as a dream as well. Therefore, the saying, that it was a dream, reported from Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) and Umm al-Mu’minin Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) is also correct in its place – but, it does not necessarily imply that physical Mi` raj did not take place.
It appears in Tafsir al-Qurtubi that the Ahadith relating to the event of al-Isra’ are recurrent and uninterrupted. Naqqash has reported relat¬ed narratives from twenty Sahabah of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . Then, Qadi ‘Iyad has given additional details in Al-Shifa’ (Qurtubi).
Irnam Ibn Kathir (رح) has, in his Tafsir, reported all these narratives and after applying the standard rules of scrutiny has mentioned the names of twentyfive Sahabah from whom these reports come. Their names are:
- Sayyidna ` Umar ibn al-Khattab,
- Sayyidna ‘Ali al-Murtada,
- Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn Mas’ ud,
- Sayyidna Abu Dharr al-Ghifari,
- Sayyidna Malik ibn Sa` sa` ah,
- Sayyidna Abu Hurairah,
- Sayyidna Abu Said al-Khudri,
- Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas,
- Sayyidna Shaddad ibn Aws,
- Sayyidna Ubaiyy ibn Ka’b,
- Sayyidna ` Abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Quraz,
- Sayyidna Abu Hayyah (اَبُو حیہ),
- Sayyidna Abu Laila,
- Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Umar,
- Sayyidna Jabir ibn ` Abdullah,
- Sayyidna Hudhayfah ibn Yaman,
- Sayyidna Buraidah,
- Sayyidna Abu Ayyut al-Ansari,
- Sayyidna Abu ‘Umamah,
- Sayyidna Samurah ibn Jundub,
- Sayyidna Abu al-Hamra’,
- Sayyidna Suhayb al-Rumi,
- Sayyidah Umm Hani’,
- Umm al-Mu’minin Sayyidah ` A’ishah,
- Sayyidah Asma’ bint Abi Bakr, After that, Ibn Kathir said:
فَحدِیث الإسراِء أجمع عليه المسلمون و أعرض عنه الزنادقة و الملحدون (ابن کثیر)
As for the Hadith of al-Isra’, there is a consensus of all Muslim on it. Only heretics and atheists have denied it. (Ibn Kathir)
A brief account of Mi` raj – as reported by Ibn Kathir
After having explained the present verse in his Tafsir along with a detailed background of relevant Ahadith, Imam Ibn Kathir (رح) has said: The truth of the matter is that the journey of Isra’ came to pass when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was awake, not dreaming. From Makkah al-Mukarramah to Baitulmaqdis, the journey was covered on buraq (a special heavenly horse to ride). When he reached the gate of Baitulmaqdis, he tied the buraq close to the gate, entered the Masjid of Baitulmaqdis and offered two rak’ at of Tahiyyatul-masjid (prayer in honor of the Mosque) facing its orientation. After that, a staircase was brought which had steps to go up from below. Through this staircase, he went to the first heaven. After that, he went to the rest of the heavens. [ Only Allah knows the reality of this staircase – what it was and how did it work and things like that.
In our day too, many kinds of stairs are in use. There are stairs that escalate automatically and there are elevators that take one up. Therefore, falling into any doubt or suspicion about this miraculous staircase is not right.] On every heaven, the resident angels greeted him and on every heaven, he met blessed prophets who were stationed on a particular heaven, such as, Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) on the sixth heaven, and Sayyidna Ibrahim Khalilullah (عليه السلام) on the seventh heaven.
After that, he went beyond the stations of all these blessed prophets and reached a plain where he could hear the sound of the pen writing destinies. And he saw the Sidratul-muntaha, the Far Tree in Jannah, on which moths in gold and variegated colors were falling from above by the command of Allah and which was surrounded by angels of Allah. And it was at this place that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saw Sayyidna Jibra` il al-Amin in his real form with six hundred wings. And right there, he saw a flag in green that had the horizon all covered up. And he also saw al-Bayt al-Ma` mur (the well-attended House believed to be located in Jannah exactly above the Baytullah in Makkah) sitting by which was the founder of the Ka’bah, Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) with his back reclining against its wall. Seventy thousand angels enter this Bayt al-Ma` mur every day who shall be waiting for their turn to re-enter there right through the day of Qiyamah. And the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saw the Jannah and the Jahannam with his own blessed eyes. At that time, first came the command that his people were being obligated with fifty prayers, then, these were reduced to five. This shows the importance and merit of Salah as being the foremost out of all acts of ` Ibadah.
After that, he alighted back into Baytul-maqdis and, with him, so did the blessed prophets he had met on different heavens (as if) they had come to see him off as far as Baytul-maqdis. At that time, as it was time for Salah, he offered the prayer with all prophets. It is also probable that this Salah was the Salah of Fajr the same day. Ibn Kathir says that this event concerning the prayer with prophets led by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has come to pass, as held by some, before he went to the heavens. But, as obvious, this event took place after the return because it has been reported in the incident relating to his meeting with blessed prophets at different heavens that it was Sayyidna Jibra’il who introduced him to all prophets. Had this event relating to his leading the prayer passed earli¬er, no introduction was needed there – and, for that matter, it is obvious enough that the real purpose of this journey was to visit with the heaven¬ly hosts. Doing that first appears to be more likely. Once he was done with the real mission, all prophets came to say good bye to him up to Baytul-maqdis and by making him the Imam of the prayer through a sig¬nal from Sayyidna Jibra’il, his precedence over others was demonstrated practically.
After that, he departed from Baytul-maqdis riding buraq and reached Makkah al-Mu` azzamah while it was still dark. وَاللہ سبحانہ تعالیٰ اَعلَم (And Allah, the Pure and the High, knows best).
The testimony of a non-Muslim about the event of Mi` raj
It appears in Tafsir ibn Kathir that Hafiz Abu Nu’aym al-Isbahani, in his book, Dala’il al-Nubuwwah, has reported a narrative from Muhammad ibn Ka’b al-Qurazi on the authority of Muhammad ibn ` Amr al-Waqidi* giving details of the event as follows:
*. The Scholars of Hadith say that Al-Waqidi is weak in Hadith narrations but a cau¬tious Muhaddith like Imam Ibn Kathir has reported his narration for the reason that this matter is not connected with ` Aqa’id or Halal and Haram and in such his¬torical matters his narration is trustworthy – Muhammad Shafi’ eager to use this occasion to say things about the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) which show his insignificance. But, says Abu Sufyan: Nothing stopped me from doing that except that I may slip and say something which turns out to be a lie and I stand disgraced in the eyes of the Emperor and my own comrades keep taunting me for being a liar. Certainly, then it occurred to me that I should relate the event of Mi` raj before him. The Emperor would himself conclude from it that it was a lie. So, I said: I shall describe before you what he claims to have happened to him regarding which you will yourself realize that it was a lie. Hiraql asked: What event is that? Abu Sufyan said: This claimant of prophet-hood says that, one night, he left Makkah al-Mukarramah, reached this Masjid Baytul-maqdis of yours and, then, within that night, before dawn, he returned to us in Makkah al-Mukarramah!
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) sent Sayyidna Dihyah ibn Khalifah with a blessed letter from him to the Roman Emperor, Caesar. After that, he has given a detailed account of how Sayyidna Dihyah reached the Emperor, delivered the letter, and how intelligent he was in his mission (an event present in the Sahih of al-Bukhari as well as in all trustworthy books of Hadith). Towards the end of it, it has been reported that Hiraql, the Roman Emperor, once he had read the blessed letter, ordered that all Arab traders who were visiting the country at that time should be assembled together. He wanted to investigate into the background of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . The royal order was carried out. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and those with him visiting Syria at that time with their famous trade caravan were presented before the Emperor. Details of the questions asked by the Emperor are present in the Sahih of al-Bukhari and Muslim, as well as elsewhere. Abu Sufyan was really
At that time, the leading scholar of Elia’ (Baytul-maqdis) was stand¬ing close to Hiraql, the Roman Emperor. He disclosed that he knew that night. The Emperor turned to him and inquired as to how did he come to know about it. He submitted that, as a matter of habit, he would not sleep at night until he had closed all gates of Baytul-maqdis. That night he habitually closed all gates but one which would not close despite his effort. He summoned his staff. They all tried but they too failed to close it. The panels of the gate remained simply unmoved from their place. It seemed as if they were trying to move some mountain. Rendered helpless, he called technicians and carpenters. They looked at the gate and decided that the weight of the building has come to rest on the panels of the gate. There was no way it could be closed before morning. When morning comes, they said, they will see how this could be fixed. Non¬plussed, he returned leaving both panels of the gate ajar. As soon as it was morning, he came back to the gate where he noticed that someone had made a hole in the rock close to the gate of the Masjid which gave the impression that some animal was tied down there. At that time he had told his colleagues: Perhaps, Allah Ta` ala has caused this gate not to close today because some prophet was to come here. And then, he also stated that this blessed prophet has also offered his prayer in this Mas¬jid of ours. Thereafter, he has described further details. (Ibn Kathir, p. 24, v. 3)
The date of the event of a1-‘Isra’ and Mi` raj
Imam al-Qurtubi (رح) has said in his Tafsir that the narratives of Hadith regarding the date of Mi` raj are quite different. According to Musa ibn ‘Uqbah, this event came to pass six month before the Hijrah to Madinah. Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) says that Umm al-Mu’minin Sayyidah Khadijah (رض) had passed away before the injunction making Salah a Fard (obligation) was revealed. Imam Zuhri says that the event of the sad demise of Sayyidah Khadijah (رض) took place seven years after the call to the mission of prophet-hood.
According to some Hadith narratives, the event of Mi` raj happened five years after the call to prophet-hood. Ibn Ishaq says that the event of Mi` raj took place at a time when Islam had spread throughout the tribes of Arabia generally. The outcome of all these narratives is that the event of Mi` raj dates back to several years before the Hijrah to Madinah.
Al-Harbi says that the event of al-‘Isra’ and Mi` raj has happened dur¬ing the night of the 27th of Rabi’ ath-Thani, one year before Hijrah and Ibn al-Qasim adh-Dhahabi says that it took place eighteen months after the call to prophethood. Esteemed Muhaddithin (Hadith scholars) who have mentioned these different narratives have not followed it up with any decisive statement. And as commonly known, the 27th night of the month of Rajab is the Night of Mi` raj. وَاللہ سُبحَانہ تعالیٰ اعلَم (And Allah, the Pure and the High, knows best).
Al-Masjid al-Haram and al-Masjid al-Aqsa
Sayyidna Abu Dharr al-Ghifari says that he asked the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) : ‘Which Masjid of this world comes first?’ He said, ‘Al-Masjid al-Haram.’ Then he inquired, ‘Which one after that?’ He said, ‘Al-Masjid al-Aqsa.’ Then he tried to find out the intervening time difference between the two whereupon he said, ‘Forty years.’ After that, he added, ‘ (as for the order of these masajid, this is it) but, Allah Ta’ ala has made the entire Earth a masjid for us. Wherever comes the time of Salah, offer it right there.’ (Reported by Muslim)
Early Tafsir authority, Mujahid says that Allah Ta` ala has made the site of Baytullah two thousand years before He made the entire Earth and that its foundations reach as far down as the seventh (strata of) Earth and that al-Masjid al-Aqsa was made by Sayyidna Sulayman (عليه السلام) . (Reported by an-Nasa’i with sound chains of authority from Sayyid¬na ` Abdullah ibn ` Umar) (Tafsir al-Qurtubi, p. 137, v. 4)
And al-Masjid al-Haram is the name of the Mosque that stands around the Baytullah ash-Sharif while, on occasions, the entire Haram is also identified as al-Masjid al-Haram. In terms of this second sense, the dichotomy of those two reports – some hold that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) left for the nocturnal journey, al-‘Isra’, from the home of Sayyidah Umm Hani’ (رض) while others say that he departed from the section of Baytullah known as Hatim – stands removed. If we were to take al-Mas¬jid al-Haram in its general sense, it is not far out to believe that he may have been there in the home of Sayyidah Umm Hani’ (رض) first, then he walked over to the Hatim of Ka’bah and then began the journey of al-‘Isra’ from there. Allah knows best.
AI-Masjid al-Aqsa and blessings of the Syrian environs
The word: حَول – (hawl: environs) in the verse: بارکنا حولہ (the environs of which We have blessed) means the entire land of Syria. It appears in a Hadith that Allah Ta` ala has made the land from the ` Arsh (Divine Throne) to the river, Euphrates and, out of this, He has bestowed partic¬ular holiness on the land of Palestine. (Ruh al-Maani)
The blessings it has are both religious and worldly. As for religious blessings, it has been the Qiblah of all past prophets, and their home, and the last resting place. And that its land is green, lush and verdant with streams, rivers and fruit farms etc. shows its worldly blessings.
Sayyidna Mu` adh ibn Jabal reports that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: Allah Ta’ ala says: 0 land of Syria, thou art My region chosen from many and I shall make My chosen servants reach thee. (Qurtubi) And it appears in a Hadith of the Musnad of Ahmad that the Imposter will tra¬verse the whole Earth but he will not be granted access to four Mosques: (1) Masjid of Madinah, (2) Masjid of Makkah al-Mukarramah, (3) Al-Masjid al-Aqsa and (4) Masjid Tur.
وَقَضَيْنَآ اِلٰى بَنِيْٓ اِسْرَاۗءِيْلَ فِي الْكِتٰبِ لَتُفْسِدُنَّ فِي الْاَرْضِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَلَتَعْلُنَّ عُلُوًّا كَبِيْرًا
Sequence of Verses
Verses 2 and 3 featuring the statement: (We made it guidance for the children of Bani Isra’il) exhorted the Bani Isra’il to fol¬low and obey the Divine Law. The verses that follow warn and admonish them on their disobedience. These verses mention two events relating to the Bani Isra’il so that they serve as a lesson. Tuned to sin and disobedi¬ence, first they increased the tempo of their hostility. Allah Ta` ala set their enemies upon them. They shook them up. The Jews got the mes¬sage, cut down on their mischief and gave the impression of having been corrected. But, soon after, the same lust for mischief and misdeeds overtook them. So then, Allah Ta’ ala had them punished at the hands of their enemies. The Qur’an mentions two events while history carries six like these:
- The first event came to pass some time after the demise of Sayyidna Sulayman (عليه السلام) ، the founder of Al-Masjid al-Aqsa, when the ruler of Baytul-maqdis became irreligious and corrupt. The ruler of Egypt attacked him and took away the gold and silver of Baytul-maqdis. But, he did not demolish the city and the Masjid.
- The second event relates to the period nearly four hundred years after that. Some Jews settled in Baytul-maqdis started idol-worship while the rest began disputing among themselves. This ill omen prompted another ruler of Egypt to attack them which somewhat af¬fected the city and the Masjid both. After that, their condition took a turn for the better.
- The third event came to pass after some years when Nebuchadnez¬zar, the King of Babylon ransacked Baytul-maqdis. He conquered the city, looted property and took back a lot of people as prisoners of war. When he left, he had a member of the family of the former king ap¬pointed a ruler of the city as his deputy.
- When this new king, who worshipped idols and was corrupt, rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, he returned, killed people, destroyed property en masse and burned the city razing it to rubbles. This hap¬pened nearly four hundred and fifteen years after the construction of the Masjid. After that, the Jews went out as exiles to Babylon where they lived in disgrace for seventy years. After that, the King of Iran attacked the King of Babylon and conquered it. Then the King of Iran showed mercy to the Jewish expatriates and ordered that they should be sent back to Syria along with things looted from them. Now the Jews had re¬pented having forsaken their habitual sins and misdeeds. When they resettled there, they restored the original structure of Al-Masjid al-Aqsa with the support of the King of Iran.
- Then came the fifth event. When the Jews had peace and prosper¬ity once again, the first thing they forgot was their past. They returned to the kind of evil deeds they were used to. Then, it so happened that, one hundred and seventy years before the birth of Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) ، the king who had founded Antakiah (Antioch) attacked, killed forty thousand Jews and took with him another forty thousand as prisoners and slaves, even desecrated the Masjid though its structure remained safe. But, later, the successors of that king rendered the city and the Masjid totally denuded. Soon after this, Baytul-maqdis came under the author¬ity of Roman kings. They put the Masjid back into shape and it was after eight years that Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) was born.
- Forty years after the physical ascension of Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) ، the Jews chose to rebel against their Roman rulers. The Romans destroyed the city and the Masjid once again relegating it to what it was. The king at that time was called Titus who was neither Jewish nor Christian because long after him Constantine I was a Christian. From that time to the time of Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) ، this Masjid lay desolate until he had it reconstructed. These six events have been reported in Tafsir Bayan al-Qur’an with reference to Tafsir Haqqani.
Now, it is difficult to precisely determine as to which two out of those mentioned above are the two events mentioned by the Holy Qur’ an. But, as obvious, the events that are major and serious among these, in which the Jews were far too wicked and more seriously punished too, should be taken as the likely ones. The fourth and the sixth event seem to be fit for such application. At this point, a lengthy Hadith narrated by Sayyidna Hudhayfah (رض) ، with its chains of authority ascending to the Holy Proph¬et (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، has been reported in Tafsir al-Qurtubi. It also helps in determin¬ing that these two events mean the fourth and the sixth event. The translation of this lengthy Hadith is given below:
Sayyidna Hudhayfah (رض) says that he asked the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) if Baytul-maqdis was a great Masjid in the sight of Allah. He said that it was the most distinct house of Worship in the world, the greatest of all houses, which Allah Ta’ ala made for Sulayman (عليه السلام) ، the son of Dawud, peace be on both, with gold, silver and precious stones like ruby and emerald. The manner in which this happened was, when Sulayman (عليه السلام) started its construction, Allah Ta` ala made the Jinn subservient to him. The Jinn collected this gold, silver and precious stones and used them in the making of the Masjid. Sayyidna Hudhayfah (رض) ‘ says that he, then, asked as to where and how did all that gold, silver and precious stones go out of Baytul-Maqdis? The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: When the Bani Isra’il disobeyed Allah Ta` ala, got involved in sins and misdeeds and killed their noble prophets, Allah Ta` ala set King Nebuchadnezzar on them. He was a fire-worshipper who ruled Baytul-Maqdis for seven hundred years.
And when the Qur’ an says: فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ أُولَاهُمَا بَعَثْنَا عَلَيْكُمْ عِبَادًا لَّنَا أُولِي بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ (So, when came the time appointed for the first of the two, We sent upon you some servants belonging to Us having strong aggressive power – 17:5), it means this event. The army of Nebuchadnezzar entered the Masjid of al-Quds, killed men, took women and children prisoners and carried away with him all gold, silver and everything of value belonging to Bay¬tul-maqdis loaded on one hundred and seventy thousand vehicles. He kept the treasure in his country, Babylon and kept the children of Isra’il as his serfs and slaves for a hundred years making them do hard labor in utter disgrace.
Then Allah Ta’ ala made a king from among the kings of Persia to stand up against him. He conquered Babylon, freed the remnants of Bani Isra’il from the bondage of Nebuchadnezzar and made arrange¬ments to have all valuables he had brought from Baytul-maqdis returned back to it. Then he sternly told the Bani Isra’il that should they, in future, return to disobedience and sin, he too will return the punish¬ment of killing and prison back on them. This is what the verse of the Qur’an: عَسَىٰ رَبُّكُمْ أَن يَرْحَمَكُمْ ۚ وَإِنْ عُدتُّمْ عُدْنَا (May be your Lord would bestow mercy upon you. And if you do this again, We shall do that again – 17:8) means.
Later, when the Bani Isra’il had come back to Baytul-maqdis (with lost wealth and property in their possession), they went back to the life of sins and misdeeds. At that time, Allah Ta` ala set the Roman Emperor, Caesar upon them. This is what the verse: فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ الْآخِرَةِ لِيَسُوءُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ (Lat¬er, when came the time appointed for the second, [ We sent others ] so that they spoil your faces – 17:7) means. The Roman Emperor launched a two-pronged attack, from the land and the sea. He killed many and many were those he took prisoners. Then he had all this wealth of Bay¬tul-maqdis loaded on one hundred and seventy thousand vehicles and took it home. There he had it deposited in the Temple of Gold. This wealth is still there, and there it will remain until comes the Mahdi who would bring these back to Baytul-maqdis on one hundred and seventy thousand boats and it will be at this place that Allah Ta’ ala will assem¬ble everyone, former and later. (Lengthy Hadith as reported by al-Qurtubi in his Tafsir)
It appears in Bayan al-Qur’an, that the two events mentioned in the Qur’an refer to the disobedience of two Divine Codes of Law, first the disobedience to the Code brought by Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) and, then, after the advent of Sayyidna ‘Isa (عليه السلام) the disobedience to the Code brought by him. Thus, all events described above can be considered as relevant to the first disobedience. Now that we have gone through the details of the events, we can turn to the explanation of the verses cited above.
The outcome of the events mentioned above is that Allah Ta’ ala had decreed that the Bani Isra’il will be successful, having the best of both worlds, the material and the spiritual, as long as they continue to obey Allah. But, whenever they deviate from the dictates of Faith, they shall be put to disgrace, and that they would be subjected to punishment at the hands of enemies and disbelievers. Then, not only that the enemies will run over them destroying their lives and properties, but it would also happen that their Qiblah, their sacred Baytul-Maqdis, will also not remain safe against the onslaught of that enemy.
Their disbelieving enemies will barge into the Mosque of Baytul-Maqdis and defile and damage it. This too will be a part of the punishment of Bani Isra’il themselves. The Holy Qur’an has told us about two events relating to them. The first one dates back to the time of Mosaic religious law while the second pertains to the Christian. During both these periods, the Bani Isra’il rebelled against the divine law of the time. In the first case, a disbelieving Magian monarch was made to sit over them, and Baytul-Maqdis, who brought great destruction upon them. In the second case, a Roman emperor was set against them who killed and pillaged and made Baytul-Maqdis all demolished and rendered desolate. And along with this description, it has also been mentioned that the Bani Isra’il – when, on both occasions, they repented from their misdeeds resolving not to go near them again – Allah Ta` ala reinstated their country, wealth and children.
عَسٰي رَبُّكُمْ اَنْ يَّرْحَمَكُمْ ۚ وَاِنْ عُدْتُّمْ عُدْنَا ۘ وَجَعَلْنَا جَهَنَّمَ لِلْكٰفِرِيْنَ حَصِيْرًا
After having mentioned these two events, Allah Ta’ ala declared His Law in such matters by saying: إِنْ عُدتُّمْ عُدْنَا (If you do this again, We shall do that again – 8). This law which means – if you return to disobedience and contumacy, We shall, once again, make a similar penalty and pun¬ishment zoom back upon you’ – has been declared as valid right through the last day of Qiyamah. That its addressees were the people of Bani Isra’il who were present during the blessed time of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) serves as a reminder to them. It is being pointed out to them that they should not forget that they were seized by divine punishment twice when they had first opposed the code of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) ، and then the code of Sayyidna ‘Isa (عليه السلام) . Now this was the period of the Code of laws brought by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) .
This was a period that will continue up to the Last Day. Let them, therefore, realize that the fate of those who chose to be hostile to it will turn out to be no different. Consequently, this was actually happened. These people became hostile to Islam and the religious code of laws brought by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . When they did that, they were expelled and disgraced at the hands of Muslims, and finally Baytul-Maqdis, their Qiblah, too came under Muslim control. However, the only difference was that their past conquering kings had treated them disgracefully and had desecrated their Qiblah too. Now when Muslims took over Baytul-Maqdis, they reconstructed the great Mosque of al-Quds ash-Sharif which was lying demolished and desolate for centuries and thereby reinstated the honor and reverence of the Qi¬blah of prophets.
The events of Bani Isra’il are a lesson for Muslims and what has happened to Baytul-Maqdis in our time is a part of the same chain
Obviously, the purpose of narrating these events relating to the Bani Isra’il in the Qur’an and making Muslims listen to them is to let Muslims understand that they are no exceptions to this divine law. Be it this mortal world or the eternal universe of their Faith, their honor and as¬cendancy, possessions and wealth are inseparably tied with obedience to Allah. Whenever they veer away from their obedience to Allah and the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) their enemies and disbelieving tyrants of all sorts shall be empowered to prevail over them. When this happens, the desecration of their places of worship will also not remain too far.
The calamity of the Jewish usurpation of Baytul-Maqdis in our time and the added sacrilege of setting fire to it has thrown the world of Islam into acute anxiety. In reality, it is confirming the Qur’an. Muslims forgot Allah and His Rasul (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، ignored the life waiting for them in the Hereafter and opted to scrounge for their share in the glamour and grandeur of the mortal world. When they became aliens to the dictates of the Qur’ an, and Sunnah, the same divine law stood activated before them. A few hundred thousand Jews overcame them. They also inflicted the loss of life and property on them. Worse still is the fate of one of the three great¬est mosques of the world according to the religious law of Islam, a mosque that has the distinction of being the Qiblah of all prophets.
It was snatched from them and those who took it over had a track record of being the most disgraced people in this world, that is, the Jews. In addi¬tion to that, it is common observation that these people stand nowhere close to Muslims in terms of their numbers, nor do they have some signif-icant superiority over the current collective Muslim holdings of war mate¬rials. This also tells us that this event does not really give Jews any niche of honour in the annals of world nations. However, it does provide punishment for Muslims in return for their disobedience. It clearly shows that everything that came to pass came as the punishment of our own misdeeds.
And it also shows that there is no remedy for it except that we should feel ashamed of our misdeeds, make a genuine taubah (repentance), start obeying the commandments of Allah, become true Muslims and shun the great sins of imitating and trusting others. If we were to do just that, insha’Allah, true to the Divine promise, Baytul-Maq¬dis and Palestine shall return to us. But, it is regrettable that the pre¬sent-day Arab rulers and common Muslims living in Arab lands have yet to be alerted to that reality. They are still relying on foreign assistance while making plans of taking Baytul-Maqdis back, something that does not appear to be probable, at least outwardly. Where else shall we lodge our plaint but Allah!
The only weapon system and military hardware with which Baytul-Maqdis and Palestine can return to Muslim hands are still there waiting to be picked up – Return to Allah, genuinely and passionately. Have certitude of Akhirah. Obey the injunctions of the Shari’ah. Stay away from imitating and trusting others in our social and political goals. Finally, let us place our trust in Allah and wage a purely Islamic Jihad as enjoined by the Shari’ah. May Allah Ta` ala give our Arab rulers and other Muslims the ability to answer the challenge effectively.
A strange coincidence
Allah Ta` ala has made two places on this Earth to serve as the Qi¬blah or orientation for those who worship Him, the Baytul-Maqdis and the Baytullah. But, the divine law relating to each of them is different. That Baytullah shall be protected and that disbelievers shall never take it over is a security concern that Allah Ta’ ala has taken it upon Himself. The Event of the Elephant mentioned in Surah al-Fil (105) of the Holy Qur’an came as its result. When the Christian king of Yaman (Abrahah al-Ashram) invaded Baytullah, Allah Ta’ ala destroyed him and his army along with the contingent of elephants he had brought, through birds, much before he could reach Baytullah.
But, this law does not apply in the case of Baytul-Maqdis. Instead, as the verses cited above tell us, when Muslims go astray and start indulg¬ing in disobedience and sin, this Qiblah will be snatched away from them and it will pass into the control of disbelievers.
Disbelievers too are the servants of Allah, but not among the accepted ones
About the first event (5), the Holy Qur’ an said: When the people of Faith start letting them be seduced to discord, sin, disobedience and dis¬order, Allah Ta’ ala shall set upon them such servants of His as would break into their homes killing and plundering. At this place, the Qur’ an has used the expression: عِباداً لَّنَا (` ibadal-lana: Some servants belonging to Us) and not: عِبَادَنَا (` ibadana: Our servants) – even though it was brief. There is wisdom behind it. Is it not that the attribution of a servant to Allah is, for him, the greatest conceivable honor? This is similar to what we have explained at the beginning of this very Surah under our com¬ments on the first verse: أَسْرَىٰ بِعَبْدِهِ (asra’ bi` abdihi: made His servant travel at night).
There it was said that certainly great was the honour and nearness the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was blessed with during the night of the Mi` raj. But, when the Qur’an describes this event, it does not mention ei¬ther his blessed name or some attribute. It simply said: عَبْدِهِ (abdihi: His servant). This tells us that the ultimate perfection a human person can have, and the highest station he can occupy, is that Allah Ta’ ala chooses to cherish a servant by calling him ‘His’ servant. In the verse under refer¬ence, the people who meted out the punishment to the Bani Isra’il were kafirs, or disbelievers after all. Therefore, instead of calling them: عِبَادِنَا (Our servants), Allah Ta’ ala has broken the element of attribution and connection and said: عِبَاداًلَّنا (some servants belonging to Us). Thus, a hint has been given here that all human beings are nothing but servants of Allah as created, but because of the absence of ‘Iman or faith, they are not the kind of accepted servants who could be attributed directly to Allah Ta` ala.
اِنَّ هٰذَا الْقُرْاٰنَ يَهْدِيْ لِلَّتِيْ ھِيَ اَقْوَمُ وَيُبَشِّرُ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ الَّذِيْنَ يَعْمَلُوْنَ الصّٰلِحٰتِ اَنَّ لَهُمْ اَجْرًا كَبِيْرًا
At the beginning of the Sarah, the majesty of the prophet-hood of the Messenger of Allah was described through the miracle of al-Mi` raj. The present verses cite the miracle of Qur’an as its confirmation.
The most upright way
The way to which the Qur’an guides has been called ‘aqwam,’ the most upright. ‘Aqwam’ can be explained by saying that it is a way that is closer to the destination, is easy and free of dangers at the same time. (Qurtubi) This tells us that the rules set for human life by the Holy Qur’an are a combination of all three features mentioned above. Howev¬er, it is a different matter that man may start taking this way to be diffi¬cult or dangerous on occasions because of his own lack of comprehension. But, the Lord of all the worlds has the most comprehensive knowledge of every single particle in the entire universe. Before Him, the past and the future are the same. It is He who can have the knowledge of the reality as to the function and form most beneficial for human beings. And since man is unaware of things as they are in a comprehensive setting, he can-not identify even his own good or bad fully and decisively.
وَيَدْعُ الْاِنْسَانُ بِالشَّرِّ دُعَاۗءَهٗ بِالْخَيْرِ ۭ وَكَانَ الْاِنْسَانُ عَجُوْلًا
Perhaps, it is based on this congruity that it was said in verse 11 that man would, on occasions, pray for something in a haste, something that spells out destruction for him. If Allah Ta` ala were to answer such a prayer, he would be ruined. But, Allah Ta’ ala does not answer such pray¬ers instantly until man himself comes to realize that his prayer was made in error and that it was fatal for him. Then, in the last sentence of this very verse, a natural weakness of man has been mentioned in the form of a standing rule – that man is, by nature, haste-prone. He keeps his sight trained on passing profit and loss and falls short on foresight and hindsight. He loves to go for the immediate gain and comfort, even if it happens to be only a little. He would not bat an eye to prefer it to the greater and more lasting gain and comfort. In short, this verse points out to a natural weakness of human beings in general.
And some authorities in Tafsir have taken this verse to be related to a particular event. The event they refer to concerns Nadr ibn Harith who had made a prayer in the heat of his hostility to Islam saying:
اللھُمَّ اِن کَانَ ھٰذَا ھوُالحَقَّ مِن عندِکَ فَاَمطِر عَلَینَا حِجارَۃً مَّنَ السَّمَآِء اَوأتنا بِعَذَاب اَلِیم
O Allah, if this [ Islam ] is the truth from You, then, rain down on us rocks from the skies or send upon us some other painful punishment.
In that case, ‘al-insan’ of the text would be referring to those mentioned above, or those like them.
وَكُلَّ اِنْسَانٍ اَلْزَمْنٰهُ طٰۗىِٕرَهٗ فِيْ عُنُقِهٖ ۭ وَنُخْرِجُ لَهٗ يَوْمَ الْقِيٰمَةِ كِتٰبًا يَّلْقٰىهُ مَنْشُوْرًا
The sense of the book of deeds tied to the neck
It means that one’s book of deed stays with the doer no matter where or in whatever condition one is. What he or she does continues to get recorded there. When death comes, the ‘book’ is closed and set aside safely. After that, when comes the Last Day, the Day of Judgment, this book of deeds will be placed in everyone’s hand in order that he would himself read it and also decide himself whether he is deserving of reward or deserving of punishment. It has been reported from Qatadah (رح) that it will be a day when even an illiterate person will be able to read his book of deeds. On this occasion, al-lsbahani has reported on the au¬thority of Sayyidna Abu Umamah (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: On the day of Qiyamah, when the book of deeds belonging to people will be given in their hand, someone will notice that some of his good deeds were not recorded there. He will tell his Lord about the particular deeds missing from there. His Lord will tell him that He had erased those deeds for he used to speak ill of people on their backs. (Mazhari)
وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِّزْرَ اُخْرٰى
Allah does not punish unless He sends a Messenger:
On the basis of this verse, some leading Muslim jurists rule that people to whom the call of any prophet or messenger did not reach will not be subject to any punishment, despite their disbelief. There are other leading jurists who hold that those who deny the Islamic beliefs that can be understood through reason – such as, the existence of God and His Oneness etc. – will be punished for their disbelief, even if no call from any prophet or messenger has reached them. Of course, there will be no punishment for usual acts of disobedience and sins without prior call and transmission of the divine message by prophets. And there are still others who interpret ‘rasul’ at this place (15) in a general sense, whether he is a messenger or prophet, or whether it is the human reason itself – for, that too, in a way, is a messenger of Allah after all.
There will be no punishment for the children of Mushriks
Commenting on the verse: لَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ (And no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another – 15), it has been said in Tafsir Mazhari that this verse proves that the children of Mushriks and disbelievers who die before reaching adulthood will not be punished. The reason is that they will not deserve to be punished on account of the denial and disbelief of their parents. Sayings of leading jurists differ about this issue; its de-tails are unnecessary here.
وَاِذَآ اَرَدْنَآ اَنْ نُّهْلِكَ قَرْيَةً اَمَرْنَا مُتْرَفِيْهَا فَفَسَقُوْا فِيْهَا فَحَقَّ عَلَيْهَا الْقَوْلُ فَدَمَّرْنٰهَا تَدْمِيْرًا
Previous verses said that it is the customary practice of Allah Ta` ala that he does not send punishment upon a people until the commandments of Allah reach them through the blessed prophets which they still refuse to obey. Given in the verses cited above is what happens on the other side when the messages of Allah and His Messenger do reach a people and they still show contumacy, then, a mass punishment is sent over them.
A doubt and its answer
A surface look at the expressions: اِذا اَرَدنَا (idha aradna: when We intend) and, after that: اَمَرنَا (amarna: We command) in verse 12 could have triggered the doubt that destroying those people was the divine purpose from the very beginning. Therefore, they were first commanded to be¬lieve and obey through the prophets, then their indulgence in sin was made to be the cause of punishment. All this came from none but Allah Ta` ala. Is it not? If so, would these innocent people not be just about a helpless and excusable lot? The answer is that Allah Ta’ ala has given man reason and choice and has determined the ways of reward and pun¬ishment. Now, if someone elects to do nothing but what brings punish¬ment, then, it is the customary practice of Allah that He would activate the causes that bring the same punishment. Thus, the real cause of pun¬ishment they receive is nothing but their own resolve and determination to remain on the side of disbelief and sin. Since this is no simple inten¬tion, therefore, they cannot be helpless and excusable.
Another Tafsir of this verse
The well known sense of the word: اَمَرنَا (amarna) is the same as appears above, that is, ‘We commanded.’ But, the renditions or versions (qira’ at) of this word differ. In one rendition opted for by Abu ` Uthman an-Nahdi, Abu Raja’, Abu al-‘Aliyah and Mujahid, this word has appeared with a double sound on the letter mim. Rendered as: اَمَّرَنَا (ammarna), it means ‘We made affluent people leaders and rulers, who then sank in sin, and thus became the cause of punishment for the whole people.’
There is a qira’ah (rendition or version) of this word credited to Sayy¬idna ` Ali and Ibn ` Abbas (رض) where it has been recited as: اَمَرنَا (aamarna) and which has also been explained by them as having the sense of: اَکثَرنَا (aktharna: We increase the number of). Thus it comes to mean: ‘When Allah Ta` ala sends punishment on a certain people, its initial sign is that the number of the reckless rich is increased among them and they, through their spate of sins, become the cause of making the punishment descend upon the entire people.’
The outcome of the first qira’ah is that such affluent people are made the rulers of a people. The outcome of the second qira’ah is that the number of such people is increased in that society. Both versions show that the government of the ‘affluent’ or the abundance of such people in a society is not something to be happy about, rather, is a sign of divine punishment.
Let us recapitulate. When Allah Ta’ ala is angry with a people and intends to make a punishment descend upon them, there appears an in¬itial sign of it. People who love to wallow in wealth and power are made the ruling custodians of their affairs, or, even if they do not become their actual political rulers, the number of such people is increased among a people. In both these cases, the result is the same. Drunk with the pleas¬ures they can buy, acquire or appropriate with their affluence and influ¬ence, they start caring less for anything else, disobey the will and com¬mand of Allah personally as well as lead the trail for others to follow in their footsteps. In consequence, comes the punishment of Allah Ta’ ala all over them.
The influence of the rich over a people is a natural phenomenon
By particularly mentioning affluent people who use their wealth to pursue a life of luxury, it has been indicated that the masses are natural¬ly affected with the deeds and morals of those rich among them and those who rule over them. When these people get used to misdeeds, the whole nation follows suit and takes to misdeeds (as the only available norm of social survival). Therefore, those who have been blessed with wealth by Allah Ta’ ala should be more concerned with the correction of their deeds and morals – lest they fall into the trap of a luxurious life style, are heedless to self-correction, and make the entire nation go astray because of them. If so, the curse of the misdeeds that issue forth from their nation will fall on them too.
مَنْ كَانَ يُرِيْدُ الْعَاجِلَةَ عَجَّــلْنَا لَهٗ فِيْهَا مَا نَشَاۗءُ لِمَنْ نُّرِيْدُ ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَا لَهٗ جَهَنَّمَ ۚ يَصْلٰىهَا مَذْمُوْمًا مَّدْحُوْرًا
Two behavior models of human beings appear in the cited verses side by side. As for those who elect to go for the readily available benefits out of their life in this world, and the punishment that comes in its wake, the words used were: مَّن كَانَ يُرِيدُ الْعَاجِلَةَ (Whoever opts for the immediate life herein – 18). These words signify continuity and permanence meaning that this punishment of Hell will materialize only when one’s actions are all the time motivated by material interests only, having practically no concern for the Hereafter. And as for ‘those who desire to have the Here-after and its rewards,’ the words used were: أَرَادَ الْآخِرَةَ ۔ The sense is that as soon as a true believer were to form an intention to have the reward of the Hereafter in whatever he proposes to do, that deed of his shall stand accepted – irrespective of any corruptive element having entered into so¬mething else he was intending to do.
The first condition can only be that of a denier of the Hereafter, therefore, none of his deeds is acceptable. Then, the second condition is that of a true believer. A particular deed by him that issues forth with sincerity of intention, and is for the Hereafter – along with the presence of other conditions – shall be acceptable. And a deed even from the same person, a deed that has no sincerity, or where other conditions are missing, will not be acceptable.
وَمَنْ اَرَادَ الْاٰخِرَةَ وَسَعٰى لَهَا سَعْيَهَا وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَاُولٰۗىِٕكَ كَانَ سَعْيُهُمْ مَّشْكُوْرًا
A self-opinionated deed and an act of religious innovation, no matter how appealing, is not acceptable
In this verse (19), by adding the word: سَعْيَهَا (as due), it has been made explicit that every deed and every effort is not necessarily beneficial or acceptable with Allah. Instead, the only deed or effort credible is that which is appropriate to the essential objective (of the Hereafter). And whether or not it is appropriate can only be found out from the state¬ment of Allah Ta’ ala and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . Therefore, even well mean¬ing efforts made by insisting on bland personal opinion and self-invented ways – which includes common customs of Bid’ah (innovations in estab¬lished religion) – no matter how good and beneficial they may appear at their face, but are not appropriate to the effort made for the Hereafter. Consequently, they are neither acceptable with Allah nor are they of any use in the Hereafter.
Explaining the word: سَعْيَهَا (as due), Tafsir Ruh al-Ma’ ani says that the ‘effort’ should be in accordance with ‘sunnah.’ Along with it, it adds that this effort or deed should also have uprightness and firmness. In other words, this deed should be beneficial in accordance with the Sun¬nah as well as it should be upright and constant. Doing it haphazardly or doing it in a cycle of doing and not doing is not good. It never yields the maximum benefit.
وَقَضٰى رَبُّكَ اَلَّا تَعْبُدُوْٓا اِلَّآ اِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ اِحْسَانًا ۭ اِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِنْدَكَ الْكِبَرَ اَحَدُهُمَآ اَوْ كِلٰـهُمَا فَلَا تَـقُلْ لَّهُمَآ اُفٍّ وَّلَا تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُلْ لَّهُمَا قَوْلًا كَرِيْمًا
It is very important to respect and obey parents
Imam al-Qurtubi says that, in this verse (23), Allah Ta` ala has made it necessary (wajib) to respect and treat parents well by combining it with the command to worship Him. This is similar to what has been said in Surah Luqman where the inevitable need to thank Him has been combined with the need to thank one’s parents: أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيْكَ (Be grateful to Me, and to your parents – 31:14). This proves that, after the obligation of worshipping the most exalted Allah, obeying parents is most impor¬tant and being grateful to parents like being grateful to Allah Ta’ ala is wajib (necessary). This has its confirmation in the Hadith of Sahih al-Bukhari where a person reportedly asked the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) “Which is the most favoured deed in the sight of Allah?” He said, “Salah at its (mustahabb: preferred) time.” The person asked again, “Which is the most favoured deed after that?” To that he said, “Treating parents well.” (Qurtubi)
The merits of obeying and serving parents in Ilad! th narratives
- In the Musnad of Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Mustadrak Hakim, it has been reported on sound authority from Sayyidna Abu ` d-Darda’ that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “A father is the main gate of Jannah. Now it is up to you to preserve or waste it.” (Mazhari)
- According to a report from Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Umar (رض) ap¬pearing in Jmi’ al-Tirmidhi and al-Mustadrak of al-Hakim (which Hakim rates as Sahih), the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “The pleasure of Allah is in the pleasure of a father and the displeasure of Allah in the displeas¬ure of a father.”
- Ibn Majah reports on the authority of Sayyidna Abu Umamah that a person asked the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) : “What rights do parents have on their children?” He said, “They both are your Paradise, or Hell.” It means that obeying and serving parents take one to Jannah and their disobedience and displeasure, to Jahannam.
- Al-Baihaqi (in Shu’ab al-‘Iman) and Ibn ` Asakir have reported on the authority of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “For one who remained obedient to his parents for the sake of Allah two gates of Paradise shall remain open. And for one who disobeyed them two gates of Hell shall remain open, and if he had just one of the two, ei¬ther father or mother, then, one gate (of Paradise or Hell shall remain open).” Thereupon, someone asked, “Does it (the warning of Hell) hold good even when the parents have been unjust to this person?” Then he said thrice: وَ اِن ظَلَمَا وَ اِن ظَلَمَا وَ اِن ظَلَمَا which means, ‘yes, there is that warning of Hell against disobeying and hurting parents even if they were unjust to the son.’ (The outcome is that children have no right to settle scores with parents. If they have been unjust, it does not follow that they too back out from obeying and serving them).
- Al-Baihaqi has reported on the authority of Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “An obedient son who looks at his parents with mercy and affection receives the reward of one ac¬cepted Hajj against every such look cast.” People around said, “What if he were to look at them like that a hundred times during the day?” He said, “Yes, a hundred times too (he will keep receiving that reward). Allah is great (His treasures never run short).”
The punishment for depriving parents of their rights comes – much before Akhirah – right here in this world too
- In Shu’ab al-‘Iman, al-Baihaqi has reported on the authority of Sayyidna Abu Bakrah (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “As for all those other sins, Allah Ta` ala defers whichever He wills up to the Last Day of Qiyamah – except the sin of depriving parents of their rights and disobeying them. The punishment for that is given, much before comes the Hereafter, right here in this world as well. (All Hadith reports given here have been taken from Tafsir Mazhari)
Obedience to parents: When necessary and when there is room for opposition
Muslim scholars and jurists unanimously hold that the obedience to parents is wajib (necessary) only in what is permissible – and definitely not in what is impermissible or sinful. Says the Hadith:
لا طاعۃ لمخلوق في معصية الخالق
There is no obedience to the created in the disobedience of the Creator.
To deserve service and good treatment it is not necessary that the parents be Muslims
To support this ruling, Imam al-Qurtubi has quoted an event related with Sayyidah Asma’ (رض) from the Sahih of al-Bukhari. According to this report, Sayyidah Asma’ asked the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، “My mother, a Mushrik, comes to see me. Is it permissible for me to entertain her?” He said,” صِلَی اُمَّکِ ” (sili ummaki: that is, respect the bond of relationship with your mother and entertain her). And as for disbelieving parents, there is that statement of the Qur’an itself (Luqman, 31:15): صَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا (that is, if the parents of a person are kafirs and order him too to be-come like them, then, it is not permissible to obey them in this matter. But, while living in this world, they should be treated in the recognized manner). It is obvious that ‘recognized manner’ means that they should be treated with courtesy.
- As long as Jihad does not become an absolute individual obligation (Fard al-` Ain), rather remains within the degree of a collective obligation (Fard al-Kifayah), until then, it is not permissible for any son to partici¬pate in Jihad without the consent of parents. It has been reported in Sahih al-Bukhari on the authority of Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Umar (رض) that a person presented himself before the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in order to have his permission to participate in Jihad. He asked him, “Are your par¬ents alive?” He submitted, “Yes, they are.” He said, ” فَفِیھِمَا فَجَاھد ” (fafihima fajahid: Then you carry out Jihad in [ the service of ] them both). The sense is that ‘by serving them alone you will get the reward of being in Jihad.’ Another report also adds that the person said, “I have come here leaving my parents crying behind.” Thereupon, he said, “Go. Make them laugh as you made them cry.” In other words, he was to go back home and tell his parents that he would not be going for Jihad without their consent. (Qurtubi)
- From the event reported above, we learn the ruling that anything that rates as a collective obligation – and is not an individual obligation, or necessity – then, sons and daughters cannot do that without the permission of parents. Also included here is the injunction to acquire the most perfect knowledge of religion (the ‘ilm of din) at the highest level, and to travel to communicate and promote it (the tabligh of din). It means that anyone who has the knowledge of religion to the measure one is obligated with individually cannot travel in order to become an ` alim of din (scholar of religion), or travel for the da’wah and tabligh of din, for it is not permissible without the permission of parents.
- Also included under the injunction of treating parents well appear¬ing in the Qur’an, and Hadith is good treatment with relatives and friends close to parents, specially when they are dead. In the Sahih of al-Bukhari, it has been reported from Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Umar (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, The noblest regard one can show to a father after his death is to treat his friends well.” And Sayyidna Abu Usayd al-Badri رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ reports that he was sitting with the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) when an Ansari came and asked, “Ya Rasulallah, is it that some right of my parents remains due against me even after they have died?” He said, “Yes. Praying and seeking forgiveness for them, fulfilling the promises they had made to someone, being kind and respectful to their friends and showing mercy and generosity to such relatives who are linked in kinship only through them (Silatu ‘r-rahim). These are the rights of your parents still due against you, even after them.”
It was the blessed habit of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that he used to send gifts to lady friends of Ummal-Mu’minin Sayyidah Khadijah (رض) after her demise which was a way of fulfilling the right of Sayyidah Kha¬dijah (رض) on him.
Treating parents well: Special consideration in their old age
As for serving and obeying parents, as parents, it is not restricted to any given time or age. In fact, it is necessary (wajib) to treat parents well, under all conditions, and in every age. But, there are circumstances that usually impede the fulfillment of what is necessary and obligatory. Under these circumstances, the typical response pattern of the Holy Qur’an comes into action to suggest ways and means through which act¬ing according to given injunctions becomes easy. With this objective in sight, it grooms and trains minds through different angles and, at the same time, it continues to emphasize that compliance of these injunc¬tions is imperative despite such circumstances.
The old age of parents, when they become helpless, depend on chil¬dren for everything they need and their life is at the mercy of children, is a terrible condition to be in. The slightest indifference shown by children at such a time breaks their heart. Then, there are those physical infir¬mities and diseases associated with old age which make one naturally ir¬ritation-prone. Furthermore, during the period of extreme old age, when usual reason and comprehension do not seem to be working, some of their wishes and demands assume the kind of proportions which chil¬dren find difficult to take care of. The Holy Qur’an takes cognizance of these circumstances, but, while giving children the instruction to comfort them, it reminds them of their own childhood. It tells them that there was a time when they too were far more helpless, far too depending on their parents than their parents were on them at that point of time. Then, was it not that their parents sacrificed their desires and comforts for them and went on bearing by the unreasonable child talk with love and affection. Now when they have become so helpless, reason and nobil¬ity demanded that the past favour done by them should be paid back. When it was said: كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا (as they have brought me up in my child-hood) in the verse, this is what has been alluded to. Some other impor¬tant instructions relating to the old age of parents have also been given in the verses under study. They are as follows:
- Do not say even ‘uff to them. Briefly explained parenthetically in the accompanying translation as ‘a word of anger or contempt,’ ‘uff cov¬ers every word or expression that shows one’s displeasure. The limit is that breathing a long breath after having heard what they said and thereby betraying displeasure against them is also included under this very word ‘uff.’ In a Hadith narrated by Sayyidna ` Ali (رض) ، it has been reported that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Had there been some other de-gree of hurting lesser than the saying of ‘uff,’ that too would have cer¬tainly been mentioned.” (The sense is that even the thing that hurts parents in the lowest of the low degree is forbidden).
- Do not scold them: وَلَا تَنْهَرْهُمَا . This is the second instruction. The word: نھر (nahr) in the text: means ‘scold’ or ‘reproach.’ That it causes pain in already obvious.
- Address them with respectable words – (وَقُل لَّهُمَا قَوْلًا كَرِيمًا). This is the third instruction. The first two instructions related to the negative as¬pects where bringing the least emotional pressure on parents has been prohibited. Given in this third instruction is a lesson in the art of conver¬sation with parents – talk to them softly with love, grace and concern for them. Says the revered Tabi` i, Said ibn Mussaiyyab, ‘ like a slave talk¬ing to his strict master!’
وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَقُلْ رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيٰنِيْ صَغِيْرًا
- Submit yourself before them in humility out of compassion – (وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ ). This is the fourth instruction. The word: جناح (janah) in the text literally means ‘wings’ or ‘sides of arms’ lending the sense that one should stand in a stance of submission and humility as a mark of respect for parents. The addition of the expression: مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ (out of com-passion) at the end of the sentence is there to warn that this stance of grace should not be a mere show-off, instead, it should be adopted on the strong foundation of genuine, heartfelt respect and compassion for them. Perhaps, this may also be suggestive of something else as well – that showing humility before parents is practically no disgrace. In fact, it is a prelude to real honour for it is based on concern, compassion and kind¬ness.
- And say, “My Lord, be merciful to them” – (وَقُل رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا). It means, as for the effort to provide maximum comfort for parents, it is humanly not possible. One should do whatever it is possible for him to do in order that they remain comfortable and, then, along with it, he should also keep praying before Allah Ta` ala that He, in His infinite mercy, removes all their difficulties and makes things easy on them. This last instruc¬tion is really so extensive and universal that it still continues to be valid and beneficial even after the death of parents. Through this, one can al-ways keep serving parents.
If parents are Muslims, making a prayer for mercy in their favor is obvious. But, if they are not Muslims, making this prayer within their lifetime will be permissible with the intention that they be delivered from worldly distress and that they be blessed with the taufiq of ‘Iman. After their death, making a prayer of mercy for them is not permissible. (Abridged from al-Qurtubi)
A remarkable event
Al-Qurtubi has reported from Sayyidna Jabir ibn ` Abdullah (رض) that a man came to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and complained that his father was taking away what belonged to him. He said, “Go and ask your father to come here.” Right then, came Sayyidna Jibra’il (عليه السلام) and told the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، “When his father comes, ask him about the words he has composed in his heart and which his own ears have not heard yet.” When this man returned with his father, he said to the father, “Why is it that your son complains against you? Do you wish to take away what belongs to him?” The father said, “You better ask him on whom do I spend other than his paternal or maternal aunts or myself?” The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: اِیہ (an expression which denoted that he had understood the reality and there was no need to say anything else). After that, he asked the father of the man, “What are those words that have not yet been heard by your own ears?” The father said, “Ya Rasulallah, Allah Ta` ala increases our faith in you through everything.” Thereby he meant that he got to know what was not heard by anyone, which was a miracle indeed. Then, he submitted, “It is true that I had composed some lines of poetry within my heart, something not heard even by my own ears.” The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Let us hear them.” Then he recited the following lines of poetry he had composed:
غَذَوْتُكَ مَوْلوداً وعُلْتُكَ يافعاً *** تُعَلُّ بمَا أُدْنِي إليْكَ وتُنْهَلُ
I fed you in childhood and took care of you when young. You lived on my earnings alone.
إذا ليْلةٌ نابَتْكَ بالشَّكوِ لمْ أَبِتْ *** لِشَكْواكَ إلاَّ ساهِراً أتَمَلْمَلُ
When on some night, you became sick, I spent the whole night remaining awake and restless because of your sickness
كأني أنا المَطروقُ دونَكَ بالذي *** طُرقْتَ به دُوني وعَيْنِيَ تَهْمُلُ
As if your sickness was my own and not yours and because of which my eyes kept shedding tears throughout the night
تَخَافُ الرَّدَى بِنَفْسِي عَلَيْكَ وإنها *** لتَعْلَمُ أَنَّ المَوْتَ وَقْتٌ مُؤَجَّلُ
My heart kept trembling lest something happens to you, though I knew that the time of death is fixed, being neither early nor late
فَلَمَّا بَلَغْتَ السِّنَّ فِي الغَايَةِ الَّتِي *** إِلَيْهَا مَدَى مَا كُتِبَ فِيْكَ أُؤَمَّلُ
So, when you reached the age and maturity that I had always been looking forward to you
جَعَلْتَ جَزَائِي غِلْظَةً وَفَظَاظَةً *** كَأَنَّكَ أَنْتَ المُنْعِمُ المُتَفَضِّلُ
Then you made hard-heartedness and harshness my return as if you were the one doing me favours and giving me rewards
فلَيْتكَ إذ لَمْ تَرْعَ حَقَّ أُبُوَّتي *** فَعَلْتَ كَمَا الجارُ المُجَاوِرُ يَفْعَلُ
Alas, if it was not possible for you to fulfill my right as a father, you could have at the least done what a good neighbor would have done
فأوليتني حق الجوار ولم تكن *** عليَّ بمال دون مالك تبخل
So, you could have given me the least right of a neighbor and abstained from becoming miserly in my case in my own property.
After having heard these verses of poetry, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) held the son by his shirt and said, ” اَنت و مَالک لابیک ” meaning that: Go. You and your property, everything belongs to your father. (Tafsir al-Qurtubi, p. 246, v. 10) These verses have also been reported in Hamasah, the famous book of Arabic literature as attributed to the poet, Umaiyyah ibn Abi as-Sult. Others say that Abd al-A’ la wrote them. Still others attribute them to Abu al-Abbas al-A’ma. (Al-Qurtubi, marginal notes)
رَبُّكُمْ اَعْلَمُ بِمَا فِيْ نُفُوْسِكُمْ ۭ اِنْ تَكُوْنُوْا صٰلِحِيْنَ فَاِنَّهٗ كَانَ لِلْاَوَّابِيْنَ غَفُوْرًا
In the last verse quoted above: رَّبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا فِي نُفُوسِكُمْ (Your Lord knows best what is in your hearts – 25), any possible scruple that remains in the hearts of children as to how they were going to comply satisfactorily with divine injunctions relating to consistent observance of etiquette and re¬spect due to parents. They have to live with parents all the time. Then, living conditions of the parties vary. They do not stay the same all the time. May be, on some such occasion, they happen to utter something, so¬mething that turns out to be against the norms of due etiquette, then, they stand facing the warning of Hell. Given this probability, it would be-come extremely difficult for them to wriggle out from this situation. In this verse, it is to remove this doubt and heart-burning that it was said: Should any such word come to be uttered out of sheer anxiety or lack of discretion – but, without intentional disrespectfulness – then, one must repent and resolve not to do that ever again. If so, since Allah Ta` ala knows the secrets of hearts and knows what was uttered was not to show disrespect or hurt, things will turn out for the better, for He is Most-Merciful. The word: الاوَّابِينَ (al-awwabin: those who turn to Him) used here carries the sense of اَلتَوَّابِین (at-tawwabin: those who repent before Him). The Hadith calls the six raka’at after Maghrib and the nawafil of al-Ishraq as the Salah al-Awwabin. Embedded here is the hint that the taufiq (ability) of these prayers is granted only to those who are the Awwabin and Tawwabin.
وَاٰتِ ذَا الْقُرْبٰى حَقَّهٗ وَالْمِسْكِيْنَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيْلِ وَلَا تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيْرًا
On fulfilling the rights of relatives vigilantly
Previous verses were devoted to teachings about the rights of parents and how they should be duly respected. In the present verses, the rights of common relatives have been taken up with the guideline that a rela¬tive should be given his or her right. The least degree in which this could be done is to share with them the graces of good social living and treat them well. And if they are needy, helping them financially – in accor¬dance with one’s personal capacity – is also included therein. From this verse, at least this much stands proved that everyone has also been obli¬gated with the fulfillment of the right of one’s common relatives. at is it? How much is it? Those details have not been mentioned here. But, a broad based mercy and generosity for relatives and a good social interac¬tion with them are certainly included there.
According to Imam Abu Hanifah (رح) ، financial help can be extended to two kinds of relatives under this very injunction: (1) A relative, in the category of near blood kinship (Dhu rahim), and in the degree of sanguinity precluding marriage (mahram). A woman or child who neither has the wherewithal to eke out an existence nor has the ability to earn for it. (2) Similar is the case of a re¬lative, in the category of near blood kinship, and in the degree of san¬guinity precluding marriage. If handicapped or blind, not having enough money and property in his or her possession to eke out an existence, their relatives who have the necessary means should help them both. Taking care of the essential expenses is a duty enjoined on all of them. If there are several relatives in the same degree of extended means, the ex¬penses will be divided over all of them and the subsistence allowance of the needy will be given in this manner. This rule also has its sanction from the verse of Surah al-Baqarah which says: وَعَلَى الْوَارِثِ مِثْلُ ذَٰلِكَ (and on the heir it falls likewise – 2:233) (Tafsir Mazhari)
In this verse, it has been said that the necessary financial assistance provided to the needy and the wayfarer, and the mercy and generosity practiced in the case of kinsfolk, was their right. The purpose is to point out that the giver has no reason or occasion to harp on the favor done before or behind them because their right is his duty. The giver is simply doing his duty and not showering favours on anyone.
اِنَّ الْمُبَذِّرِيْنَ كَانُوْٓا اِخْوَانَ الشَّيٰطِيْنِ ۭ وَكَانَ الشَّيْطٰنُ لِرَبِّهٖ كَفُوْرًا
The prohibition of spending wastefully (tabdhir)
The Qur’an expresses the sense of spending wastefully through two words: (1) Tabdhir (تَبذیر), translated as ‘squandering recklessly.’ (2) Israf (اِسرِاف): extravagance. The prohibition of tabdhir is already clear in verse 26 here. The prohibition of israf has its proof in the verse of Surah al-A` raf: وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا (and do not be extravagant – 7:31). Some commentators say that both words are synonymous. Any spending in sin or disobedi¬ence or a wrong occasion or place is called tabdhir and israf. There are others who refine it by saying that tabdhir is spending in sin or on some totally unsuitable occasion or place, while israf is spending beyond the level of need on an occasion where it is permissible to spend. Therefore, tabdhir is emphatically worse than israf. Al-Mubadhdhirin (the squan¬derers) were called brothers to Shaitan and his cohorts.
Of the early Tafsir authorities, Mujahid has said: If someone spends everything he has for the sake of what is haqq, (incumbent), it is no tabd¬hir (squandering recklessly) – and should he spend even one mudd (1/2 kilo) for what is false (non-incumbent), then it is tabdhir. Sayyidna ` Ab¬dullh ibn Masud (رض) said: Spending out of place in what one has not been obligated with is tabdhir. (Mazhari) Imam Malik said: Tabdhir is that one acquires wealth and property, lawfully and cleanly, as he has been obligated to do, but spends it off in ways counter to it – and this is also given the name of israf (extravagance), which is Haram (unlawful).
Imam al-Qurtubi (رح) said: As for things unlawful and impermissible, spending even one dirham for these is tabdhir. And spending limitlessly to fulfill permissible and allowed desires – which exposes one to the dan¬ger of becoming a needy beggar in the future – is also included under tabdhir. Yes, if someone keeps his real capital holdings in tact and goes on to spend its profit liberally to fulfill his permissible desires, then, that is not included under tabdhir. (AI-Qurtubi, v. 10, p. 248)
وَاِمَّا تُعْرِضَنَّ عَنْهُمُ ابْتِغَاۗءَ رَحْمَةٍ مِّنْ رَّبِّكَ تَرْجُوْهَا فَقُلْ لَّهُمْ قَوْلًا مَّيْسُوْرًا
What an unusual moral training is being given here in this verse through the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to the entire Muslim community! It is being said to them: If people needing help come to you and you have nothing to give to them, and for that reason you are compelled to turn away from them, even then, this act of turning away or excusing yourself should not be with an air of indifference, or with an attitude that could be insulting for the addressee. In fact, this turning away or seeking of excuse should be coupled with an expression of your inability or constraint.
Regarding the background of the revelation of this verse, a report from Sayyidna Ibn Zaid (رض) says that some people used to ask for finan¬cial help from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and he knew what would be given to them would be spent in the spreading of disorder. Therefore, he refused to give it to them, for this refusal was a device to stop them from indulg¬ing in disorder. Thereupon, this verse was revealed. (Qurtubi)
In the Musnad of Said ibn Mansur, it has been mentioned on the au¬thority of Sayyidna Saba’ ibn Hakam (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had received some supply of cloth. He distributed it over those deserving. After that came some others when the supply was finished and he had nothing to give. It was about the later that this verse was revealed.
وَلَا تَجْعَلْ يَدَكَ مَغْلُوْلَةً اِلٰى عُنُقِكَ وَلَا تَبْسُطْهَا كُلَّ الْبَسْطِ فَتَـقْعُدَ مَلُوْمًا مَّحْسُوْرًا
The instruction for moderation in spending
In this verse, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is the direct addressee while the entire Muslim ummah is being addressed through him. The purpose is to teach a just and moderate course in spending which does not prevent one from helping others nor does it end up in a lot of trouble for him. There is an event in the background of the revelation of this verse. Ibn Marduwayh has reported it on the authority of Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn Mas’ ud (رض) and al-Baghawi, on the authority of Sayyidna Jabir. According to this report, a boy came to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and said, “My mother asks of you a shirt.” At that time, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had no shirt except the one that was on his blessed body. He told the boy, “Come some other time when we have enough means to respond to what your mother is asking for.” The boy went back home, and returned and said, “My mother says that you kindly give her the very shirt you have on your blessed body.” Hearing this, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) took the shirt off and let him have it. His body was left bare. Came the time for Salah. Sayyidna Bilal (رض) called the Adhan. But, when he did not come out as usual, people were worried. When some of them went in, they saw that he was sitting bare-bodied without the shirt. Thereupon, this verse was revealed.
اِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَّشَاۗءُ وَيَــقْدِرُ ۭ اِنَّهٗ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهٖ خَبِيْرًۢا بَصِيْرًا
Spending in the way of Allah so liberally as would throw one in trouble: The pros and cons of it
The verse, given the outer view, seems to prohibit the kind of spend¬ing following which the spender himself ends up becoming poor and needy, a prey of all sorts of hardships and anxieties. Tafsir authority, al-Qurtubi has said that this injunction covers the general condition of Muslims who would, after such spending, find the resulting hardships distressing and the whole thing would make them contrite over past give-outs and grieve about it. The word: مَّحْسُورًا (mahsura: empty-handed – 29) of the Holy Qur’an provides a hint in this direction. (As in Tafsir Mazhari) As for the people of high determination, who would not be emo¬tionally disturbed by hardships that may come later and would still go on fulfilling rights of those who hold such rights, this restriction does not apply to them. This is the reason that it was the customary practice of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that he would not store anything for tomorrow.
What came today was spent out today. And there were occasions when he would remain hungry reaching the outer limits of having to tie a piece of rock against his stomach (to simulate the weight of food). Then there were many among the noble Sahabah who had spent their entire wealth and property in the way of Allah during the blessed period of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) who did not categorically prohibit it nor did he blame them for it. This tells us that the prohibition contained in this verse is for those who cannot brave the hardships of poverty and hunger and they would start to rue after spending that they would have been better off if they had not spent in the way of Allah. If so, this attitude would nullify the good they had done in the past. Hence, the prohibition.
Poorly managed spending is prohibited
And the main thing in the verse is that it prohibits spending hapha¬zardly in the sense that one would ignore what may happen in the near future and spend on the spot. The result is that comes tomorrow, other needy people show up or one is required to take care of a major religious exigency and he would, then, be in no position to help out. (Qurtubi) Or, he may be rendered equally incapable of fulfilling the rights of his fami¬ly, something he is duty-bound to fulfill. (Mazhari) Explaining the words: مَلُومًا مَّحْسُورًا (reproached, empty-handed – 29), Tafsir Mazhari says that the first word: مَلُوم (malum) relates to the first condition, that is, miserliness – meaning if he were to hold back on giving out of miserliness, people would reproach him.’ And the word: مَّحْسُورًا (mahsura) relates to some con¬dition other than this – meaning that one should not exaggerate in spending to the extent that he himself becomes a pauper. If so, he will turn empty-handed, defeated and rueful.
وَلَا تَقْتُلُوْٓا اَوْلَادَكُمْ خَشْـيَةَ اِمْلَاقٍ ۭ نَحْنُ نَرْزُقُهُمْ وَاِيَّاكُمْ ۭ اِنَّ قَتْلَهُمْ كَانَ خِطْاً كَبِيْرًا
Previous verses carried a series of instructions regarding human rights. The sixth injunction appearing here is to correct a cruel custom prevailing among the people of Arabs of Jahiliyyah. During that period of time, some people used to kill their children, particularly daughters, at birth in fear of having to face the expenses on their maintenance. In the verse cited above, Allah Ta` ala has admonished them for their ignor¬ance in assuming the responsibility of providing sustenance – who are you to do that?’ This is the exclusive domain of Allah Ta’ ala. He is the One who gives you your sustenance. Now, He who gives it to you shall be the One who would give it to them as well. Why then, do you have to take the onus of killing children on yourselves because of this concern? In fact, by making the children precede as recipients of sustenance at this place, Allah Ta` ala has subtly indicated that He shall give to the children first, then give it to the parents. It really means that Allah Ta’ ala, when He sees His servant supporting his family or helping others poor and weak, He gives him liberally in proportion to enable him to meet his needs as well as help others. In a Hadith, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has been reported to have said, اِنَّمَا تُنصِرُونَ وَ تُرزَقُونَ بضُعفَایٔکُم which means: ‘It is because of the poor and weak among you that you are provided by Allah with your sustenance.’ This tells us that parents who support their family get, whatever they do, for the sake of weak women and children alone.
This statement of the Qur’an also sheds light on an issue which holds the modern world in its grip. Its movers and shakers are so scared of what they call ‘population explosion’ that they are frantically promot¬ing birth control and planned parent-hood. This is also based on the same false assumption that they are the ones responsible for suste¬nance. May be, this approach is not a sin equal in gravity to that of the killing of children, but there is no doubt about its being blameworthy.
وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنٰٓى اِنَّهٗ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً ۭ وَسَاۗءَ سَبِيْلًا
The seventh injunction given here relates to the forbiddance of zina (fornication, adultery). Given here are two reasons as to why it has been forbidden: (1) This is a shame, gross and immodest. Whoever is denuded of modesty is denuded of human nobility itself and is rendered incapable of distinguishing the good from the bad. This is more succinctly said in a Hadith:
اِذَا فَاتَک الحیاء فافعل ماشٔت
When goes your sense of shame (that could become a barrier against evil), so then, you will do what you will.
Therefore, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has declared sense of shame (haya’ ) as a division of faith (‘Iman): وَالحیاء شعبۃ من الایمان (al-Bukhari) (2) It gener¬ates limitless social disorder the consequences of which sometimes de¬stroy whole groups of people. In our day all sorts of crimes have in-creased. If investigated, the reason behind a lot of them would turn out to be some man or woman who did it. Though, this crime is not directly related to the rights of the servants of Allah but it may have been men¬tioned here as part of other rights taken up at this place for the reason that this crime is contagious. It brings other crimes along which disturb the rights of the servants of Allah through loss of lives and properties. Therefore, Islam has declared this crime to be more serious than any other crime. Then, it has also fixed its punishment as the harshest of all crimes because this one is a carrier of hundreds of these.
It appears in Hadith that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “The heavens and the earth, the seven of them each, curse the married person who commits adultery. And the strong stench which spreads out from the pri¬vate parts of such people will embarrass even the people condemned to Hell and thus there in Hell they will be suffering from the punishment of fire and disgrace both.” (Reported by al-Bazzar on the authority of Sayyidna Bu¬raidah – Mazhari) In another Hadith from Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض) it has been reported that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “A fornicator when fornicating is not a believer. A thief when stealing is not a believer. And a drunkard while drinking is not a believer.” This Hadith is there in al-Bukhari and Muslim. Its explanation, as it appears in the report of Abu Dawud, says: At the time those committing such crimes are practi¬cally involved in it, ‘Iman (faith) leaves their heart and comes out, and when they turn away from it, ‘Iman returns back in. (Mazhari)
وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِيْ حَرَّمَ اللّٰهُ اِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ۭ وَمَنْ قُتِلَ مَظْلُوْمًا فَقَدْ جَعَلْنَا لِوَلِيِّهٖ سُلْطٰنًا فَلَا يُسْرِفْ فِّي الْقَتْلِ ۭ اِنَّهٗ كَانَ مَنْصُوْرًا
This eighth injunction is about the prohibition of killing unjustly. Vir¬tually all groups, religions and sects of the world take it to be a grave crime. In Hadith, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “The destruction of the en-tire world is lighter in the sight of Allah than the unjust killing of a be¬liever.” In addition to this, some reports also carry the words: “Even if the inhabitants of Allah’s seven heavens and seven earths were to join in the killing of a believer unjustly, He will put all of them into the Hell.” (Ibn Majah with a chain classified as Hasan and al-Baihaqi – from Mazhari)
And in another Hadith, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has been reported to have said, “Whoever abets in the killing of a believer by assisting the kill¬er even with one word will be brought before Allah Ta’ ala on the day of Resurrection. And written on his forehead shall be: آیس من رحمۃ اللہ (Deprived of the mercy of Allah). (Mazhari from Ibn Majah and Isbahani)
And al-Baihaqi reports on the authority of Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas and Sayyidna Mu’wiyah (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Hopefully, Allah Ta` ala may forgive every sin except that of the person who died in the state of disbelief (kufr) or who killed a believer intentionally and unjustly.”
The meaning of Unjust Killing
Imam al-Bukhari and Muslim have reported on the authority of Sayy¬idna ` Abdullah ibn Masud رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہما that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “The blood of any Muslim who bears testimony that Allah is one and I am His Mes¬senger is not halal (lawful) except under three situations. (1) He has, despite being married, committed adultery (for his legal punishment is that he should be stoned to death). (2) He who has killed a person unjust¬ly [ for his punishment is that the waliyy (legal heir) of the person killed can get him killed under the law of qisas (even retaliation)]. (3) A person who has reneged [ as an apostate: murtadd ] from the religion of Islam (for he too is killed in punishment).
Who has the right to take Qisas?
It has been said in this verse that this is the right of the waliyy (legal heir) of the person killed. In the absence of a lineal waliyy, the head of the Islamic government will have this right – for, he too, in a way, is the waliyy of all Muslims. Therefore, in Islamic juristic terminology, the former is called real and the later, legal.
Injustice is not answered by injustice, but by justice: So, be just even when punishing criminals
The statement: فَلَا يُسْرِف فِّي الْقَتْلِ (‘fala yusriffi al-qatl’: but he shall not cross the limit in the matter of taking life) is a special provision of Islam¬ic law the outcome of which is that it is not permissible to avenge injus¬tice by counter injustice. Even when retaliating, it is necessary to uphold the demand of justice. Until such time that the legal heir (waliyy) of the person killed upholds justice and seeks an even retaliation in favor of the person killed represented by him, through the legal provisions of Qisas, then, the law of the Shari` ah stands in his favor. The reason is that he is surely supported, and Allah Ta` a1 is the supporter. And in case, he is all blinded by the desire of revenge and exceeds the limits of Islamic legal retaliation, then he, instead of being the one oppressed (mazlum), became the oppressor (Zalim) while the oppressor (zalim) be-came the one oppressed by him (mazlum). Now things will stand reversed. Allah Ta` ala and His Law will not support him. Instead, it will support the other party and shield him from injustice.
During the days of the Jahiliyyah, it was common practice of the Arabs that, in retaliation of a person killed, they would avenge him by killing anyone they could lay their hands on from among the family or friends of the killer. There were occasions when it would turn out that the person killed was someone notable among them. In that case, they would not take it as sufficient to kill only the killer in even retaliation for their man. In fact, to avenge one life, they would take the lives of two, three or many more men. Some of them would become so crazy in the heat of their passion for revenge that they would not be simply satis¬fied after having killed the killer. They went on to commit the horror of cutting off body parts such as the nose, ears etc. to serve as deterrents. All such actions are extra to the limits set by the Islamic Law of Even Re¬taliation (al-qisas), and are patently haram (unlawful). Therefore, such activities have been stopped by the proviso: I ) (but he shall not cross the limit in the matter of taking life).
An anecdote worth remembering
Someone accused Hajjaj ibn Yusuf before certain Mujtahid Imams. Hajjaj ibn Yusuf is the most notorious tyrant of Islamic history. Since, he has killed thousands of Sahabah and Tabi` in unjustly, therefore, it generally happens that people tend to overlook the evil lurking behind calling him evil. The pious elder before whom this accusation was lev¬eled against Hajjaj ibn Yusuf asked the accusers, “Do you have any au¬thority or evidence to support your accusation?” They said, “No.” Then he said, “If Allah Ta’ ala will avenge the unjust killing of thousands of in-nocent people by Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, remember that anyone who is unjust to Hajjaj will also not be allowed to escape from that revenge. Allah Ta` la will wreak vengeance of Hajjaj from him too. There is no partisanship in the justice of Allah Ta` ala, therefore, it is not possible that He would release others to go about maligning His sinning servants by giv¬ing them a free hand to accuse and blame them at will.
وَلَا تَقْرَبُوْا مَالَ الْيَتِيْمِ اِلَّا بِالَّتِيْ ھِيَ اَحْسَنُ حَتّٰى يَبْلُغَ اَشُدَّهٗ ۠وَاَوْفُوْا بِالْعَهْدِ ۚاِنَّ الْعَهْدَ كَانَ مَسْــــُٔـوْلًا
Mentioned in the two verses cited above, there are three injunctions: the ninth, the tenth and the eleventh. They relate to financial rights. It will be recalled that previous verses dealt with physical rights while the financial ones appear here.
Caution in handling the property of orphans
The ninth injunction given in the first verse (34) concerns the protec¬tion of properties owned by orphans and the observation of caution in their handling. Laying emphasis on it, it was said: ‘And do not go (even) near the property of orphans.’ It means that there should be no free use of their property counter to the provisions of the Shari` ah or the interest and advantage of the children. Those who are charged with the protec¬tion and management of the properties of orphans are duty-bound to ob¬serve utmost caution therein. When spending, they must spend only in the interest and to the advantage of orphans – and definitely not as based on their whim or lack of concern. And this pattern of management is to continue until such time when the orphaned children grow up and become capable of protecting their property themselves – the lower limit is when they attain to the age of fifteen years while the higher is eight¬een years.
The fact is that it is just not permissible to spend from anyone’s pro¬perty through false means. But, it has been mentioned here in the case of orphans particularly because they themselves are incapable of keep¬ing or taking account and no one is expected to know about it. So, a place where no one is present to demand one’s right is exactly the place where the demand of Allah Ta’ ala becomes stronger and harder. Any shortfall in disbursing such rights becomes more sinful as compared to the rights of common people.
Fulfillment of Covenants and Implementation of Contracts
The tenth injunction enjoins the fulfillment of the covenant. There are two forms of the covenant. The first form has two aspects to it: (1) Between Allah and His servant, like the covenant of the servant in eternity that Allah is their Lord. This covenant necessarily results in obedience to His injunctions and the seeking of His pleasure. This is a covenant every human being has made in eternity irrespective of whether he or she is a believer or a disbeliever. (2) The second covenant is the covenant of a believer made through shahadah or professing of the kalimah: لا إله إلا اللہ (la ilaha illallah: there is no god but Allah) the outcome of which is a perfect following of Divine injunctions and the seeking of His pleasure.
The second form of the covenant takes effect between human beings themselves. This includes all treaties, pacts, agreements, pledges and contracts – political, commercial, or transactional – that are made between individuals or groups or institutions all over the world.
The fulfillment of all covenants identified in the first form is obligato¬ry on human beings. As for the other kind of covenants or contracts, it is also obligatory to fulfill them subject to the condition that they should not be against the Islamic Law. As for those that are against the Islamic Law, it is obligatory to terminate them – after having first served a no¬tice on the other party. If one of the parties does not fulfill, the other party has the right to go to the court and make them fulfill it. Essential¬ly, a contract is an agreement between two parties that they would do or not do something. And in case, someone unilaterally promises to some-one else that he would give him a certain thing or meet him at a certain time or take care of a certain task for him, then, it is also obligatory to fulfill this promise. There are commentators who include this too under the sense of covenant, but they do so with a slight difference. We know when two parties are bound by a contract, any contravention by one of them can be challenged in the court and the other party can force its com¬pletion. But, the fulfillment of a unilateral promise cannot be enforced through the court. Of course, if someone were to go back on the promise made to someone else – without any valid legal excuse permitted by the Shari` ah – he will be committing a sin. In Hadith, this has been called hypocrisy in acts.
At the end of this verse, it was said: إِنَّ الْعَهْدَ كَانَ مَسْئُولًا (Surely, the covenant shall be asked about). It means: ‘On the day of Qiyamah, the way questions shall be asked about the fulfillment or non-fulfillment of oblig¬atory divine injunctions, so it will be with mutual contracts – these too will be asked about.’ Here, it has been left at that only: ‘it will be asked about.’ at is going to happen next after the questioning? This has been left untold. Perhaps, intended as such, it may be signaling towards the danger being great!
The eleventh injunction enjoins fulfillment of weights and measures in transactions of buying and selling and forbids any short measuring. Full details appear in Surah al-Mutaffifin (83).
Respected jurists of Islam say that the outcome of the injunction against shortening weights and measures is that it is Haram (unlawful) to give less than whatever is the due of whoever it may be. Therefore, it is also included therein that an employee curtails the assigned duty entrusted with him or gives a time that is less than what should actually be given to it, or that a worker shirks work and fails to deliver what is due out of it.
وَلَا تَــقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهٖ عِلْمٌ ۭ اِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ اُولٰۗىِٕكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْــــُٔــوْلًا
Two injunctions in these verses, the twelfth and the thirteenth, relate to mores of common social living. The twelfth injunction forbids doing something without having become certain about it.
At this stage, we should not lose sight of the fact that certainty has different degrees. There is a degree of certainty that reaches the level of perfect certitude, a state that leaves no room of even the slightest doubt contrary to it. Then, it could descend to the degree of strong likelihood – even though, there does exist the probability of a contrary aspect. Simi-larly, divine injunctions are also of two kinds: (1) Absolutes and Certain-ties, such as, Articles and Principles of Religion. These require certainty of the first degree. Acting without it is not permissible. (2) Strong Likeli¬hood or Overwhelming Probability, the example of which are injunctions relating to subsidiary deeds. After having given these details, we can state the objective of the cited verse by saying that the element of cer¬tainty in injunctions that are Certain and Absolute should also be of the first degree. In other words, it should have attained the degree of perfect certitude and absolute category. And until this happens, this pseudo cer¬tainty is not trustworthy in the matter of the basic Articles and Princi¬ples of Islam. Acting on its dictates is not permissible. As for the subsidiary injunctions, a certainty of the second degree, that is, of Overwhelming Probability is sufficient. (Bayan al-Qur’an)
Questions will be asked on the day of Qiyamah about the ear, the eye and the heart
This is what we have been told in verse 36: إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولَـٰئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْئُولًا It means that the ear will be asked as to what did it keep hearing throughout its life. The eye will be asked as to what did it keep seeing throughout its life. The heart will be asked as to what did it keep cooking in its chambers and what was it that it believed in throughout its life. If things were heard through the ears, the hearing of which was not permissible in Shari` ah, such as hearing ill of someone behind his back (ghibah) or hearing unlawful vocal and instrumental music etc., then, punishment will follow the question. If things were seen through the eyes, the seeing of which was not permissible, such as casting an evil eye on a non-Mahram woman or a beardless, handsome youth etc. then, punishment will follow the question. Or, planted a belief in the heart contrary to the Qur’an, and Sunnah, or nursed a baseless blame in the heart regarding someone, then, punishment will follow the question. The fact is that, on that fateful day of Qiyamah, questions will be asked about virtually all blessings given by Allah Ta’ ala. It was said in Surah at-Takathur: لَتُسْأَلُنَّ يَوْمَئِذٍ عَنِ النَّعِيمِ : “And you shall certainly be asked on that day [ of Qiyamah ] about all blessings [ of Allah Ta’ ala ] – 102:8.” Since, the ear, the eye and the heart are more important and significant out of these blessings, these were mentioned here particularly.
Tafsir al-Qurtubi and Mazhari give yet another sense of the verse in terms of the close proximity of the statement in the first sentence and the next. In the first sentence, it was said: وَلَا تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ (And do not pursue that which you have no knowledge of – 36). Adjacent to it follows the statement that the ear, the eye and the heart – each one of them shall be interrogated about. The sense that emerges from this proximity is that a person who blamed someone without first ascertaining and bec¬oming certain about it, or did something impulsively without doing that first, then, should this thing be related to what is heard through ears, the ears shall be questioned. And if this is ‘seen’, the eyes shall be ques¬tioned. And if comprehended through the heart, the heart shall be ques¬tioned to determine whether this person is true or false in his blame or in the belief he has allowed to become rooted in his heart. Thereupon, these very body parts shall speak up as witnesses on the day of Resurrec¬tion. It will be a cause of disgrace for those who accuse others without being certain and those who do things the truth of which has not been as¬certained first. This is as it appears in Surah Ya Sin: الْيَوْمَ نَخْتِمُ عَلَىٰ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَتُكَلِّمُنَا أَيْدِيهِمْ وَتَشْهَدُ أَرْجُلُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ ﴿٦٥﴾:”Today [ on the day of Qiyamah ] We shall set a seal on their mouths and their hands shall speak and their feet shall bear witness as to what they have been earning [ by making these limbs of their body do whatever of good or bad they chose ] – 36:65″.
Perhaps, the ears, the eyes and the heart have been particularized here on the basis that Allah Ta’ ala has blessed man with sense and con¬sciousness through them. The purpose is to let him first ascertain, exam¬ine, and test a thought or belief that crosses his heart. If he finds it true, and sound, let him, then, put it in practice. And should it turn out to be false, let him, then, stay away from it. Anyone who does not use these fa¬culties and goes about following things he has no knowledge of, things the truth of which he has not ascertained first, then, this person is guilty of being ungrateful to these blessings of Allah Ta` ala.
Now, the senses through which man becomes aware of different things are five: the ears, the eyes, the nose, the faculty of speech and the sensation in the whole body that tells one about something being hot or cold. But, habitually man finds out more through the ears and eyes. Awareness about things acquired through the senses of smell, taste and touch is fairly lower in frequency as compared to things heard or seen. That it has been considered sufficient to mention only two of the five senses at this place may, perhaps, be because of this very reason. Then, even from among these two, it is the ear that has been made to precede the eye – and on other occasions of the Holy Qur’an as well, wherever these two has been mentioned, it is the ear that has been mentioned first. In all likelihood, the reason for it is that the major part of man’s in-formation is comprised of things heard through the ears. Things seen through the eyes happen to be comparatively much less.
وَلَا تَمْشِ فِي الْاَرْضِ مَرَحًا ۚ اِنَّكَ لَنْ تَخْرِقَ الْاَرْضَ وَلَنْ تَبْلُغَ الْجِبَالَ طُوْلًا
The thirteenth injunction appearing in the second of the two cited verses (37) is: وَلَا تَمْشِ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَرَحًا (And do not walk on the earth haughti¬ly). It means that one should not walk in a way that shows arrogance, pride and exultation, for this is an idiotic act. It is as if one would like to tear the earth apart just by walking on it – something not in his power to accomplish. Or, as if by walking with a challenging gait, he would like to rise much higher – but the mountains of Allah rise far higher than he could ever beat anatomically. In reality, arrogance as such is a major sin that can afflict human heart mortally. Therefore, one must guard against even signs of arrogance exhibited through the way one goes about in life, for they too are impermissible, after all. Walking haughtily, even though one may not be walking by exerting force on the earth, and assuming airs and posing high are impermissible under all conditions. Arrogance is to take yourself superior to others and rate others to be in¬ferior to you. Severe warnings against it appear in Hadith.
Imam Muslim (رح) has reported on the authority of Sayyidna ` Iyad ibn ` Ammar (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Allah Ta` ala has sent this command to me through revelation: Take to humility. Let no man pride on another man, nor adopt an attitude of self-eminence and let no one be unjust to anyone.” (Mazhari)
And Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn Masud (رض) narrates that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, Not to enter Paradise is he who has arrogance in his heart even to the measure of a particle” (Mazhari with reference to the Sahih of Muslim).
And it has been reported in Hadith Qudsi on the authority of Sayyid¬na Abu Hurairah (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Allah Ta’ ala says that grandeur is My mantle and greatness is My breech. Whoever tries to snatch these from Me, him I shall put in Jahannam (The words rida’ and izar signify dress and Allah Ta` ala has no mass or body that would need a dress. Therefore, at this place, it means the attribute of divine glo¬ry. So, whoever betrays the wish to become associated with Allah Ta’ ala in this attribute belongs to Hell).
And in another Hadith the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has been reported to have said, “On the day of Qiyamah, arrogant people will be raised as hu¬mans scaled down to the size of tiny ants under the shadow of disgrace descending from all sides. They will be driven to a prison of Hell called Bulas. It will be surrounded with blazing fire, the highest around, and they will be drinking pus and blood excreted by the inmates of Hell to quench their thirst.” (Tirmidhi on the authority of ` Amr ibn Shu’aib, he from his father, he from his grandfather – Mazhari)
And speaking from the pulpit, Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) said, “I have heard from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that a person who takes to humility, Allah Ta’ ala elevates him to higher ranks following which he is, though, insignificant in his own sight, but he is great in the sight of everybody else. And whoever waxes proud, him Allah Ta’ ala puts to disgrace follow¬ing which he is, though, great in his own sight but he is, in the sight of people, worse than a dog and pig.” (Mazhari)
كُلُّ ذٰلِكَ كَانَ سَيِّئُهٗ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ مَكْرُوْهًا
After having described details of the injunctions appearing above, it was said in the last verse: كُلُّ ذَٰلِكَ كَانَ سَيِّئُهُ عِندَ رَبِّكَ مَكْرُوهًا (That which is evil, of all these, is detestable in the sight of your Lord – 38).
As for what has been forbidden in the said injunctions, their repug¬nance is obvious. But, within these there are some commandments where rights of parents and relatives have been enjoined or fulfillment of promises has been made mandatory. Here too, the purpose is to avoid doing the opposite of it, like hurting parents, breaking off from relatives and going back on solemn promises. Since all these things are haram or reprehensible, therefore, it has been called ‘makruh’ in a general sense of ‘detestable’ which includes the haram and makruh both. (Bayan al-Qur an)
The injunctions described in the fifteen verses cited above are, in a way, the explanation of the effort acceptable in the sight of Allah men¬tioned in: وَسَعَىٰ لَهَا سَعْيَهَا (and makes effort for it as due – 19). There it was said that not every effort is acceptable with Allah. Instead, the effort made in accordance with the Sunnah and teaching of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is the only one acceptable with Him. Main divisions of such acceptable effort have been mentioned in these injunctions which take up the rights of Allah first and then the rights of the servants of Allah.
A gist of Torah in fifteen verses
Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) said that the commandments of the entire Torah have been reduced to fifteen verses of Surah Bani Isra’il. (Mazhari)
تُـسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمٰوٰتُ السَّـبْعُ وَالْاَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيْهِنَّ ۭ وَاِنْ مِّنْ شَيْءٍ اِلَّايُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِهٖ وَلٰكِنْ لَّا تَفْقَهُوْنَ تَسْبِيْحَهُمْ ۭ اِنَّهٗ كَانَ حَلِــيْمًا غَفُوْرًا
The meaning of Tasbih (glorification of Allah) said by the heavens and the earth and everything present therein
Among these, the Tasbih of Allah said by all angels and believing jinn and human beings is self-evident. Everyone knows that. As for dis¬believing human beings and the jinn, they obviously do not say it. Simi¬larly, there are other things in this universe about which it is said that they are insensate, devoid of reason and intelligence. How do we rational¬ize their act of saying Tasbih? Some ` Ulama’ say that their Tasbih is circumstantial, state-articulated, the testimony of their state of being – because, the collective condition of everything other than Allah Ta’ ala is telling us that it is neither permanent existence-wise nor survival-wise. This whole ongoing condition has been activated under the power and control of some supreme power – this testimony is its Tasbih.
But, other investigative scholars say that volitional Tasbih of Allah is particular with angels and believing jinns and human beings. But, in terms of the state of His orientation towards what He has created, Allah Ta` ala has cast every particle of this universe into the mould of a chanter of His glory. As regards those who do not believe, or do not believe in in-stitutional religion, they too generally subscribe to God and His great¬ness.
Then, there are materialists, atheists, and modern-day commu¬nists who do not obviously subscribe to the existence of God. But, the truth of the matter is that the very existence of theirs, inclusive of all that constitutes it, is compulsively busy glorifying Allah – just as trees, rocks and dust and a zillion other things are busy recounting the glory of the most true Allah. But, this act of glorification, this Tasbih they are all engaged in, is built-in, compulsively ingrained and is responding to the call of the creational imperative. Common people do not hear it. The statement of the Qur’an: وَلَـٰكِن لَّا تَفْقَهُونَ تَسْبِيحَهُمْ , (but you do not understand their extolling [ the act of glorifying Allah ] – 17:44) proves that this origi¬nally and elementally ingrained act of extolling Allah performed by everything en masse is something common people cannot understand. As far as circumstantially discernible act of extolling is concerned, intelli¬gent people can identify it readily. This tells us that the act of extolling we are talking about is not simply a testimony of the incumbent’s state of existence in the universe. It is real – though, beyond our comprehen¬sion. (As mentioned by al-Qurtubi)
As for the phenomenon of pebbles saying tasbih (glory be to Allah) in the blessed hand of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and which was clearly heard by the noble Sahabah, it is obviously a miracle. But, Shaykh Jalaluddin as-Suyuti while explaining this Hadith in al-Khasais al-Kubra has said that pebbles saying tasbih is not the miracle of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . As regards pebbles, they say tasbih wherever they are. In fact, what is his miracle is that once the pebbles were in his blessed hand that tasbih said by them became audible.
Imam al-Qurtubi has declared this refinement as weightier and has supported it with many proofs from the Qur’an, and Sunnah. For exam¬ple, it was said about Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) in Surah Sad: إِنَّا سَخَّرْنَا الْجِبَالَ مَعَهُ يُسَبِّحْنَ بِالْعَشِيِّ وَالْإِشْرَاقِ (We subjugated the mountains with him which used to glorify Allah, evening and morning – 48:18). And it was said about rocks in a verse of Surah al-Baqarah: وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَهْبِطُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّـهِ (and there are still others [ rocks ] which fall down in fear of Allah – 2:74). This proves that rocks have consciousness, sense and the fear of Allah. Then, refut¬ing Christians calling Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) Son of God, it was said in a verse of Surah Maryam: وَتَخِرُّ الْجِبَالُ هَدًّا أَن دَعَوْا لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ وَلَدًا (and the mountains fall down crumbling that they attribute to the Rahman [ Most-Merciful Allah ] a son – 19:90, 91). Again, it is evident that mountains crumbling in fear are indicative of their consciousness and sense. And once it is conceded that they have sense and consciousness, the saying of tasbih by them should not be considered something improbable.
Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn Mas’ ud (رض) said, “a mountain says to the other mountain, ‘say, 0 brother, has a man ever gone across you, someone who was good at remembering Allah?’ If it says, ‘yes,’ this mountain is pleased with him.” For his proof, Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ‘Mas` ud (رض) recited the verse: وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَـٰنُ وَلَدًا (And they say, “the Rahman [ Most-Merciful Allah ] has taken a son” – 19:88). After that, he said, “this verse proves it that mountains are affected by listening to words of blasphemy (kufr) and are, thereupon, seized by fear. This being the truth, do you think that they listen to what is false and do not listen to what is true (haqq), do not hear Allah being remembered (dhikr) and are not affected by it?” (Qurtubi with reference to Raqa’iq ibn Mubarak) And the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “there is no jinn, man, tree, rock and common clod of earth that hears the call of the Muezzin (mu’adhdhin), and does not bear witness to his faith and righteousness on the day of Qiyamah.” (Mu’atta Imam Malik and Sunan Ibn Majah on the authority of Sayyidna Abu Said al-Khudri (رض) .
Imam al-Bukhari (رح) has reported on the authority of Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn Mas’ ud (رض) ، who said, “we used to hear the sound of tasbih (glory to Allah) said by the food when it was being eaten.” And a variant appears in another report where it is said, “when we ate with the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، we used to hear the sound of tasbih said by the food.” And as narrated by Sayyidna Jabir ibn Samurah (رض) ، it ap¬pears in Sahih Muslim that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “I know the rock of Makkah al-Mukarramah that used to say ‘salam’ to me before the call of prophet-hood – and I know it even now.” Some say, ‘the reference is to al-Hajar al-Aswad.’ Allah knows best.
Imam al-Qurtubi (رح) has said that Hadith reports relating to such matters abound. As for the story of Ustuwanah Hannanah (the dried tree serving as a column for support when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) gave his Khutbah in the Masjid), it is common knowledge among Mus¬lims all over the world. When the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) bypassed it while starting to deliver his Khutbah from a regular mimbar (stepped-plat¬form), the noble Sahabah heard the sound of wailing coming from it.
After all these reports, why should it remain so far out to realize that everything in the heavens and the earth has consciousness and sense and that everything really glorifies Allah. Ibrahim (رح) says that this tasbih is universal. It includes the animate and the inanimate both. So much so that the least sound made by the panels of doors are not devoid of tasbih. Imam al-Qurtubi has said, ‘If this glorification of Allah was a state-articulated tasbih, why was it made so particular to Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) in the verse referred to a little earlier? A state-ar¬ticulated tasbih is something every discerning human being can sense out from everything. This makes it obvious that this tasbih was spoken, verbally and audibly.
نَحْنُ اَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَسْتَمِعُوْنَ بِهٖٓ اِذْ يَسْتَمِعُوْنَ اِلَيْكَ وَاِذْ هُمْ نَجْوٰٓى اِذْ يَقُوْلُ الظّٰلِمُوْنَ اِنْ تَتَّبِعُوْنَ اِلَّا رَجُلًا مَّسْحُوْرًا
Can Magic affect a Prophet?
A prophet being affected by magic is as possible as being affected by sickness. Therefore, blessed prophets are not devoid of or detached from human characteristics. For instance, they could be wounded, run temperature or feel pain. Similarly, they could also be affected by magic because, that too, is triggered by the influence of physical causes, such as those of the Jinn. And it also stands proved from Hadith that there was an occasion when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was affected by magic. As for the disbelievers calling him ‘bewitched’ (‘mashur’ ) in verse 47 which the Qur’an has refuted for the reason that they really meant to call him ‘insane.’ (Bayan al-Qur’an) Therefore, the Hadith of magic is not contradictory.1
- Moreover, the magic or sorcery can affect a prophet only to cause a physical illness. It can never have an adverse effect on performing their functions as prophets. The disbelievers used to call the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) t ‘bewitched person’ in this later sense which was totally impossible in his case, while the hadith refers to the physical illness suffered by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) which was caused by an act of magic. (Muhammad Taqi Usmani)
The subject taken up in the first two verses (45, 46) has a particular event as a background. According to al-Qurtubi reporting on the author¬ity of Sayyidna Said ibn Jubayr (رض) ، when Surah al-Masad/al-Lahab (iii) beginning with: تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ was revealed in the Qur’an, it also condemned the wife of Abu Lahab. She went to the place where the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to sit with his Companions. At that time, Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) was present there. Noticing her coming well ahead of her arri¬val, he said to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) “if you move away from here, it will be better. This woman has a sharp tongue. She will say things which may cause you pain.” He said, “no, Allah Ta` ala will put a curtain between me and her.” So, she reached there but when she could not see the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) anywhere around, she turned towards Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) and said, your companion has satirized us in poetry.” Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) said, “By Allah, he is no composer of poetry, much less that of the kind in which people are satirized (hajw).” Thereupon, she left in a huff saying, “you are no more than a verifier for him.” After she was gone, Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) submitted, “didn’t she see you?” He said, “as long as she was here, an angel kept obstructing the view between me and her.”
A Qur’anic formula of remaining hidden from enemy sight
‘On occasions when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) wished to remain hidden from the sight of the Mushriks,’ says Sayyidna Ka` b (رض) ، ‘he would recite three verses of the Holy Qur’ an. Such was its effect that the disbelievers were unable to see him.’ Those three verses are:
- إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا (Surely, We have put covers on their hearts, so that they do not understand it, and deafness in their ears – Surah al-Kahf, 18:57).
- أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ طَبَعَ اللَّـهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ (Those are the ones Allah has put a seal on whose hearts and hearing and vision – Surah an-Nahl, 16:108).
- أَفَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَـٰهَهُ هَوَاهُ وَأَضَلَّهُ اللَّـهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ وَخَتَمَ عَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِ وَقَلْبِهِ وَجَعَلَ عَلَىٰ بَصَرِهِ غِشَاوَةً (Have you seen the one who has taken his own desire as god while Allah has let him go astray because of knowledge [ his or His ] and has set a seal upon his hearing and his heart and placed over his vision a veil – Surah al-Jathiyah, 45:23).
Sayyidna Ka’b (رض) says that he related this thing about the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to a Syrian who had to go to adjoining Byzantium on a cer¬tain business. He went there and stayed for a long time until the local disbelievers started harassing him. When he escaped from there, they pursued him. At that time, he remembered that narrative and recited the three verses identified there. It so happened as if a screen was placed on their eyes why they could not see this person who was walking on the same pathway the enemies were passing by.
Imam Tha` labi says that he related this narrative of Sayyidna Ka` b (رض) to a resident of the town of R’ay. It so happened that he was put under arrest by the disbelievers of Dailam. For some time he remained under detention with them. One day he got his chance to escape. They pursued him, but this person also recited those three verses. The effect was immediate. Allah Ta’ ala screened their eyes in a manner that they were unable to see him – though, they were walking side by side with their clothes touching his clothes.
Imam al-Qurtubi (رح) says that the verses from Surah Ya Sin which were recited by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) at the time of Hijrah may also be added to the three verses cited above. This was when the Mushsriks of Mak¬kah had besieged his house. He recited those verses and went right through them. In fact, he went by throwing dust on their heads and none of them knew anything about it. Those verses of Surah Ya Seen are:
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
يس ﴿1﴾ وَالْقُرْآنِ الْحَكِيمِ ﴿2﴾ إِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ ﴿3﴾ عَلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ ﴿4﴾ تَنزِيلَ الْعَزِيزِ الرَّحِيمِ ﴿5﴾ لِتُنذِرَ قَوْمًا مَّا أُنذِرَ آبَاؤُهُمْ فَهُمْ غَافِلُونَ ﴿6﴾ لَقَدْ حَقَّ الْقَوْلُ عَلَىٰ أَكْثَرِهِمْ فَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿7﴾ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا فِي أَعْنَاقِهِمْ أَغْلَالًا فَهِيَ إِلَى الْأَذْقَانِ فَهُم مُّقْمَحُونَ ﴿8﴾ وَجَعَلْنَا مِن بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ سَدًّا وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ سَدًّا فَأَغْشَيْنَاهُمْ فَهُمْ لَا يُبْصِرُونَ ﴿9﴾
With the name of Allah, the Most-Merciful, the Very-Merciful
Ya Seen. By the wise Qur’an, surely you [ 0 Muhammad ] are from among the messengers, on a straight path. [ This is ] a reve¬lation of the Mighty, the Very Merciful, that you may warn a people whose forefathers were not warned, so they are una¬ware. The word has already taken effect against most of them, so they do not believe. Surely, We have placed shackles on their necks reaching down to their chins, so they are with heads forced high up. And We have placed before them an ob¬struction and behind them an obstruction and covered them, so they do not see – Surah Ya Seen, 36: 1-9)
Imam al-Qurtubi (رح) says that he himself went through an incident in the Manthur Castle of al-Qartubah in his own country of al-Andalus (Spain). I ran in front of the enemy and sat in a corner. The enemy sent two horsemen after me. I was on open grounds. There was nothing to ob¬struct the view between us. But, I was reciting these verses of Surah Ya Sin. Both these horsemen passed by me. Then they went back towards where they had come from, saying, ‘this person must be some devil,’ because they could not see me. Allah Ta’ ala had turned them blind as far as I was concerned. (Qurtubi)
يَوْمَ يَدْعُوْكُمْ فَتَسْتَجِيْبُوْنَ بِحَمْدِهٖ وَتَظُنُّوْنَ اِنْ لَّبِثْتُمْ اِلَّا قَلِيْلًا
The word: يَدْعُوكُمْ (He will call you) in: يَوْمَ يَدْعُوكُمْ فَتَسْتَجِيبُونَ بِحَمْدِهِ (on a day when He will call you, and you will respond praising Him – 52) is a deri¬vation from: دُعَاء (dua’ ) which means to call out for someone by announc¬ing it vocally. The sense is that the day when Allah Ta’ ala will call everyone to come to the plains of Resurrection, this calling will be through Angel Israfil. When he sounds the second trumpet, the dead will come alive and assemble on the plains of Resurrection. It is also possible that, once alive, a call goes through to all of them to assemble there. (Qurtubi)
In a Hadith, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “On the day of Qiyamah, you will be called out with your name and the name of your father, therefore, give yourself good names (avoiding the absurd ones).” (Qurtubi)
Even disbelievers will rise praising Allah on the day of Resurrection
The word: اِستِجَابَۃ (istijabah) in: فَتَسْتَجِيبُونَ بِحَمْدِهِ (and you will respond praising Him – 52) means to respond on being called by someone and be present before him. The sense is when you will be called to present your-selves on the plains of Resurrection, all of you will obey that call and assemble there. The word: بِحَمْدِهِ (bihamdihi: praising Him) is the state of the nominative pronoun in: تسْتَجِيبُونَ (tastajibun: you will respond) which releases the sense of hamidin (حَامِدِین) that is, those praising Him. Thus, the outcome is that all of them will present themselves praising Allah while coming to those fateful plains.
As outwardly obvious, the verse does seem to indicate that this will be the state of all, believers or disbelievers – they both will rise praising Allah. But, the real addressees here are the disbelievers. It is about them that it is being said they all will rise praising Allah. From among Tafsir authorities, Sayyidna Said ibn Jubayr has said that the disbelievers too will rise from their graves saying: سُبحَانَکَ وَ بِحَمدِکَ (Pure are You and to You belong all praises), but their act of praising at that hour will be of no use to them. (Qurtubi) The reason is not far to see. When these people see life after death, the words of praise for Allah will escape their mouth involuntarily. This will be no deed deserving recompense.
Some commentators have said that this state has been particular¬ized with believers. They argue that, regarding the disbelievers, the Qur’an has only this to say: (1) When they rise, they will say, يَا وَيْلَنَا مَن بَعَثَنَا مِن مَّرْقَدِنَا (Woe be to us! Who made us rise from our resting-place? – Surah Ya Sin, 36:52). (2) And according to another verse, they will say, يَا حَسْرَتَىٰ عَلَىٰ مَا فَرَّطتُ فِي جَنبِ اللَّـهِ (0 my remorse [ is boundless ] over what I have neglected on the side of [ obedience to ] Allah! – Surah az-Zumar, 39:56).
But, the truth of the matter is that there is no likelihood of a contra-diction between these two sayings. May be, in the beginning, all rise praising. Later, when disbelievers are separated from believers as said in Surah Ya Sin: وَامْتَازُوا الْيَوْمَ أَيُّهَا الْمُجْرِمُونَ (But today, 0 criminals, you stand out distinctly apart – 36:59), they will also say what appears in the cited verses. Then, it stands proved from many explications of the Qur’an, and Sunnah that stations of Resurrection will be different with a correspond¬ing difference in the states and conditions of people in each of these. Imam al-Qurtubi has said that rising in Resurrection will begin with the praise of Allah with everyone doing it when rising and on it will end all matters. This is as it was already said: وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُم بِالْحَقِّ وَقِيلَ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (And matters between them have been settled in accordance with the truth and it was said: All praise belongs to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds – az-Zumar, 39:75)
وَقُلْ لِّعِبَادِيْ يَـقُوْلُوا الَّتِيْ ھِيَ اَحْسَنُ ۭ اِنَّ الشَّيْطٰنَ يَنْزَغُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۭ اِنَّ الشَّيْطٰنَ كَانَ لِلْاِنْسَانِ عَدُوًّا مُّبِيْنًا
Using foul or harsh language is not correct, even against infidels
The first verse (53) prohibits Muslims from talking harshly to disbelievers. It means that a hard line should not be taken unnecessarily, and should there be the need, even killing would be in order – as succinctly put in two lines of Persian poetry:
کہ بےحکم شرع آب خوردن خطاست *** وگر خون بفتوٰی بریزی رواست
Whereas, without an injunction of the Shari` ah, to drink water is a sin,
In another case, to shed blood under Fatwa is permissible!
Since it is possible to suppress the aggressive might of disbelievers and their hostility to Islam through fighting and killing (as an inevitable measure of defense), therefore, it is allowed. However, by using foul lan¬guage and harsh words, neither a castle stands conquered nor anyone guided right, therefore, it has been prohibited. Imam al-Qurtubi said that this verse was revealed in the background of an event relating to Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) . It so happened that someone used foul language against Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) who retaliated harshly and wanted to kill him. This posed the danger of a war breaking out between their two tribes. Thereupon, this verse was revealed.
And according to the interpretation of Imam al-Qurtubi, this verse contains a guideline for Muslims as to how they should address each oth¬er. It suggests that they should not speak harshly at the time of mutual difference, for this is a trap door through which the Shaitan pushes them into mutual infighting and disorder.
وَرَبُّكَ اَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ فِي السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضِ ۭ وَلَقَدْ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَ النَّبِيّٖنَ عَلٰي بَعْضٍ وَّاٰتَيْنَا دَاوٗدَ زَبُوْرًا
That Zabur (the Psalms) has been mentioned particularly in the last sentence of verse 55: وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا ، (And We gave Dawud the Zabur) has been done, perhaps, because Zabur reports that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) will be a ruler along with being a messenger and prophet. This is as it appears in the Qur’an: وَلَقَدْ كَتَبْنَا فِي الزَّبُورِ مِن بَعْدِ الذِّكْرِ أَنَّ الْأَرْضَ يَرِثُهَا عِبَادِيَ الصَّالِحُونَ (And We have already written in the Zabur, after the [ previous ] mention, that the land is inherited by My righteous servants – al-Anbiya’, 21:105).
At this stage, Imam al-Baghawi says in his Tafsir that Zabur is a book of Allah revealed to Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) . It has one hundred and fifty surahs or chapters and all surahs are restricted to praises of Allah and prayers to Him. The areas of lawful and unlawful, obligations and limits have not been taken up there.
اُولٰۗىِٕكَ الَّذِيْنَ يَدْعُوْنَ يَبْتَغُوْنَ اِلٰى رَبِّهِمُ الْوَسِـيْلَةَ اَيُّهُمْ اَقْرَبُ وَيَرْجُوْنَ رَحْمَتَهٗ وَيَخَافُوْنَ عَذَابَهٗ ۭ اِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ كَانَ مَحْذُوْرًا
The word ‘al-wasilah’ in: يَبْتَغُونَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِمُ الْوَسِيلَةَ (seek the means of close ness to their Lord – 57) conveys the sense of that which is used as a means of reaching someone. As for reaching Allah, the wasilah or means is to always keep the pleasure of Allah in sight when learning or doing anything while adhering to the injunctions of the Shari` ah strictly. Thus, the sense of the sentence is that all of them are seeking the closeness of Allah Ta’ ala through their righteous deeds.
About the sentence which follows immediately after: يَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَهُ وَيَخَافُونَ عَذَابَهُ (hope for His Mercy and fear His punishment – 57), Sahl ibn ` Abdullah said: Hope and Fear, that is, hoping for mercy from Allah as well as fearing Him are two different states one is in. When they stay at par, one keeps on course, correct and stable. And if any one of the two overcomes the other, one finds the equilibrium of his spiritual state sub¬jected to disorder to the measure of that imbalance. (Qurtubi)
وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّءْيَا الَّتِيْٓ اَرَيْنٰكَ اِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِّلنَّاسِ
The word fitnah’ (فِتنَہ) appearing in verse 60: وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الرُّؤْيَا الَّتِي أَرَيْنَاكَ إِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِّلنَّاسِ (And We showed you the scene [ in the Night of Ascent – al-Mi` raj ] only to make it a test for the people) is used in the Arabic language to convey many different meanings. It could mean falling into error and going astray, or trial or test or some disorder or upheaval as well. At this place, the probability of all these meanings exists. Early Tafsir author¬ities – Sayyidah ` A’ishah, Sayyidna Mu` awiyah, Hasan, Mujahid and oth¬ers – have taken fitnah’ as carrying the last sense given above. They have said that this fitnah’ was that of apostasy (Irtidad) which relates to the time when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) told people about Mi` raj, how he went on his nocturnal journey to Baitul-Maqdis, to the heavens from there and his return to Makkah al-Mukarramah before dawn. There were many neo-Muslims who had yet to become staunch in their faith fell into the error of belying his statement and turned apostates. (Qurtubi)
It also stands proved from this event that the word رُّؤْيَا (ru’ya) is though also used in the Arabic language in the sense of dream but, at this place, what is being recounted is no matter of some dream. Had that been the case, there was no reason why people would become apos¬tates. Dreams are dreams. Everyone can see such dreams. In fact, the purpose of employing the word: رُّؤْيَا (ru’ya) at this place is to show that the marvel was witnessed while awake. While commenting on this verse, some commentators have interpreted it to be referring to other events too besides the event of Mi` raj. But, they do not apply here as a whole. Therefore, the majority of commentators have declared the event of Mi` raj alone as the relevant subject of this verse. (As described in detail by al-Qurtubi)
قَالَ اَرَءَيْتَكَ هٰذَا الَّذِيْ كَرَّمْتَ عَلَيَّ ۡ لَىِٕنْ اَخَّرْتَنِ اِلٰى يَوْمِ الْقِيٰمَةِ لَاَحْتَنِكَنَّ ذُرِّيَّتَهٗٓ اِلَّا قَلِيْلًا
The word: لَأَحْتَنِكَنَّ (subdue) in verse 62 is from: اِحتِنَاک (ihtinak) which means to exterminate or uproot something, or to subdue and overpower it completely. (Qurtubi) The word: وَاسْتَفْزِزْ (and entice) in verse 64 is from اِستِفزَاز (istifzaz) which basically means to cut off or to tear away from and at this place it means to tear away from the path of truth. This is fol¬lowed by صَوتک (with your voice). Sawt صَوت the Arabic word for voice is well known. What is the voice of Shaitan? Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) says: The voices of songs, musical instruments and the hullabaloo of fun and games are the voices of Shaitan that he employs to tear people away from the path of truth. (Qurtubi) This tells us that (singing or listening to) music and (playing or listening to) musical instruments are prohibited. (Qurtubi)
While refusing to prostrate before Sayyidna ‘Adam (عليه السلام) ، Iblis (the Shaitan) had said two things:
(1) That ‘Adam was created from mud and he was from fire and that there was no reason why mud was given precedence over fire. This ques¬tion was an effort to find out the wisdom of the order given to him before he could comply with the Divine command – something the one so com¬manded has no right to ask. That Allah, the Exalted, would let the com¬manded one have the right to demand the wisdom of His command is far out specially when we see in our everyday life that human beings themselves would not give their servant the right to say no to them. Think of a master asking his servants to do something and the servant demand¬ing the master that he should first explain the wisdom of that assignment. Therefore, this question was considered unworthy of an answer and no answer was given. In addition to that, the answer is already obvi¬ous. Giving precedence to something over the other is the prerogative of the Being that created and nurtured everyone. Whenever and whatever He declares to be superior becomes exactly so.
وَاسْتَفْزِزْ مَنِ اسْـتَـطَعْتَ مِنْهُمْ بِصَوْتِكَ وَاَجْلِبْ عَلَيْهِمْ بِخَيْلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِي الْاَمْوَالِ وَالْاَوْلَادِ وَعِدْهُمْ ۭ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطٰنُ اِلَّا غُرُوْرًا
(2) Secondly, he had said if he was given respite till the day of Qiyamah, he will mislead the entire progeny of ‘Adam, except a few of them. That Allah Ta’ ala has elected to answer in the later verses. He said that the Shaitan will have no control over His sincere servants even if he were to rally his entire forces against them and as for the insincere who fall into his trap, they will meet the same fate as his, all consigned to Hell. When this verse (64) mentions the horsemen and footmen of the Shaitanic army, it does not necessarily mean that the Shaitan actually has combat support in that formation. In fact, this is a manner of referring to the full force and power of the Shaitan. And if the Shaitan does have horsemen and footmen actually, even that too cannot be denied. Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) said: Those who come out in support of disbelief and sin, horsemen or footmen, they are nothing but the army of the Shaitan. Now remains the question as to how the Shaitan came to know that he would succeed in enticing and misleading the progeny of ‘Adam (عليه السلام) ، the basis on which he claimed that he will subdue them. There are two possibilities. Perhaps, by looking at the ingredients that went into the making of man, he had gathered that man would be de¬sire-prone and it would not be difficult to entice him successfully. And then, it is also not far out to believe that his very claim was nothing but a bland lie.
As for the sense of: وَشَارِكْهُمْ فِي الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَوْلَادِ (and share with them in their wealth and their children – 64), Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) said: Wealth and property acquired by false, impermissible and unlawful means or spent on what is haram is the sharing of the Shaitan in it. As for the sharing of the Shaitan in children, it could either be through illegitima¬cy, or by naming them like disbelievers and polytheists, or by indulging in polytheistic customs to ensure their security, or by taking to Haram sources of income to bring them up. (Qurtubi)
وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِيْٓ اٰدَمَ وَحَمَلْنٰهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنٰهُمْ مِّنَ الطَّيِّبٰتِ وَفَضَّلْنٰهُمْ عَلٰي كَثِيْرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيْلًا
Why are the children of ‘Adam (عليه السلام) superior?
The last of the verses cited above mentions the superiority of the chil¬dren of ‘Adam over most of the Divine creation. Here, we have to consider two things: (1) What are the attributes and reasons of this superiority? (2) What is the sense of the statement in the verse: ‘made them much superior to many of those We created’?
(1) The first question can be answered in detail by saying that Allah Ta` ala has blessed the children of ‘Adam with such multi-dimensional attributes as are not found in many of those He has created. The beauty of form and features, the balance of body, the balance of temperament and the balance of height and built are good examples. These attributes bestowed on human beings are not found in other living forms in that balanced measure. In addition to that, they have been endowed with dis¬tinct reason and intelligence through which they get things done up and down in the universe of their experience. Allah Ta’ ala has given them the built-in capability to compound and manufacture, from out of what has been Divinely created, materials and things which serve them in liv¬ing, moving, eating and wearing in all sorts of ways.
No less is their gift of communication, speech, comprehension, under-standing and explanation. This remains unmatched by other living forms. Using signs and symbols to communicate what lies in one’s heart and telling others what one thinks and feels through letters and writings are all manifestations of the signal human distinction. Some scholars have said that eating with the fingers of the hand is also a particular human attribute. Other than man, all animals eat with their mouth. The practice of compounding edibles with different things in order to make these delicious and beneficial is the way of human beings alone. Animals eat things that are single and simple. Some would eat raw meat, others would go by grass or some fruit. However, they all eat sim¬ples. It is man alone who prepares food through compounding all sorts of solids, liquids, spices and herbs (which has, in our day, assumed the stat¬us of the highly publicized art of cuisine). Then, there is the most pro¬nounced superiority of reason and intelligence through which human be¬ings are supposed to recognize their Creator and Master, find out what He likes and dislikes and do what He likes and avoid what He dislikes. Thus, in terms of reason and intelligence, the created have three kinds. Common animals have desires but no reason and intelligence (as we understand it). The angels have reason and intelligence, but do not have desires. Human beings have both. They have reason and intelligence as well as desires. This is the reason why, when he suppresses his desires through reason and intelligence and succeeds in saving himself from indulging in things disliked by Allah Ta’ ala, he reaches a station which is even higher than that of many angels.
(2) We can now turn to the sense of the statement that the children of ‘Adam were made much superior than many of those Allah created. As for the superiority of the children of ‘Adam over all created forms in the world, higher and lower, and all animals, it cannot be disputed by any-one. Similarly, the Jinn are like human beings in terms of reason and in¬telligence. That human beings are superior to them as well is accepted by all. What remains now is the case of angels. Who is superior, man or angel? What can be authentically said about it is that common righteous believers among human beings, such as the men of Allah, are superior to angels in general. But, special angels, such as Jibra’il and Mika’il and others, are superior to the common righteous believers while special believers, such as the blessed prophets (عليهم السلام) ، are superior even to special angels. As far as disbelievers and sinners among human beings are concerned, they just cannot be compared with angels. In fact, they are not even superior to animals in terms of the real purpose of life, that of seeking success through righteousness. About them, the Holy Qur’an has already given its verdict: أُولَـٰئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ (They are like cattle. Rather,
they are much more misled – 7:179) (Tafsir Mazhari). Allah knows best.
يَوْمَ نَدْعُوْا كُلَّ اُنَاسٍۢ بِاِمَامِهِمْ ۚ فَمَنْ اُوْتِيَ كِتٰبَهٗ بِيَمِيْنِهٖ فَاُولٰۗىِٕكَ يَقْرَءُوْنَ كِتٰبَهُمْ وَلَا يُظْلَمُوْنَ فَتِيْلًا
The word: اِمَام (Imam) in the first sentence of verse يَوْمَ نَدْعُو كُلَّ أُنَاسٍ بِإِمَامِهِمْ translated as ‘ (Think of) the Day We will call every people with their book of deeds’ appears here in the sense of ‘book’ as in Surah Ya Sin: وَكُلَّ شَيْءٍ أَحْصَيْنَاهُ فِي إِمَامٍ مُّبِينٍ (and We have enumerated everything in a clear book – 36:12). Here, إِمَامٍ مُّبِينٍ means a clear book. Then, ‘kitab’ is called ‘imam’ for the reason that, in the event of some error or difference, one turns to the book very much like turning to a religious leader who is fol¬lowed. (Qurtubi)
And it also appears from a Hadith of Tirmidhi as narrated by Sayyid¬na Abu Hurairah (رض) (Tirmidhi calls it Hasan Gharib) that, ‘imam’ in this verse means ‘kitab.’ The words of the Hadith are given below:
يَوْمَ نَدْعُو كُلَّ أُنَاسٍ بِإِمَامِهِمْ قال یُدعٰی اَحَدُھُم فَیُعطٰی کِتَابُہ بِیَمَینِہٖ
Explaining the verse يَوْمَ نَدْعُو كُلَّ أُنَاسٍ بِإِمَامِهِمْ (71), the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) himself said: One of them will be called and his book of deeds will be given in his right hand. (From a lengthy Hadith)
It also stands established from this Hadith that ‘imam’ has been used here in the sense of ‘book’, and that ‘kitab’ signifies the ‘book of deeds.’ (Maulana Ashraf Thanavi (رح) has, therefore, translated ‘imam’ as the ‘book of deeds’ )
Also reported from some commentators, including Sayyidna ` Ali al-Murtada (رض) and Mujahid, is the meaning of ‘imam’ as religious lead¬er. It means that everyone is to be called as the follower of a certain lead¬er – whether they be blessed prophets or their deputies, the Shaykhs and the ` Ulama’, or leaders who have been inviting people to error and sin. (Qurtubi)
Given this meaning, the sense of the verse would be that everyone will be called by the name of his or her leader and all those so called will be assembled at one place. For example, there will be the followers of Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) ، the followers of Sayyidna Musa and Sayyidna ` Isa (عليهم السلام) to and the followers of Sayyidna Muhammad al-Mustafa (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . Then, possibly the names of those will also be called out who are their di¬rect instructors or leaders (such as ` Ulama’ and religious guides).
The Book of Deeds
As it appears from several verses of the Holy Qur’an, only disbeliev¬ers will be given the book of deeds in the left hand. This is as it is said in the verse:إِنَّهُ كَانَ لَا يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّـهِ الْعَظِيمِ (Indeed, he was not used to believing in Allah, the Great – al-Haqqah, 69:33) and also in another verse: إِنَّهُ ظَنَّ أَن لَّن يَحُورَ(Indeed, he surmised that he would never return – a1-Inshigaq, 84:14). In the first verse quoted above, faith has been negated explicitly while the second carries a denial of the Hereafter – which too is disbelief after all. This comparative look tells us that those who shall get their book of deeds in the right hand will be the people of faith, pious or sinner. The believer will read his or her book of deeds in delight. In fact, the happy believer will have others read it too. This happiness will be because of having one’s ‘Iman (faith) intact and because of deliverance from eternal punishment – though, punishment may also come for some deeds.
How the book of deeds will be given in the right or the left hand is so¬mething not mentioned in the Holy Qur’ an. But, the expression: تَطَاٰیُرُالکُتُبِ – (causing the books fly) has appeared in some Ahadith (reported by Ahmad on the authority of Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) ‘ ascending to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . And in some narrations of Hadith, it appears that all books of deeds will be there at one place under the ` Arsh (Throne). Then a wind will blow and cause these to fly and reach the hands of people in a manner that some will get it in their right hand and some others in the left. (Reported by al-` Uqaili on the authority of Sayyidna Anas (رض) ascending to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)) (Bayan al-Qur’an from Ruh al-Ma’ ani)
وَاِنْ كَادُوْا لَيَفْتِنُوْنَكَ عَنِ الَّذِيْٓ اَوْحَيْنَآ اِلَيْكَ لِتَفْتَرِيَ عَلَيْنَا غَيْرَهٗ ڰ وَاِذًا لَّاتَّخَذُوْكَ خَلِيْلًا
Out of the verses appearing above, the first three relate to a particular event. To determine it precisely, Tafsir Mazhari carries some rele¬vant reports. The event which is closer and more supportive in terms of the indicators set in the Qur’an is what has been reported by Ibn Abi Hatim as based on a narrative of Sayyidna Jubayr ibn Nufayr. According to this report, some chiefs of the Quraysh of Makkah came to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and said: ‘If you have been really sent to us, you should remove these poor and broken down people from around you, for sitting with such people is a matter of insult for us. If you do that, we too will become your companions and friends.’ When they said this, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) somewhat leaned towards the idea that he might do someth-ing like that as suggested by them in the hope that they may, perhaps, become Muslims. Thereupon, this verse was revealed.
Through this verse, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was sounded that their sug¬gestion was a fitnah and the friendship they were talking about was also a fitnah (a trial or test or a ruse to tempt him into creating discord in his ranks). Therefore, he should not accept it. After that, the text says: Had your Lord not been particular about your grooming and fortitude, it was not too far out that you could have come somewhat closer to tilting towards their proposal.
From this verse, says Tafsir Mazhari, it is clearly understood that there was just no probability of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ever tilting towards such absurd demands from the Quraysh disbelievers. Yes, coming close to tilting, and that too within a very insignificant limit, was probable. But, by making him ma` sum (protected, infallible), Allah Ta’ ala saved him from drifting even to that limit. If we were to think about it, this verse provides a great proof of the highest moral disposition with which all prophets (عليهم السلام) were blessed. So, had there been even no shield of prophetic infallibility, still such was the natural disposition of the Proph¬et of Islam that tilting towards the absurd proposal of disbelievers would have never been possible for him. However, there did exist the probabil¬ity of his coming somewhat closer, in an insignificant measure, towards the act of tilting – something terminated by the prophetic infallibility.
وَاِنْ كَادُوْا لَيَسْتَفِزُّوْنَكَ مِنَ الْاَرْضِ لِيُخْرِجُوْكَ مِنْهَا وَاِذًا لَّا يَلْبَثُوْنَ خِلٰفَكَ اِلَّا قَلِيْلًا
Istifzaz in: وَإِن كَادُوا لَيَسْتَفِزُّونَكَ (And they were likely to harass you – 76) literally means to cut off, or tear away from, or to provoke into moving from a place. At this place, the sense is to expel the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) from his station at Makkah or Madinah. The verse means: Had they done that, their punishment would have been that they themselves would have not been able to live there much longer after you. This is the description of another event. There are two reports about it. One event relates to Madinah al-Tayyibah. The Jews of the city came to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . They told him: ‘O Abu a1-Qasim, if you are true in your claim to be a prophet, you should go and live in Syria because the land of Syria is the land of al-Mahshar (the Resurrection) and the land of proph¬ets too.’ The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was somewhat impressed by what they said and when he traveled to Syria at the time of the battle of Tabuk, the idea of taking up residence in Syria was still on his mind. But, the revelation of the verse: وَإِن كَادُوا لَيَسْتَفِزُّونَكَ (And they were likely to harass you – 76) at that time stopped him from doing so. After presenting this report, Ibn Kathir has, however, declared it to be unsatisfactory.
As an alternate, he points out to another event which transpired in Makkah al-Mukarramah and which, according to him, is the point of ref¬erence in this verse for the fact that this Surah was Makki provided a strong coherence for it. As the event goes, once the Quraysh disbelievers intended to expel the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم from Makkah al-Mukarramah.
Thereupon, Allah Ta’ ala revealed the verse: كَادُوا لَيَسْتَفِزُّونَكَ where the Qu¬raysh disbelievers were warned that in the event they expelled the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) from Makkah, they too would not be sitting in Makkah in peace any longer. This is the event Ibn Kathir considers to be the weightier choice as the point of reference in the verse. Then, he goes on to explain that this warning of the Holy Qur’ an was seen come true by the disbelievers of Makkah with their own eyes. When the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) migrated from Makkah al-Mukarramah, they were unable to sit there in peace even for a day. It was within a period of a year and six months that Allah Ta` ala made them assemble on the plains of Badr where seventy of their chiefs were killed and their initial aggressive power was broken. Then came the final outcome of the battle of ‘Uhud which made them more awe-stricken, and the last confrontation of the battle of al-Ahzab virtually broke their back. It was in the eighth year of Hijrah that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) conquered the whole of Makkah al-Mukarra¬mah.
اَقِمِ الصَّلٰوةَ لِدُلُوْكِ الشَّمْسِ اِلٰى غَسَقِ الَّيْلِ وَقُرْاٰنَ الْفَجْرِ ۭ اِنَّ قُرْاٰنَ الْفَجْرِ كَانَ مَشْهُوْدًا
Salah is the best defense against enemy hostility
Previous verses have mentioned the hostility of the enemies of Islam, the plans they made to hurt and harass the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and what was to be done in response. By giving the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) the command to establish Salah in the verses cited above, it is being suggested that it is the best remedy against the mischief made and pain caused by ene¬mies. This is similar to what has been said more clearly in a verse of Surah al-Hijr: وَلَقَدْ نَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ يَضِيقُ صَدْرُكَ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ. It means: “And indeed We know that your heart feels distressed for what they say. So, proclaim the purity and glory of your Lord, and be among those who prostrate.” (Qurtubi)
This verse declares devotion to the remembrance of Allah (dhikr) through His praises (hamd) and His glorification (tasbih) and Salah (prayer) as the panacea of pains inflicted by enemies. Dhikr and Salah are special safety shields against their aggressive designs. Then, it is also not far out to believe that staying safe against the pain inflicted by enemies depends on the help and support of Allah Ta` ala. So, the best medium of acquiring this help is Salah as stated in the Holy Qur’an: اسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ (Seek help through patience and prayer – 2:153).
The injunction of five prayers
The majority of leading Tafsir authorities has declared this verse to be a comprehensive injunction for all five daily prayers. The reason is that the word: دُلُوک (duluk) is essentially used in the sense of ‘decline’ and the decline of the Sun begins at the time of meridian – though, it could also be applied to the sunset. But, at this place, the majority of Sahabah and Tabi’in have taken the word: دُلُوک (duluk) to mean the post-meridian decline of the Sun. (as explained in details by al-Qurtubi, al-Mazhari and Ibn Kathir).
The word: غَسَقِ (ghasaq) in the next phrase: إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ means the dark¬ness of the night when it is complete. Imam Malik has reported this very Tafsir of ‘ghasaq’ from Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) .
Thus, within the statement: لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ (between the decline of the Sun and the darkness of the night), four prayers stand covered. These are Zuhr, ` Asr, Maghrib and ` Isha’. And also identified there is the time when two of these prayers begin, that is, the time of Zuhr begins from the decline (zawal) of the Sun and the time of ` Isha’ from: غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ (ghasaq al-layl) that is, at the time when the darkness of night is complete. Therefore, the great Imam, Abu Hanifah (رح) has ruled that the time of ` Isha’ begins from the time when, after the red glow, the white glow of the evening also disappears. Everyone knows that, close to the sunset, a red glow appears on the western horizon and, soon after this redness, there spreads a sort of whiteness on it. Then, this whiteness too disappears. It is obvious that the darkness of the night will be complete only when the whiteness of the horizon also goes away. Therefore, these words support the view of Imam Abu Hanifah (رح) . Other Imams have ruled that the time of ` Isha’ begins after the disappearance of the red glow on the evening horizon and that this is the Tafsir of ‘ghasaq al-layl’ (the darkness of night).
In the next phrase: وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ (wa Qur’ an al-fajr: translated as ‘and the recital at dawn’ ), the word: ‘Qur’ an’ denotes Salah at this place be-cause the Qur’an is an integral part of Salah. Most Tafsir authorities – Ibn Kathir, al-Qurtubi, Mazhari and others – have adopted this very meaning. Therefore, the sense of the verse is that the words: لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ إِلَىٰ غَسَقِ اللَّيْلِ (between the decline of the Sun and the darkness of the night) car¬ried a description of four prayers. Identified now is the fifth prayer, that of Fajr. It has been described separately which is an indicator of the par¬ticular importance and merit of this Salah.
The word ‘mashhud’ in the expression: كَانَ مَشْهُودًا (kana mashhuda) has been derived from shahadah that means to be present.’ This is a time when, according to clear statements in authentic Ahadith, both groups of angels, those of the night and those of the day, present themselves for Salah. Therefore, it has been called ‘mashhud’ (hence, translat¬ed as ‘well-attended’ ). The injunction of five prayers has appeared in this verse briefly. It has been explained fully by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) through his word and deed – and unless one acts in accordance with this explana¬tion, no one can perform Salah.
I just do not know how those who claim to understand the Qur’an without Hadith and the statements of the Rasul of Allah go about making their Salah? Similarly, in this verse, the recital of the Qur’ an within the Salah has also been mentioned briefly. As for its details, it stands proved from the word and deed of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that the recitation in the Fajr prayer should be long – to the measure of strength and ability, less than that in Zuhr and Jumu’ah, av¬erage in ` Asr and ` Isha’ and very brief in Maghrib. As for the mention of a long recitation in Maghrib and very brief in Fajr in some reports, it stands practically abandoned. Imam al-Qurtubi carries the riwayah of Sahih Muslim in which the recitation of long Surahs like Surah al-A` raf and Mursalat in the Salah of Maghrib, or the recitation of only the Mu’awwadhatain (the last two Surahs) as sufficient in the Salah of Fajr have been reported. He, then, comments: فمتروک بالعمل ولانکارہ علی معاذ التطویل و بامرہ الایٔمۃ بالتخفیف . It means that these incidentals of long recitation in Maghrib and brief in Fajr stand abandoned in the light of the constant practice of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as well as his verbal sayings. (Qurtubi)
وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهٖ نَافِلَةً لَّكَ ڰ عَسٰٓي اَنْ يَّبْعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَامًا مَّحْمُوْدًا
The time of the Salah of Tahajjud: Injunctions and rulings
The word: فَتَھَجُّد (tahajjud) in: وَمِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ (And during the night, wake up for Salah- 79) has been derived from ھجود :hujud. This word is used for two opposite meanings, that of sleeping and that of waking both. But, the words: وَمِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ at this place, mean be awake with the Qur’an in a part of the night’ because the pronoun in: بہٖ (bihi: with it) reverts back to the Qur’an. (Mazhari) ‘Being awake with the Qur’an’ means the making of Salah (with full compliance of what it requires). This very nightly prayer is called the prayer of Tahajjud in the terminolo¬gy of Shari’ah. Speaking generally, the sense in which it has been taken is that the prayer said after waking up from a short sleep is the Tahajjud. But, according to Tafsir Mazhari, the sense of the verse is no more than sacrificing sleep to make Salah during some part of the night. This sense holds good for sleeping a little, then waking up from it and making Salah. Very similarly, it is also good if one begins by postponing sleep for Tahajjud and makes the Salah. The condition that one has to sleep before doing the prayer of Tahajjud is not found in the words used by the Qur’an. Apart from this, there are reports from Ahadith which support this general sense of Tahajjud.
And the definition of the prayer of Tahajjud reported from al-Hasan al-Basri (رح) by Imam Ibn Kathir (رح) also confirms this element of generality. The words of the report are as follows:
قال الحسن البصری (رح) ھو ما کان بعد العشاء و یحمل علٰی ما کان بعد النوم
Al-Hasan a1-Bari (رح) says: The prayer of Tahajjud holds good for every prayer that is said after al-` Isha And, (because of actual practice) it will be applied to that which is said after some sleep. (Ibn Kathir)
The outcome is that being after sleep is no condition in the real sense of the prayer of Tahajjud – and this condition is not present in the words of the Qur’an as well. But, speaking generally, it has been the constant practice of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and his noble Companions (رض) that they used to do their Tahajjud prayer after waking up in the later part of the night, therefore, this would be the better way of doing it.
Is the prayer of Tahajjud Fard (obligatory) or Nafl (additional)?
The words: نَفل nafl and نَافِلَةً :nafilah in: نَافِلَةً لَّكَ (an additional prayer for you – 79) literally mean ‘additional.’ Therefore, prayer (Salah) and charity (sadaqah, khairat) etc. that is not obligatory or necessary and, the doing of which brings thawab (reward), and not doing which entails no sin or misconduct, are called nafl. In this verse, by looking at the words: نَافِلَةً لَّكَ (an additional prayer for you) with the prayer of Tahajjud, it is summarily understood that the prayer of Tahajjud is particularly associated with the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as nafl for him. The fact, though, is that its effect as nafl is shared by all, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and his entire ummah. Therefore, some respected early commentators have taken ‘nafi¬lah’ at this place as an attribute of faridah or duty. The meaning given by them is that the Muslim community at large is obligated with five daily prayers only, but Tahajjud has also been made an additional obligation on the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . So, at this place, the word: نَافِلَةً :nafilah ap¬pears in the sense of an additional obligation, not in the general sense of nafl.
Let us look at the correct investigative position in this matter. When, during the early stage of Islam, Surah al-Muzzammil was revealed, that was a time when five prayers had yet to be obligated. What everyone was obligated with was the prayer of Tahajjud. This obligation has been mentioned in Surah al-Muzzammil (73). Then, it was in the night of the Mi` raj (Ascent) that five prayers were made obligatory (fard). So, as for the obligatory nature of Tahajjud, it was abrogated as a duty on the Mus¬lim community at large, by consensus. However, difference did exist about its obligatory nature. Was it also abrogated in the case of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ? Or, did it remain an obligation on him as a matter of special consideration – and in this verse, the expression: نَافِلَةً لَّكَ (nafilatal-lak) means exactly that ‘the prayer of Tahajjud is an additional obligation on you.’ But, according to Tafsir al-Qurtubi, this is not correct for many rea¬sons. Firstly, there is no justification for taking nafl as fard. If it is supposed to be figurative speech, then, there will be no reality against it. Secondly, in authentic Ahdith, only five fixed prayers have been men¬tioned as obligatory (fard). At the end of another Hadith, it has been said that the fifty prayers made obligatory initially in the nocturnal jour¬ney of the Mi` raj were later reduced in number and set at five. Thus, the number was, though, reduced but the reward promised against these was that of no less than fifty. Then it was said: مَا يُبَدَّلُ الْقَوْلُ لَدَيَّ (The word [ given to My servants ] will not be changed with Me – Qaf, 50:29). It means: When the command was given for fifty, the reward shall be given for no less than fifty, though the number to be actually performed was re-duced.
The outcome of these narrative reports is no other but that no Salah – other than the five prayers – is obligatory (fard) on the Muslim ummah at large and on the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) himself. Then, there is a reason for it too. Had the word: نَافِلَةً nafilah been used here in the sense of an ‘addi¬tional duty,’ then, rather than using the word: لکَ (lak: for you) after it, the word used should have been: علَیک (‘alaik: on you) since the latter sig¬nifies obligation while the word: لَکَ (lak: for you) is used only for approval and permission.
Similarly, this is the position declared to be correct and sound in Taf¬sir Mazhari which says: When the obligatory status of Tahajjud was ab¬rogated in the case of the Muslim ummah, it stood abrogated in the case of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as well. What remained was nafl for everyone. But, this position raises a question: What is the singularity of the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم in it? That it is nafl for everyone already stands proved. What, then, would be the outcome of saying: نَافِلَةً لَّكَ (an additional prayer for you)? The answer is that, according to clear statements of Ahadith, all kinds of voluntary offerings and nafl ` Ibadat made by the Muslim ummah expiate their sins and serve as complements to whatever shortcomings remain in the performance of their obligatory prayers. But, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is not only that he is infallible (ma` sum) against sins, he is also above from any shortcomings in the observance of the etiquette of Salah. Therefore, as far as he is concerned, nafl ` Ibadat are nothing but additional. These cannot make amends for any shortcomings. Instead, these are simply a source of increased nearness to Allah. (Qurtubi, Mazhari)
Is the prayer of Tahajjud Nafl or Sunnah al-Mu’akkadah?
As for Sunnah al-Mu’akkadah (the emphasized Sunnah), Muslim jur¬ists have a standing rule. Whatever the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has done con¬stantly, never leaving it unless under compulsion, is Sunnah al-Mu’akka¬dah – except that it is proved on the authority of an Islamic legal argument that the particular act was special to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and was not for the Muslim community in general. This rule will obviously re-quire that the prayer of Tahajjud should also be taken as Sunnah al-Mu’akkadah for everyone and not a mere nafl. The reason is that the constancy of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in the matter of this Salah stands proved as an uninterrupted Sunnah. And there is no proof of its being re¬stricted to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . Therefore, it should be Sunnah al-Mu` ak-kadah for the Muslim ummah at large as well. This is the position Tafsir Mazhari rates as preferable, weightier and worthier. In proof of this being ’emphasized’ (al-mu’akkadah), it has pointed out to the Hadith in which the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said about a person who used to say his Ta¬hajjud prayer earlier but left it later: ‘the Shaitan has soiled his ear.’ Such a drastic admonition and warning does not sound in order against the abandonment of nafl only. This tells us that it is Sunnah al-Mu’akkadah (an emphasized Sunnah).
And as for the respected elders who take the position that Tahajjud is only a nafl, they declared this perseverance and constancy to be the hallmark of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . Then, what he said as admonition against the abandonment of Tahajjud by the person who used to do it before was not really said against its abandonment by him as such. Instead, it was said against first getting used to it, then abandoning it. The reason is that a person who gets into the habit of doing a certain nafl must continue with it assiduously – and there is a consensus of the Muslim ummah on it. If one leaves it after being in the habit of doing it, he will be blameworthy because leaving it without excuse after the habit is the sign of certain evasion and reluctance. However, there is no blame on the person who is just not in the habit of doing it from the very begin¬ning. Allah knows best.
The number of Raka` at in the prayer of Tahajjud
In the Sahih of al-Bukhari and Muslim, as narrated by Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) ، ‘the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would never say more than eleven raka’ at, in Ramadan or during months other than it.’ Out of these eleven, according to the Hanafiyyah, three raka’ at used to be that of witr, the remaining eight being that of Tahajjud.
And in a narration of Sahih Muslim, the following words of Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) have been reported: ‘The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to say thirteen raka’ at during the night which includes witr and two raka’ at of the Sunnah of Fajr as well.’ (Mazhari) The Sunnah of Fajr has been counted with the nightly prayer because they are performed in almost the same sequence. These reports tell us that the usual habit of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was to offer eight raka’ at in the prayer of Tahajjud.
But, from a report coming from Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) herself, it also stands proved that, on occasions, he has done less than that number – four or six – as being sufficient. When Sayyidna Masruq asked her about the prayer of Tahajjud, she has been reported in the Sahih of al-Bukhari to have said: ‘There used to be seven, nine and eleven raka’ at – other than the Sunnah of Fajr’ (Mazhari from al- Bukhari). According to the Hanafiyyah, if three rakaat are that of witr, four out of seven, six out of nine and eight out of eleven turn out to be the rak’ at of Tahajjud.
In what manner was the prayer of Tahajjud offered?
Narrative reports as they generally appear in Ahadith prove that the first two rak’ at in the beginning were light with a brief recitation. Then, in the rest of the rak’ at, the recitation was long and so were the ruku’ and sajdah – and, at times, this length would become too much and, at others, somewhat less. (This is a summary of the Hadith reports taken from Tafsir Mazhari at this place)
The Praised Station
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has been promised مقام محمود (Maqam Mahmud: The Praised Station) in this verse and this station is, out of all prophets, particular to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . As to its explanation, there are different sayings. But, the most sound of them is what appears in authentic Ahadith in the words of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) himself. This Station is the station of the Grand Intercession (al-shaf’ah al-kubra). This will come to pass on the plains of Resurrection (al-Hashr) when all children of ‘Adam will be there requesting every prophet and Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to intercede with Him on their behalf. All prophets (عليهم السلام) will offer their excuse. Only the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) shall be blessed with the honorable station of interceding on behalf of the entire progeny of ‘Adam. Hadith reports carry lengthy relevant details that appear in Tafsir Ibn Kathir and Mazhari at this point.
The intercession made by prophets and the righteous will be accepted
Out of the Islamic sects, the Khawarij and the Mu’tazilah deny the intercession of prophets. They say that a major sin will not be forgiven through intercession by anyone. But, Ahadith coming in uninterrupted succession prove that the intercession for sinners will be accepted from Prophets (عليهم السلام) ، even from the righteous of the community. There will be many whose sins will be forgiven through intercession.
Based on a report from Sayyidna ` Uthman (رض) ، it appears in Ibn Majah and al-Baihaqi that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: On the day of Qiyamah, the blessed prophets will be the first to intercede on behalf of sinners, then the ` Ulama’ and then the Shuhada’. According to Dailami reporting from Sayyidna Ibn ` Umar (رض) ، the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said that the ` Alim will be told that he could intercede on behalf of his disciples, even if their number matches the number of stars.
And Abu Dawud and Ibn Hibban carry a narration of Sayyidna Abu al-Darda’ (رض) ، with its chains ascending to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) who said: The intercession made by a Shahid (شَھِید) will be accepted in favour of seventy people from his family.
The Musnad of Ahmad, al-Tabarani and al-Baihaqi authentically report Sayyidna Abu Umamah (رض) narrating that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: On the intercession of one person from my ummah many people, more than the entire number of the people of the tribes of Rabi’ah and Mudar, will be admitted to Jannah.
A question and its answer
The question is when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) will himself intercede – and no believer will remain in Hell because of it – why and how will the ` Ulama’ and the righteous intercede? The answer appears in Tafsir Mazhari: perhaps, the ` Ulama’ and the righteous of the community will present their intercession in favour of whomsoever they wish before the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) who will then intercede with Allah Ta` ala.
An important note
In a Hadith, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: شَفَاعَتِی لِاَھلِ الکَبایٔرِ من اُمَّتِی (My inter¬cession shall be for people who had committed major sins). This seems to tell us that those involved with major sins will be forgiven particularly through the intercession of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . Any angel or any individual from the Muslim community will not be able to intercede in the case of those who have committed major sins. Instead of that, the intercession made by the righteous of the Muslim community will be for those who were involved with minor sins.
The Station of Intercession could be reached through the efficacy of the prayer of Tahajjud
Hadrat Mujaddid Alf Thani, the famous religious revivalist of the first Islamic millennium in India, said that, in this verse, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was first given the command to make the prayer of Tahajjud, then he was promised the Praised Station, that is, the Station of Grand Intercession. This tells us that the prayer of Tahajjud serves as a special via media in acquiring the Station of Intercession.
Before we proceed to verse 8o, let us recapitulate what was said in the verses previous to it. Mentioned there first were the pains inflicted on the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and the conspiracies they kept hatching to hurt and harm him. Along with it, it was also said that these hostile plans made by them will never succeed. In contrast, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was being blessed with the real plan to offset their evil by prompting him to establish the five prayers, and the Tahajjud. Following that, he has been promised the Praised Station, the highest among all prophets – a pro¬mise to be fulfilled in the Hereafter. Now, in this verse 80: وَقُل رَّبِّ أَدْخِلْنِي (And say, “0 my Lord, make me enter…), the first relief to him against the hurtful and treacherous actions of the disbelievers was given by Allah Ta` ala within this world in the form of his migration to Madinah. Then, he was given the good news of the conquest of Makkah in: وَقُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ (And say, “Truth has come…81).
وَقُلْ رَّبِّ اَدْخِلْنِيْ مُدْخَلَ صِدْقٍ وَّاَخْرِجْنِيْ مُخْــرَجَ صِدْقٍ وَّاجْعَلْ لِّيْ مِنْ لَّدُنْكَ سُلْطٰنًا نَّصِيْرًا
It has been reported in al-Jami` of Tirmidhi from Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was in Makkah al-Mu` azzamah. Then, he was commanded to migrate to Madinah. Thereupon, this verse was revealed: وَقُل رَّبِّ أَدْخِلْنِي مُدْخَلَ صِدْقٍ وَأَخْرِجْنِي مُخْرَجَ صِدْقٍ (And say, “0 my Lord, make me enter a rightful entrance and make me exit a rightful exit – so). Here, the word: مُدخَل (mudkhal) and مُخرَج (mukhraj) meaning the place of entry and the place of exit are اِسمَ ظرف (ism-al-zarf: the noun of place and time). The addition of the attribute (na’t) of صِدق :sidq (translated as rightful) releases the sense of such entry and exit being totally true to the will and pleasure of Allah and in the best of attending circum¬stances, because the word: صِدق to (sidq) is also used in the Arabic language for every such act as is correct and better both outwardly and inwardly. The words: قَدَمَ صِدْقٍ (Yunus 10:2), لِسَانَ صِدْقٍ (ash-Shu` ara 26:84) and مَقْعَدِ صِدْقٍ (al-Qamar 54:55) have been used in the Holy Qur’an in that very sense.
‘Entrance’ means ‘Madinah’ and the place of exit denotes ‘Makkah.’ The sense takes the form of a prayer: 0 Allah, may my entry into Madin¬ah turn out to be good and smooth, without having to face anything un¬pleasant and unwelcome on arrival there. And may my exit from Mak¬kah be good and smooth, without being entangled in love of country and home.’ There are other exegetic statements too which explain this verse. But, this particular explanation has been reported from Hasan al-Basri (رح) and Qatadah. Ibn Kathir calls it ‘the most sound statement.’ Ibn Jarir too has gone by it. As for the order, it required that the ‘exit’ should have been mentioned first while the ‘entrance,’ later. But, the precedence of ‘entrance’ and the succession of ‘exit’ is there, perhaps, to indicate that the exit from Makkah had no purpose of its own, in fact, parting from the Baytullah was extremely shocking. But, there was a purpose – to look for peace, for Islam and Muslims – something that could be hoped for through the entry in Madinah. Therefore, the objective to be achieved was made to come first.
A prayer for important objectives
At the time of his migration to Madinah, Allah Ta’ ala asked the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to make this dua’ which pleaded with Him that his exit from Makkah and then the arrival in Madinah should both be good and smooth in all possible ways. It was the outcome of this prayer that, though he was within the striking range of the pursuing disbelievers at the time of Hijrah, yet Allah Ta’ ala shielded him at every step and final¬ly made Madinah al-Tayyibah good and promising for him and for all Muslims, both outwardly and inwardly. Therefore, some ` Ulama’ have said that every Muslim should remember to make this prayer at the beginning of all objectives they wish to pursue and that this prayer is bene¬ficial for all objectives and purposes. The sentence which complements this very prayer appears next: وَاجْعَل لِّي مِن لَّدُنكَ سُلْطَانًا نَّصِيرًا “and grant me from Your Own a power favoured (by You).” Qatadah, the great tabi` i says: the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) knew that fulfilling his functional duties as a prophet and working while besieged by enemies were challenges he could not handle personally. Therefore, He prayed to Allah Ta’ ala for help and the power to subdue. The prayer was answered and everyone saw its effects.
وَقُلْ جَاۗءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ ۭ اِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوْقًا
Verse 81: وَقُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ (And say, “Truth has come and false-hood has vanished” ) was revealed after Hijrah about the conquest of Makkah. Sayyidna Ibn Masud (رض) says that on the day Makkah was con¬quered, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) entered Makkah. At that time, there were three hundred and sixty idols standing around the Baytullah. Some ` Ula¬ma’ report a reason for this particular number. They say that the Mush¬riks of Makkah had a separate idol for each day of the year that they used to worship on the given day. (Qurtubi) When the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) reached there, this was the verse he had on his blessed lips: وَقُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ (Truth has come and falsehood has vanished) while he went round striking at each single idol on the chest with his stick. (al-Bukhari and Mus¬lim)
It appears in some Hadith narratives that the end of this stick had a pewter or iron ferrule mounted on it. So, when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would hit an idol on the chest, it would fall back. In the end, when all idols fell down, he gave orders that they be demolished. (Qurtubiwithrefer¬ence to Qadi ` Iyad and al-Qushairi)
It is necessary to erase customs and symbols of polytheism, disbelief and falsehood
Imam al-Qurtubi said that this verse proves that it is wajib (neces¬sary, obligatory) to erase the idols of Mushriks and all other polytheistic symbols and signs – and all such false instruments that are used in the way of sin and disobedience as well. They too come under the purview of the game injunction. Ibn al-Mundhir said that pictures and sculpted fig¬ures made in wood or metal etc. also come under the injunction govern¬ing idols. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had torn the curtain having pictures made on it in lines and colors. This, incidentally, tells us about the gener¬al injunctions covering common pictures. According to Sahih Hadith, when Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام) will come towards the later times, he will undo the cross and eliminate the swine. These things prove that it is neces¬sary to demolish and eliminate the instruments of shirk, kufr and batil.
وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْاٰنِ مَا هُوَ شِفَاۗءٌ وَّرَحْمَةٌ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ ۙ وَلَا يَزِيْدُ الظّٰلِمِيْنَ اِلَّا خَسَارًا
We can now move to the last verse (82) cited above: وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ مَا هُوَ شِفَاءٌ (And We reveal the Qur’an which is a cure). That the Holy Qur’an cures hearts and delivers people from shirk and kufr, low morals and spiritual ailments is no secret. The entire Muslim ummah agrees with it. And according to some ` Ulama’, the way the Qur’ an is a cure for spiritual ail¬ments, it is also a cure for physical diseases. The sense is that reciting the verses of the Qur’an and blowing the breath on the body of the sick person or to write its words on an amulet and putting it around the neck is also expected to be a cure for physical diseases. Hadith narratives bear testimony to it. The Hadith of Sayyidna Abu Said al-Khudri (رض) can be seen in all books of Ahadith. It says that a party of the noble Com¬panions (رض) was in travel. In a village on their way, a scorpion had bitten the chief. The village people asked the Companions if they could suggest some treatment for it. They recited the Surah al-Fatihah seven times, blew their breath on him and the ailing patient stood cured. Later, when this incident was mentioned before the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، he declared this action of the Companions to be permissible.
Similarly, there are several other Hadith reports which prove that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has done it himself. After having recited the last two verses of the Qur’an, he would blow his breath on the sick person. It is also proved that the Sahabah and the Tabi` in used to treat sick people with the recital of the last two verses of the Qur’ an as well as with the recital of other verses from it. That it was written and placed around the neck as an amulet also stands proved. Al-Qurtubi has given details about it under his commentary on this verse.
The last sentence of the verse: (And it adds noth¬ing to the unjust but loss – 82) tells us that the Holy Qur’an – when recit¬ed with faith and reverence – is certainly a cure. It is open. It is proven. Conversely, any denial of the Qur’ an, or irreverence to it, could also become a source of loss and misfortunes.
قُلْ كُلٌّ يَّعْمَلُ عَلٰي شَاكِلَتِهٖ ۭ فَرَبُّكُمْ اَعْلَمُ بِمَنْ هُوَ اَهْدٰى سَبِيْلًا
Regarding the explanation of the word: شاکِلَۃ (shakilah) in verse 84: كُلٌّ يَعْمَلُ عَلَىٰ شَاكِلَتِهِ (Everyone acts in his own style), several interpretations have been reported from authorities among the early righteous elders,
such as, disposition, habit, instinct, intention, way or manner. In sum, all these turn into a second nature in terms of the circumstances, habits and customs everyone lives with. Thus, what one does remains subservi¬ent to it. (Qurtubi) In this verse, human beings have been warned that they must abstain from bad surroundings, bad company and bad habits and take to the company of good people and inculcate good habits (a1-Jassas). The reason, as stated earlier, is that one’s response pattern built up under the influence of surrounding, company and custom makes one do what it dictates. Imam al-Jassas has also given another meaning of ‘shakilah’ at this place, that of ‘like.’ Given this meaning, the sense of the verse would be that everyone feels comfortable with a person who is compatible with one’s temperament. A good man finds another good man familiar while a wicked man feels comfortable with another wicked man whose style he follows without any qualms of conscience. An example of this behavior pattern appears in what Allah says in the Qur’ an: الْخَبِيثَاتُ لِلْخَبِيثِينَ (Evil women are for evil men – 24:26) and وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلطَّيِّبِينَ (Good women are for good men – 24:26). It means that everyone strikes familiarity with a man or woman according to one’s own temperament. In short, this too is a warning against falling into bad company and bad habits. One should really make an effort to abstain from these.
وَيَسْــــَٔـلُوْنَكَ عَنِ الرُّوْحِ ۭ قُلِ الرُّوْحُ مِنْ اَمْرِ رَبِّيْ وَمَآ اُوْتِيْتُمْ مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ اِلَّا قَلِيْلًا
The first verse (85) appearing above carries a question posed by disbe¬lievers about Ruh (soul, spirit) along with its answer that came from Allah Ta` ala. The word: اَلرُّوح (al-ruh) is used in the Arabic language and idiom, and in the Holy Qur’an as well, to convey several meanings. The well-recognized meaning taken from this word is common knowledge, that is, the soul on which depends life. In the Holy Qur’an, this word has also been used for the archangel, Jibra’il al-Amin (عليه السلام) (Gabriel, the Trust-worthy): ” نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ ” (The Trustworthy Spirit has brought it down upon your heart – ash-Shu` ra’ 26:193, 194). It has also been used for Sayyidna ` Isa عليه السلام (4:171), and Wahy (revelation – 40:15), and the Qur’an too: أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ رُوحًا مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا (and We have revealed to you a spirit of Our command – 42:52).
What does ‘Ruh’ signify?
Therefore, the first thing to be determined here is the intent of the questioners as to which meaning they had in mind when they had asked the question about the Ruh. Some respected early commentators have, in view of the context, declared this question as related to revelation and Qur’an, or to angel Jibra’il who brought it. The apparent reason is that the Qur’an was mentioned earlier in: وَنُنَزِّلُ مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ (And We reveal the Qur’an – 82) and it is again the Qur’an that finds mention in the verses after that. Given this congruity, they found it appropriate to take ‘Ruh’ in this question too as signifying nothing but Wahy and Qur’an, or Jibra’il (عليه السلام) . In that case, the question would be about how the Wahy or reve¬lation came to him and who brought it. In response to the question, the Holy Qur’ an considered it sufficient to say that the revelation was from the command of Allah. It elected to be silent about its details and modal¬ities that the questioners were seeking.
But, the background of the revelation of this verse given in authentic Ahadith ascending to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is just about very clear in respect of the nature of the question. Those asking the question had asked about the living Ruh and the underlying purpose was to find out the reality of Ruh. What is it? How does it come in and go out of the human body? How does it make man and animal come alive? According to the Sahih of al-Bukhari and Muslim, Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn Mas’ ud (رض) narrates:
‘Once I was walking with the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) through an unpopulat¬ed part of Madinah. He had a stick from the branch of a date palm in his blessed hand. When he passed by some Jews, they were talking among themselves: Muhammad is coming. Ask him about the Ruh. Others asked them not to do that. But, those bent on asking went ahead and asked the question. After having heard the question, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) reclined on his stick and stood silent which gave me the inkling that the revelation was about to come on him. After a little while, when the revelation had come to him, he recited the verse: وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ (And they ask you about the Ruh).’
At this point, it is understandable that it was a terminology of the Qur’an when it called the Qur’ an, or Wahy (revelation) as Ruh. That the question asked by these people was based on it is too far out. Of course, the matter of the living Ruh, human or animal, is such as would naturally emerge in everyone’s mind. Therefore, the majority of commentators – Ibn Kathir, Ibn Jarir, al-Qurtubi, Abu Hayyan, ‘Alusi – confirm the view that the question related to the reality of the living Ruh. As for the continuity of references to the Qur’an in the context and that the question-answer interlude about Ruh coming in between would be incoherent, its answer is clear. Previous verses have mentioned hostile questions asked by the disbelievers and Mushriks. Their objective thereby was to test the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) concerning his claim to be a messenger of Allah. This question too is a link of the same chain. Therefore, it is not incoherent. There is yet another authentic Hadith reported about the background of the revelation of this verse particularly. The position being explained here has been covered there more explicitly, that is, the purpose of the questioner was to test the authority of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as a Messenger.
Accordingly, a report of Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) appearing in the Musnad of Abmad says that the Quraysh of Makkah who kept addressing all sorts of questions to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) hit upon the idea that the Jews were learned and knew about past scriptures. Why not ask them about what to ask the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and test him thereby? Therefore, they sent their men to the Jews seeking their guidance in this matter. They told them to ask about the Ruh. (Ibn Kathir)
Sayyidn Ibn ` Abbas (رض) has also been reported to have said in his explanation of this verse that the Jews had also said while asking this question – ‘you tell us how does punishment affect the Ruh.’ By that time, nothing had been revealed to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) about it. Therefore, he did not answer the question instantly at that time. Then, came angel Jibra’il with the verse: قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي (Say, “the Ruh is from the command of my Lord.” ) (Abridged from Ibn Kathir)
The incident of the question: Did it happen in Makkah or Madinah?
Before we resolve this aspect of the question, we have to consider the two Hadith reports relating to the background of the revelation of this verse, that of Sayyidna Ibn Mas’ ud and Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، referred to above. Out of the two, according to the report of Sayyidna Ibn Mas’ ud (رض) ، this incident about the question came to pass in Madinah – and that is the re¬ason why some commentators have declared this verse to be Madani, though a major portion of Surah Bani Isra’il (al-Isra’ ) is Makki. As for the report from Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) ، it places the incident at Mak¬kah. In accordance with that, this verse too remains Makki like the whole Surah.
Therefore, Ibn Kathir has declared this very probability to be weightier and more acceptable. And as for the report of Sayyidna Ibn Mas’ ud (رض) ، he responds by saying that it is possible that this verse was revealed in Madinah a second time – as a repeated revelation of many verses of the Qur’an is an accepted fact in the sight of all ` Ulama’. And Tafsir Mazhari, by declaring the report of Sayyidna Ibn Mas’ ud (رض) as weightier and more acceptable, has determined the incident to be that of Madinah and the verse to be Madani. It gives two reasons for it. Firstly, this report appears in the two Sahihs of al-Bukhari and Muslim and its authority is stronger as compared to the report of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) . Secondly, in this report, Sayyidna Ibn Mas’ ud (رض) is a part of the inci¬dent. He is narrating an event that was his own. This makes it contrary to the report of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) where, it is obvious, he would have heard it as told by someone (because he was too young at that time to witness the occurrence).
The answer to the question asked
The Holy Qur’an said: قُلِ الرُّوحُ مِنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّي (Say, “the Ruh is from the command of my Lord.” ). While explaining the answer, statements and inter¬pretations given by commentators differ. The closest and the clearest of these is what Qadi Thana’ullah Panipati has preferred in his Tafsir Mahari. He says: Only what was necessary and what common people would understand has been told – and the full reality of Ruh, that the question sought, was not unfolded because it was beyond the comprehen¬sion of common people and, for that matter, nothing they needed hinged on understanding it. Here, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was asked to respond by saying that ‘the Ruh is from the command of my Lord.’ In other words, it is not like the usual created that come into existence through the disper¬sal of matter and procreation. In fact, it is something created directly through the command (کُن kun: be) of Allah Ta’ ala. At least, this much of the answer makes it clear that Ruh cannot be taken on the analogy of common matter – which removes all those doubts that emerge as a result of trying to understand Ruh through the prism of materialistic inquiry. The hard truth is that this much knowledge of Ruh is sufficient for man. No business, religious or worldly, depends on knowing more than that. Therefore, taking that part of the question as redundant and unneces¬sary, it was not answered – specially when understanding its reality is so¬mething not easy even for the wisest of the wise, not to say much about the common people.
Answering every question is not necessary unless religiously advisable
Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas (رح) has deduced from this answer the ruling that it is not necessary for the Mufti and ` Alim to answer every question and every aspect from it as posed by the questioner. Instead of doing that, the answer should be given with religious advisability kept in sight. Any answer that is above the comprehension of the addressee, or should there be the danger of his or her falling into misunderstanding, then, such an answer should not be given. Similarly, not to be answered are questions that are unnecessary (لَا یَعنِی :la ya` ni). Yes, should there be a person who faces a situation in which he must act one way or the other and who is no ` Alim, then, it is necessary for the Mufti and ` Alim to give an answer in the light of his knowledge. (Jassas) Imam al-Bukhari has devoted a chapter heading in Kitab al-` Ilm to highlight this point. He has said that a question the answer to which is likely to cause misunder¬standing should not be answered.
Whether or not it is possible for anyone to have the knowledge of the reality of Ruh
The Holy Qur’an has given an answer to this question in accordance with the need and comprehension of the addressee. It has not elected to unfold the reality of Ruh. But, it does not necessarily imply that no human being can simply understand the reality of Ruh and that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) also did not know its reality. The truth of the matter is that this verse neither negates nor confirms it. If a prophet or messenger were to come to know its reality through Wahy (revelation), or a Waliyy (man of Allah) through Kashf (illumination) and Ilham (inspiration), then, it is not contrary to this verse. In fact, even if this matter is debat¬ed and investigated in terms of reason and philosophy, it would certainly be called useless and unnecessary, but it cannot be called impermissible. Therefore, many learned scholars from the early and later period of Islam have written standard books about Ruh. In our period, my venerat¬ed teacher, Shaykh al-Islam, Shabbir Ahmad Usmani has presented this issue admirably in a small tract. Here, he has explained its reality to the measure it is possible for a common person to understand and an educat¬ed one to find sufficient enough to avoid doubts and difficulties.
An important note
At this juncture, Imam al-Baghawi has carried a detail report from Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) as follows: This verse was revealed in Makkah al-Mukarramah. It happened at a time when the Quraysh chiefs of Makkah got together and talked about the problem that Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was born amongst us and grew up into a young man. No one ever doubted his trustworthiness, honesty and truthfulness, and he was never accused by anyone of having told a lie. Yet, despite all that, we just do not understand the claim of being a prophet he was now mak¬ing. Therefore, let us do something about it, like sending our delegation to the Jewish scholars of Madinah and get a learned opinion about him from them. So, a delegation from the Quraysh met the Jewish scholars in Madinah. They advised: we tell you three things. Ask him about these three. If he answers all three, he is no prophet. Similarly, if he does not answer any of the three, he is still no prophet. And if he an¬swers two, not answering the third, be certain that he is the prophet.* They proposed three questions: (1) Ask him about those in the past who had sought refuge in a cave to stay safe from shirk – because, their account is unique. (2) Ask him about the person who had traveled through the East and West of the Earth and what had happened to him. (3) Ask him about the Ruh (soul, spirit).
*. This detail is in accordance with Ma` alim al-Tanzil, p. 134, v. 4 – Muhammad Taqi Usmani.
The delegation returned and posed those three questions before the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . He said, ‘I shall give you the answer to these tomorrow’- but, he did not say, “Insha’Allah” with it. The outcome was that the channel of Wahy (revelation) remained discontinued for a few days. There are various reports that put the number of days from twelve, fifteen to forty during which it stood stopped. The Quraysh of Makkah had their opportunity to hurl taunts – ‘we were promised an answer tomorrow, now so many days have passed and we have no answer!’ This caused the Holy Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم too to become anxious. Then came angel Jibra’il with the verse: وَلَا تَقُولَنَّ لِشَيْءٍ إِنِّي فَاعِلٌ ذَٰلِكَ غَدًا إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللَّـهُ (And never say about anything: “I will do that tomorrow,” without [ saying ]: “Insha’Allah”: [ If Allah wills ].’ – al-Kahf, 18: 23, 24) and, after that, he recited the verse about the Ruh mentioned above. Then came the revelation of the verses relating to the people of Kahf, and the event of Dhul-Qarnain who had traveled from the East to the West which is to appear in Surah al-Kahf. A detailed answer has been given there by narrating the story of the people of Kahf and Dhul-Qarnain while the question concerned with the reality of the Ruh was not answered (which made the sign of the veracity of prophecy given by the Jews manifest). Tirmidhi has also described this event briefly. (Mazhari)
Investigative observations on the reality of Ruh (soul, spirit) and Nafs (self) have appeared earlier in this volume under verse 29 of Sarah al-Hijr: نَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي (I have blown into him of my spirit – 15:29). Pre¬sented with reference to Tafsir Mazhari, it makes the kinds of Ruh along with the reality of each sufficiently clear.
وَلَىِٕنْ شِـئْنَا لَنَذْهَبَنَّ بِالَّذِيْٓ اَوْحَيْنَآ اِلَيْكَ ثُمَّ لَا تَجِدُ لَكَ بِهٖ عَلَيْنَا وَكِيْلًا
We can now move to verse 86: وَلَئِن شِئْنَا لَنَذْهَبَنَّ (And if We so will, We will surely take away…). It will be recollected that, in the previous verse (85), by giving an answer to the question about Ruh as true to the measure of its necessity, the underlying effort to find out the reality of the Ruh was blocked and it was declared that man’s knowledge, no matter how much, still remains relatively insignificant in terms of the great span of the ulti¬mate reality of things. Therefore, getting entangled with unnecessary debates and investigations is a waste of precious time. The present verse: وَلَئِن شِئْنَا (And if We so will) indicates that the sum total of whatever knowl¬edge human beings have been given, even that is no private property of theirs. Allah Ta` ala can, if He so wills, take away that too. Therefore, they should be grateful to Allah for whatever of knowledge they have and stay away from wasting time in redundant and unnecessary investi¬gations – specially when pure investigation is just not the objective, instead, testing others or belittling them is. If one did that, it is not out of the realm of possibility that this crookedness may result in all that one has in the name of knowledge taken away in toto. The address in this verse is, though, to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، but the purpose is to really make his followers listen and get the message – when even the knowl¬edge of the Rasul of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is not within his exclusive power and control, not much can be said about others!
قُلْ لَّىِٕنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الْاِنْسُ وَالْجِنُّ عَلٰٓي اَنْ يَّاْتُوْا بِمِثْلِ هٰذَا الْقُرْاٰنِ لَا يَاْتُوْنَ بِمِثْلِهٖ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيْرًا
The subject in verse 88: قُل لَّئِنِ اجْتَمَعَتِ الْإِنسُ وَالْجِنُّ (If all humans and jinns join together…) appears in some other verses of the Holy Qur’an as well. Challenging the humankind, it has been said there: If you do not take the Qur’an to be the word of Allah, rather take it to be a word of man, then, you too are human, why would you not come up with its like? Along with that challenge, it was also said in this verse: Not the human-kind alone, you are welcome to join up with jinns, but you, all combined together, will still be unable to come out with one Surah – even one verse – like that of the Qur’an.
The repetition of this subject at this place may possibly be to show the futility of what the deniers of the message were trying to do. Here they were trying to test the veracity of the mission of a prophet of Allah by asking all sorts of questions, the one about the Ruh being one of them. Being an exercise in futility, why would they go about digging into unnecessary issues only to determine whether or not the prophet sent to them was true? Why they would not look into the Qur’ an as it is? It leaves no room for doubt in the veracity of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as Proph¬et and Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . The reason is simple. When the humans and jinns of the whole world are incapable of producing the least like of it, what doubt could there be in that it is but the Divine Word. And once it is proved so manifestly that the Holy Qur’an is Divine Word, hardly any doubt remains in that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was a true prophet and mes¬senger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) .
وَقَالُوْا لَنْ نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتّٰى تَفْجُرَ لَنَا مِنَ الْاَرْضِ يَنْۢبُوْعًا
A prophetic answer to hostile questions sounding absurd
The questions asked and the demands made in these verses from the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) were virtually conditions on the fulfillment of which his antagonists were supposed to believe. These conditions are such that anyone who hears them would find them nothing but some sort of weird mockery and certainly a very absurd excuse for not believing. While hav¬ing to respond to such questions, one becomes naturally angry and retorts in the same manner. But, the answer that Allah Ta’ ala taught His prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) to give against their impertinent questions reported in this verse is something significant for everyone. Particularly so, for the leaders and reformers of the Muslim community who would do well to always remember it making it a regular feature of their work among peo¬ple. Is it not that, in answer to all that, nothing was said about their lack of sense, nor mention was made of their hostile mischief, nor there was any verbal duel fought against them? Instead, the truth of the matter was made clear to them in very simple words. In effect, they were told: Perhaps, you think that a person who comes as a messenger of Allah should also be the possessor of all Divine powers and should be able to control everything. This is a mistaken notion. The duty of a Mes¬senger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is only to convey the Divine message. It is a different matter that Allah would also send many miracles to prove the veracity of the mission of His apostles, prophets and messengers. But, that takes place exclusively with the power and under the control of Allah Ta’ ala. A rasul (messenger) is not given Divine powers. He is a human being and is never outside the framework of human power – except that Allah Ta` ala alone were to manifest His great subduing power to help him.
وَمَا مَنَعَ النَّاسَ اَنْ يُّؤْمِنُوْٓا اِذْ جَاۗءَهُمُ الْهُدٰٓى اِلَّآ اَنْ قَالُوْٓا اَبَعَثَ اللّٰهُ بَشَرًا رَّسُوْلًا
Only a human being can be a messenger of Allah: Angels cannot be sent as messengers to human beings
Common disbelievers and polytheists thought that ‘bashar,’ that is, a man, could not be the messenger of Allah because he is someone accus¬tomed to all human compulsions like them. When so, what edge did he have over them to make them call him the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and take him as their leader claiming that they follow him? This assumption of theirs has been answered in the Holy Qur’an, at several places in vari¬ous ways. The outcome of the answer given here in this verse: مَا مَنَعَ النَّاسَ (And nothing prevented people – 94) is that a messenger of Allah sent to a set of people has to be from their genus or race.
If these people are hu¬man, the messenger should be human because mutual congruity does not exist between one genus and the other – and without congruity, guid¬ance and grooming bring no benefit. Had some angel been sent to men as their messenger, he would have known no hunger, or thirst, or sexual de-sires, nor would he have felt the effect of chill and heat, nor fatigue after hard work. He would have, then, expected human beings to act like him without having ever realized their weaknesses and limitations. Similar¬ly, when human beings knew that he was an angel, after all, they would have come to the conclusion that they just did not have the ability to do what he did. Who would have, then, followed him? Following is the fruit of correction, reform and right guidance. This benefit can be hoped for only when the messenger of Allah is from the genus of men. He should be an embodiment of human emotions and physical desires while, at the same time, he should also have an angelic majesty that could serve as a liaison – intermediary communicator – between human beings and angels, receiving revelation from angels bringing it and communicating it to his fellow human beings.
This submission also removes the doubt that arises by thinking: when human beings cannot derive benefit from the angel, how would a messenger – despite being human – derive the benefit of revelation from them?
As for the doubt – when the compatibility of genus is a condition between a messenger and his people, how was the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) made a messenger of the jinns for they are not from the same genus as men? – it can be answered by saying that the messenger is not simply a human being, instead, he also has an angelic majesty about him because of which jinns too could also be congruous to him.
قُلْ لَّوْ اَنْتُمْ تَمْلِكُوْنَ خَزَاۗىِٕنَ رَحْمَةِ رَبِّيْٓ اِذًا لَّاَمْسَكْتُمْ خَشْيَةَ الْاِنْفَاقِ ۭ وَكَانَ الْاِنْسَانُ قَتُوْرًا
The truth of the matter about what has been said in the last verse (100) is that the treasures of the mercy of Allah are limit-less and end-less. They are never going to end, but man is by nature nar¬row-minded, short on courage. When it comes to giving, he is not motivat¬ed enough to share what he has with others.
Commentators generally take the expression ‘the treasures of the Lord’s blessing or mercy’ to mean the treasures of wealth. This has its link with previous verses (90, 91) where the disbelievers of Makkah had demanded that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) should – if he was really a prophet in truth – make rivers flow in the barren desert of Makkah and trans-form it into lush green farms, like the land of Syria. The answer to this was given right there (93), saying in effect: This is as if you have taken me to be nothing short of God whose authority you want me to exercise. As for me, I am only a messenger of Allah, not Allah. I cannot do what I will. If we see this verse in this context, it would mean: If you are asking me to turn this desert land of Makkah into a green land to test my veracity as prophet and messenger, then, the miracle of the eloquence of the Qur’an is sufficient to prove that. There is no need for any other de¬mands. And if this is to meet the needs of your country and people, remember that, even if you are given everything you demand for the land of Makkah, and all sorts of treasures with it, it would not result in the prosperity of the masses of your country. In fact, human nature will take its course and whoever gets hold of these treasures will sit on them like legendary serpents. Tell them to spend it on the people and you will see them all consumed by the fear that it will go out of their hands. In a situ-ation like this, if a few rich men of Makkah get to be richer and opulent, what are the masses of people going to get out of it? Most commentators have declared this to be the sense of the verse.
My master and mentor, Hadrat Thanavi (رح) ، in his Bayan al-Qur’an, has interpreted ‘my Lord’s mercy’ as the station of prophethood and messen¬ger-ship, and ‘the treasures of mercy’ as the varied perfection of proph¬ethood. Given this Tafsir, this verse will be linked with previous verses by saying: The outcome of all those absurd demands you are making against my status as a prophet and Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is that you just do not want to believe in it. Do you, then, want that the function of prophethood should be entrusted in your hands, so that you can make anyone a prophet at your sweet will? If such a wish were to be granted, the consequence would be that you would never give prophethood or messenger-ship to anyone, sitting over it like misers. After having given this explanation, he has added that this Tafsir is something that comes as one of the many divine gifts. It fits the occasion. Interpreting proph-ethood in this setting with mercy would be similar to its interpretation in the verse of Surah az-Zukhruf. It was said: أَهُمْ يَقْسِمُونَ رَحْمَتَ رَبِّكَ (Do they distribute the mercy of your Lord? – 43:32). Here, ‘rahmah’ (mercy) means nothing but ‘nubuwwah’ (prophethood) – and there is a consensus on it. Allah knows best.
وَلَقَدْ اٰتَيْنَا مُوْسٰي تِسْعَ اٰيٰتٍۢ بَيِّنٰتٍ فَسْــــَٔـلْ بَنِيْٓ اِسْرَاۗءِيْلَ اِذْ جَاۗءَهُمْ فَقَالَ لَهٗ فِرْعَوْنُ اِنِّىْ لَاَظُنُّكَ يٰمُوْسٰي مَسْحُوْرًا
The first verse (101): وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ تِسْعَ آيَاتٍ mentions the bestowal of nine clear signs on Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) . The word: آیَہ (‘ayah) carries the meaning of miracle or sign as well as that of the آیَت : ayat or verses of the Qur’an, that is, the divine injunctions. At this place, the probability of both meanings exists. Therefore, a number of commentators have taken the word ‘ayat’ to mean miracles – and the number nine does not make it necessary that they will not be more than nine – but, at this place, the figure ‘nine’ has been mentioned on the basis of some particular importance it has. Sayyidna ` Abdullah ibn ` Abbas (رض) has enumerated these miracles as follows:
- The staff of Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) which turned into a huge snake.
- The hand that emitted light when placed under and taken out of the armpit.
- The removal of stammering from his tongue.
- The splitting of the water barrier in two sections to give safe passage to the Bani Isra’il to cross it.
- The sending of the punishment through locusts in unusual circum¬stances.
- The sending of the storm.
- The clothes on their bodies were infested with countless lice they had no escape from.
- The punishment of frogs was released on them when frogs would ap¬pear in everything they ate or drank.
- The punishment of blood was sent that filled every utensil and min¬gled with whatever they ate or drank.
And a Sahih Hadith tells us that the word ‘ayat’ used here means divine injunctions. This Hadith has been reported in Abu Dawud, an-Nasa’i, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah on the authority of Sayyidna Safwan ibn al-` Aththal. He says that a Jew asked one of his friends to take him to ‘that’ prophet. The friend said, ‘do not call him a prophet. If he finds out that we too call him a prophet, he will have four eyes on him (that is, he will have an opportunity to wallow in his pride and glee).’ Then they came to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and asked him as to what were the nine clear signs given to Sayyidna Musa (عليه السلام) . He said:
- Do not ascribe any partners to Allah.
- Do not steal.
- Do not fornicate.
- Do not unjustly take the life of the one whose killing has been forbidden by Allah.
- Do not falsely impute anyone innocent with charges liable to the sentence of death or any other punishment.
- Do not practice magic.
- Do not devour interest.
- Do not level a false accusation of fornication on a chaste woman.
- Do not desert the battlefield in Jihad for fear of being killed.
And he also said, ‘0 Jews, it has also been specially enjoined on you that you shall not contravene the particular injunctions of the obser¬vance of the day of Sabbath (Saturday) given to you.’
Hearing what the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, they both kissed his hands and feet and declared, ‘We bear witness that you are the prophet of Al¬lah.’ He said, ‘What is it, then, that stops you from following me?’ They said that Sayyidna Dawud (عليه السلام) had prayed to his Lord for prophets to always keep appearing from among his progeny – ‘and we are scared that the Jews will kill us if we started following you.’
Since this explanation of the verse stands proved on the authority of Sahih Hadith, therefore, this is what many commentators have pre¬ferred to go by.
وَيَخِرُّوْنَ لِلْاَذْقَانِ يَبْكُوْنَ وَيَزِيْدُهُمْ خُشُوْعًا
About the last sentence: يَبْكُونَ وَيَزِيدُهُمْ خُشُوعًا (And they fall down on their faces weeping and it increases them in the humbleness of heart -109), it appears in Tafsir Mazhari that being in tears while reciting the Qur’ an stands as a highly recommended and reward worthy act (mustahabb). Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض) narrates that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, ‘a person who wept in fear of Allah shall not go to Hell until milk is returned to the udder after having been milked. (It means, as it is not possible to put milk once milked back into the udder, very similarly, it is also not possible that a person who weeps in fear of Allah were to go to Hell). And says another report, ‘Allah Ta’ ala has forbidden the fire of Hell on two eyes – the eye that weeps in fear of Allah, and the eye that stays awake at nights guarding the Islamic frontiers. (Baihaqi, and Hakim) And Sayyidna Nadr ibn Sa’d (رض) reports that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, ‘a people, among whom there is someone who weeps in fear of Allah, will be delivered from the fire of Hell because of him.’ (Ruh al- Ma’ ani from Tirmidhi)
The reason for the big trouble Muslims are in today is no other but that there are very few left among them who would weep fearing Allah. After reporting the Ahadith showing the merits of weeping in fear of Allah at this point, the author of Ruh al-Ma’ ani says: وينبغي أن يکون ذٰلَک حال العلماء (And that is the state the ` Ulama’ should be in) – because, Ibn Jarir, Ibn al-Mundhir and others have quoted the following saying of ` Abd al-Ala Taimi:
‘A person who has received the kind of knowledge that does not make him cry [ because of having realized the reality of things ] should be enough to make you understand that he has not been given the knowl¬edge that brings benefits.’
قُلِ ادْعُوا اللّٰهَ اَوِ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمٰنَ ۭ اَيًّا مَّا تَدْعُوْا فَلَهُ الْاَسْمَاۗءُ الْحُسْنٰى ۚ وَلَا تَجْـهَرْ بِصَلَاتِكَ وَلَا تُخَافِتْ بِهَا وَابْتَغِ بَيْنَ ذٰلِكَ سَبِيْلًا
These are the last verses of Surah Bani Isra’il (Al-‘Isra’ ). The Surah began with a declaration of the purity and oneness of Allah Ta’ ala, and this is how it is being concluded. The revelation of these verses was based on some events. The first one came to pass on a certain day when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، during his supplication, said ‘Ya Allah’ and ‘Ya Rahman.’ The Mushriks thought that he was calling two Gods. They said, ‘he forbids us to call anyone else other than the One while he himself calls two deities.’ The answer to this comment was given in the first part of the verse by saying that the most exalted Allah does not have a mere two names. He has many more names and all of them are the best of names. Call Him by any of these and it means the One and Only Al¬lah. So, it was made clear that their apprehensions on that count were wrong.
As for the second incident, when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) would recite the Qur’an loudly during Salah, the Mushriks made fun of him and passed audacious remarks berating the Qur’ an, archangel Jibra’il, even Allah Ta` ala. In response to that, the last part of this very verse was re¬vealed where he has been advised to take to a middle course between the loud and the low, as the average voice took care of the functional neces¬sity. And as for the opportunity the Mushriks had to cause pain to them over the loud pitch of the voice, they would be relieved of that too.
The third problem was that the Jews and Christians proposed chil¬dren for Allah Ta` ala and the pagan Arabs said that idols were partners of Allah. The Sabians and the Magians used to hold that not being partic¬ularly close to Allah amounted to a personal loss of worth and honor. In answer to these three religious groups, the last verse was revealed where their three notions have been refuted.
It will be noted that, in this world, the one from whom strength and support is received is sometimes younger than one, like children, and sometimes an equal, like a partner, and sometimes older than one, like a supporter and helper. Here, in this verse, Allah Ta’ ala has refuted all three in the same order.
The etiquette of recitation in Salah as given in verse no is that it should not be in a voice raised very high, nor should it be in a voice so lowered that those standing behind in the congregation cannot hear it. This injunction, as obvious, is particular with prayers wherein the recita¬tion is voiced. As for the prayers of Zuhr and ` Asr, the recitation therein is totally unvoiced as proved from uninterrupted Sunnah.
In prayers with voiced recitation, included there are the Fard of Maghrib, ` Isha’ and Fajr, as well as the prayer of Tahajjud – as in a Hadith which says: Once the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) passed by Sayyidna Abu Bakr and Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) at the time of Tahajjud. Sayyidna Abu Bakr was reciting in a lowered voice while Sayyidna ` Umar was reciting in a loud voice. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said to Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) ، ‘why would you recite in such a lowered voice?’ Sayyidna Abu Bakr said, ‘the One I wanted to talk to in secret, Him I have made to hear, because Allah Ta` ala hears every voice, even the lowest of the low.’ The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, ‘recite somewhat loudly.’ Then he said to Sayyidna ` Umar (رض) ، ‘why do you recite in such a loud voice?’ Sayyidna ` Umar (رح) said, ‘I recite loudly to wake up the drowsy, and shaitan.’ He ordered him too, ‘you should recite in a voice somewhat lowered.’ (Tirmidhi as quoted Mazhari)
Problems and their solutions relating to the loud or lowered render¬ing of the recitation of the Qur’an in Salah, or on occasions other than it, have been already explained in Surah al-A` raf (see commentary under Verse 55, Volume III). About the last verse beginning with: قُلِ الحَمدُ للہِ (say, ‘alham¬dulillah: praise belongs to Allah’ ), the Hadith says that this is the ‘ayah’ (verse) of ‘izzah’ (power and glory). [ The reference is to the efficacy of the verse in seeking the help of Allah to overcome weaknesses and difficul¬ties ]. (Reported by Abmad and at-Tabarani on the authority of Sayyidna Mu۔ adh al-Juhaniyy as in Mazhari) This verse also provides an essential guidance. The drive of the meaning is that it does not matter how much one devotes to the worship of Allah, one is still obligated to take his or her deed to be deficient as compared with His due right and confess to the likely shortfall in performing it. (Mazhari)
وَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ الَّذِيْ لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًا وَّلَمْ يَكُنْ لَّهٗ شَرِيْكٌ فِي الْمُلْكِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَّهٗ وَلِيٌّ مِّنَ الذُّلِّ وَكَبِّرْهُ تَكْبِيْرًا
And Sayyidna Anas (رض) has said that a child from the tribe of Bani ` Abd al-Muttalib, when able to say meaningful words, was taught to recite this verse by the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . Then he recited the verse:
وَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًا وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي الْمُلْكِ وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلِيٌّ مِّنَ الذُّلِّ وَكَبِّرْهُ تَكْبِيرًا
And say, “Praise belongs to Allah who has neither taken to Him a son, nor is there any partner to Him in His kingdom, nor is anyone [ needed ] to protect Him because of [ any ] weak-ness. And proclaim His greatness, an open proclamation” – 111). (Mazhari)
And Sayyidna Abu Hurairah (رض) has said that once he went out with the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، in a manner that his hand was in Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ‘s hands. He passed by a person who was disheveled and worried. He asked, ‘what brought you to this condition?’ That person said, ‘sickness and poverty have done this to me.’ He said, ‘I am going to tell you a few words. If you recite these, your sickness and poverty will go away. The words were:
وَقُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ الَّذِي لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ وَلَدًا وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ شَرِيكٌ فِي الْمُلْكِ وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلِيٌّ مِّنَ الذُّلِّ وَكَبِّرْهُ تَكْبِيرًا
I place my trust in the Ever Living who is not to die. Praise be-longs to Allah who has neither taken to Him a son, nor is there any partner to Him in His kingdom, nor is anyone (needed) to protect Him because of (any) weakness. And proclaim His greatness, an open proclamation. (17:111)
After the passage of some time, when he went that way, he found his condition good and showed his pleasure about it. That person told him, ‘since the time you taught me these words, I recite them punctually.’ (Abu Ya’la and Ibn al-Sunni, as quoted by Mazhari)
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
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