وَالضُّحَىٰ ﴿1﴾ وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا سَجَىٰ ﴿2﴾ مَا وَدَّعَكَ رَبُّكَ وَمَا قَلَىٰ ﴿3﴾ وَلَلْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لَكَ مِنَ الْأُولَىٰ ﴿4﴾ وَلَسَوْفَ يُعْطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرْضَىٰ ﴿5﴾ أَلَمْ يَجِدْكَ يَتِيمًا فَآوَىٰ ﴿6﴾ وَوَجَدَكَ ضَالًّا فَهَدَىٰ ﴿7﴾ وَوَجَدَكَ عَائِلًا فَأَغْنَىٰ ﴿8﴾ فَأَمَّا الْيَتِيمَ فَلَا تَقْهَرْ ﴿9﴾ وَأَمَّا السَّائِلَ فَلَا تَنْهَرْ ﴿10﴾ وَأَمَّا بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ فَحَدِّثْ ﴿11﴾
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- wad duhaa
- wal laili iza sajaa
- ma wad da’aka rabbuka wa ma qalaa
- walal-aakhiratu khairul laka minal-oola
- wa la sawfa y’uteeka rabbuka fatarda
- alam ya jidka yateeman fa aawaa
- wa wa jadaka daal lan fahada
- wa wa jadaka ‘aa-ilan fa aghnaa
- fa am mal yateema fala taqhar
- wa am mas saa-ila fala tanhar
- wa amma bi ni’mati rabbika fahad dith
With the name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the Very-Merciful.
- I swear by the forenoon,
- and by the night when it becomes peaceful,
- your Lord ( O Prophet,) has neither forsaken you, nor has become displeased.
- Surely the Hereafter is much better for you than the present life.
- And of course, your Lord will give you so much that you will be pleased.
- Did He not find you an orphan, and give you shelter?
- And He found you unaware of the way (the Shari_ah ) , then He guided you.
- and He found you in need, then made you need-free.
- Therefore, as for orphan, do not oppress him,
- and as for the beggar, do not scold him.
- And about the bounty of your Lord, do talk.
Occasion of Revelation
Bukhari, Muslim and Tirmidhi have narrated from Sayyidna Jundub (رض) that once a finger of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was wounded and started bleeding, he said:
إِنْ أَنْتِ إِلَّا أُصْبُع دَمِیتِ♦♦ وفي سبیلِ اللهِ مِا لَقِیتِ
‘You are merely a finger that is bleeding; [ what does it matter ]
if you are hurt: it all happened in Allah’s cause.’
Sayyidna Jundub (رض) narrated this incident and said that revelation of the Qur’an to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) came to a halt, and that Jibra’il (علیہ السلام) stopped coming to him for a while. The unbelievers taunted, saying: “Mulhammad’s Lord has forsaken him, and is displeased with him.” Surah Ad-Duha was revealed on this occasion. According to the narration in Bukhari by Sayyidna Jundub (رض) ، the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was unable to wake up for a few nights for tahajjud prayer owing to illness. In this narration, there is no mention of ‘delay in revelation’.
In Timidhi’s narration, there is mention about the ‘delay in revelation’ but no mention about his inability to wake up for tahajjud prayer. These reports are not conflicting. The narrator might have narrated one incident at one time, and reported another incident at another time. The lady who taunted the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was Umm Jamil, the wife of Abu Lahab, as other reports indicate. ‘Delay in revelation’ took place twice.
Once in the very early stage of the call. This is known as fatrah al-wahy ‘temporary break in the revelation’. This was the longest period. Another narration states that when the pagans or the Jews asked the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) about the soul, he promised them that he would give them a reply the next day. However, he forgot to add insha’Allah (if Allah wills). As a result, revelation ceased for a few days. The pagans began to taunt the Holy Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، saying that Allah had abandoned him, and is displeased with him. It was on this occasion that the Surah was revealed.
وَلَلْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لَّكَ مِنَ الْأُولَىٰ. The word ‘akhirah may be taken in its popular sense of the ‘Hereafter’ and its opposite ula may be taken in the sense of the present ‘world’. With these words, Allah tells the Holy Prophet not to be disturbed by the taunts of the pagans, because they will see in this world that their assumptions and accusations were absolutely false.
In the Hereafter, he will be blessed with Divine favours to his heart’s content – much more than what he will receive in this fleeting world. The word ‘akhirah may also be taken in its primitive sense i.e. ‘the later state or condition’ as opposed to ula ‘the former state or condition’. The verse, in this case, would mean that every succeeding moment of the Holy Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) life is better than the preceding one. It includes progress in knowledge and wisdom, as well as in degrees of his nearness to Allah, and it also includes progress in economic and political fields.
وَلَسَوْفَ يُعْطِيكَ رَبُّكَ فَتَرْضَىٰ. Allah does not specify here what he will give him. The statement is open and general. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) will be granted everything he desires so much that he will be pleased. Among his desired thing is the progress of Islam; the general spread of Islam in the world; fulfillment of every need of the Ummah; triumph of the Holy Prophet himself over his enemies and raising the word of Allah in the land of the enemy. When this verse was revealed, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:
اِذا! لّا اَرضٰی وَ وَاحدُ مِّن اُمَّتِي فِي النَّار.
‘If that is the case, then I will not be pleased as long as one [ single member ] of my Ummah [ remains ] in Fire.’ [ Qurtubi].
In a narration by Sayyidna ` Ali (رض) ، the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Allah will accept my intercession for my Ummah [community]. Allah will ask: رضیتَ یا محمد ‘0 Muhammad, are you pleased?’ He will reply: یا رَبِّ رَضِیتُ “My Lord, I am pleased.” Muslim records from Sayyidna ` Amr Ibn-ul-` As to the effect that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) recited a verse concerning the Prophet Ibrahim : (علیه السلام)
﴿فَمَن تَبِعَنِي فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَإِنَّكَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ﴾
‘…So, one who followsme is surely mine, and the one who
disobeys me, then You are Most Forgiving, Very Merciful. [ 14:36] ‘
Then he recited a verse which contains the words of Sayyidna ` Isa (عليه السلام)
﴿إِن تُعَذِّبْهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ عِبَادُكَ﴾
‘If You punish them, then, they are Your slaves [ 5:118] ‘
Then he raised his hands, he wept and prayed:
اَللّٰھُمَّ اُمَّتِی اُمَّتِی
‘0 Allah, my ummah, my ummah!’
Allah sent Jibra’il عليه السلام to inquire as to why he was weeping [ while Allah knows the reason ]. Jibra’il Amin عليه السلام came and inquired why he was weeping. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied: “I seek my ummah’s forgiveness.” Allah sent Jibra’il (عليه السلام) back to inform him that He has pardoned them, and that Allah would please him and would not displease him regarding his ummah.
In response to the unbelievers’ taunts, it was briefly mentioned that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has already been blessed with many Divine favours. The Surah elaborates on three of them in particular.
أَلَمْ يَجِدْكَ يَتِيمًا فَآوَىٰ. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was an orphan. His father died before he was born, leaving no wealth or property to look after him. The words ‘and gave you shelter’ signify that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) received such deep love and affection from his grand-father, ` Abd-ul-Muttalib, and after him from his uncle, Abu Talib , who took care of him more than their own children.
وَوَجَدَكَ ضَالًّا فَهَدَى The word dall has two meanings:  stray; and  unaware. Here it stands for the second meaning. The verse signifies that before Muhammad k was commissioned as the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) ، he was unaware of Divine Shari’ah. He was granted the status of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and thus was guided.
وَوَجَدَكَ عَائِلًا فَأَغْنَىٰ . The word ail is derived from ` ailah which means ‘to be in need’. The verse signifies that Allah found him impoverished and enriched him. This happened in the beginning through a business partnership with Sayyidah Khadijah al-Kubra (رض) then once she became his wife and ‘Mother of the Faithful’, her entire wealth was devoted to his service.
After elaborating on the three favours of Allah, three injunctions follow:
فَأَمَّا الْيَتِيمَ فَلَا تَقْهَرْ. The word qahr means ‘to treat people who are less powerful in an unfair and cruel way’. In the present context, the verse means: ‘Since you were a poor orphan, and Allah sheltered you, do not oppress the orphan.’ [ In words, ‘do not seize their wealth by force and squander it. Do not scorn them, humiliate them or despise them. Rather, you should be kind and gentle to them.’] As a result, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) emphasised that the orphan be treated kindly and gently, and has forbidden any hurting attitude towards them. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is reported to have said that the best house of a Muslim is the one in which there is an orphan who is treated kindly, and with love and affection. The worst house is the one in which there is an orphan who is treated badly. [This is transmitted by Bukhari in Al-Adab-ul- Mufrad, and by Ibn Majah and Baghawi, as quoted by Mazhari].
وَأَمَّا السَّائِلَ فَلَا تَنْهَرْ. The verb tanhar is derived from nahr which means ‘to scold’. The word sa’il means ‘one who asks’. It includes a person who asks people’s wealth, that is, a beggar, and it also includes the one who asks a question of knowledge, that is, an academic investigator. The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has forbidden to berate either of them. The best course of action is to give the beggar something. If one is unable to give a beggar anything, one should at least apologise to him politely [so as not to give him any further grief]. Likewise, anyone who is searching knowledge and asks questions, it is forbidden to respond to him harshly and unkindly. The teacher should reply kindly and politely. However, if the investigator is unreasonable in his approach, it is permissible to scold him to the degree that is necessary.
وَأَمَّا بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ فَحَدِّثْ. The verb haddith is derived from tahdith which means ‘to talk’ meaning, ‘just as you were poor and needy, and Allah made you wealthy, then talk about Allah’s favours upon you’. Talking about Divine favours to people is one way of thanking Allah. If a person has done something good to another, he should be thanked. Therefore, the Holy Prophet is reported to have said: “Whoever is not thankful to people on their favours is not thankful to Allah.” [This is transmitted by Ahmad. The chain of authorities are reliable – vide Mazhari].
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is reported to have said: “Whoever has done good to you, you ought to return the good. If you are unable to return the pecuniary good, then praise him in public, because he who praises people in public fulfils his moral obligation.” [Al-Baghawi transmitted it from Jabir Ibn ` Abdullah, vide Mazhari].
It is obligatory to offer gratitude to Allah on every favour He has bestowed. (But the way of offering gratitude may be different.) If Allah has granted a person wealth, a part of that wealth may be spent with the sincerity in Allah’s way. If Allah has given a person strong body, his bodily strength may be utilised in fulfilling Divine obligations. If Allah has granted a person Divine knowledge, he should impart it to others. [Mazhari].
It is sunnah to recite takbir at the beginning of every Surah from Surah Duha to the end of the Qur’an. The wordings of the takbir, according to Shaikh Salih al-Misri, are as follows:
لا اله إلا الله والله أكبر
‘There is no god except Allah and Allah is the greatest’ [Mazhari].
According to Ibn Kathir, the takbir may be recited at the end of every Surah and, according to Baghawi, it may be recited once at the beginning of every Surah. [Mazhari]. Either way the requirement of sunnah will be fulfilled. And Allah knows best!
Note: In most Surahs from Surah Duha to the end of Qur’an, Allah’s special favours upon the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and his special virtues and characteristics are mentioned. In a few of the Surahs, the Day of Judgment and its conditions are mentioned. The earlier part of the Qur’an asserts the greatness and authenticity of the Qur’an, while the later part asserts the greatness of the personality to whom the Qur’an was revealed.
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Usmani]
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