Surah Room In Arabic
الم ﴿1﴾ غُلِبَتِ الرُّومُ ﴿2﴾ فِي أَدْنَى الْأَرْضِ وَهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ غَلَبِهِمْ سَيَغْلِبُونَ ﴿3﴾ فِي بِضْعِ سِنِينَ ۗ لِلَّهِ الْأَمْرُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَمِنْ بَعْدُ ۚ وَيَوْمَئِذٍ يَفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿4﴾ بِنَصْرِ اللَّهِ ۚ يَنْصُرُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿5﴾ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ ۖ لَا يُخْلِفُ اللَّهُ وَعْدَهُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿6﴾ يَعْلَمُونَ ظَاهِرًا مِنَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ عَنِ الْآخِرَةِ هُمْ غَافِلُونَ ﴿7﴾ أَوَلَمْ يَتَفَكَّرُوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ ۗ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَأَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى ۗ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِنَ النَّاسِ بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّهِمْ لَكَافِرُونَ ﴿8﴾ أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَيَنْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَانُوا أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً وَأَثَارُوا الْأَرْضَ وَعَمَرُوهَا أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا عَمَرُوهَا وَجَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ۖ فَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَظْلِمَهُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ كَانُوا أَنْفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ ﴿9﴾ ثُمَّ كَانَ عَاقِبَةَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُوا السُّوأَىٰ أَنْ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا بِهَا يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ ﴿10﴾ اللَّهُ يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ ﴿11﴾ وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يُبْلِسُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ ﴿12﴾ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمْ مِنْ شُرَكَائِهِمْ شُفَعَاءُ وَكَانُوا بِشُرَكَائِهِمْ كَافِرِينَ ﴿13﴾ وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَتَفَرَّقُونَ ﴿14﴾ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَهُمْ فِي رَوْضَةٍ يُحْبَرُونَ ﴿15﴾ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا وَلِقَاءِ الْآخِرَةِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ فِي الْعَذَابِ مُحْضَرُونَ ﴿16﴾ فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ ﴿17﴾ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَعَشِيًّا وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ ﴿18﴾ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَيُحْيِي الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ ﴿19﴾ وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ إِذَا أَنْتُمْ بَشَرٌ تَنْتَشِرُونَ ﴿20﴾ وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا لِتَسْكُنُوا إِلَيْهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ مَوَدَّةً وَرَحْمَةً ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ ﴿21﴾ وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافُ أَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَأَلْوَانِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِلْعَالِمِينَ ﴿22﴾ وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ مَنَامُكُمْ بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَابْتِغَاؤُكُمْ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَسْمَعُونَ ﴿23﴾ وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ يُرِيكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَيُحْيِي بِهِ الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ ﴿24﴾ وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ تَقُومَ السَّمَاءُ وَالْأَرْضُ بِأَمْرِهِ ۚ ثُمَّ إِذَا دَعَاكُمْ دَعْوَةً مِنَ الْأَرْضِ إِذَا أَنْتُمْ تَخْرُجُونَ ﴿25﴾ وَلَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ كُلٌّ لَهُ قَانِتُونَ ﴿26﴾ وَهُوَ الَّذِي يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ ۚ وَلَهُ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَىٰ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴿27﴾ ضَرَبَ لَكُمْ مَثَلًا مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ ۖ هَلْ لَكُمْ مِنْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ مِنْ شُرَكَاءَ فِي مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ فَأَنْتُمْ فِيهِ سَوَاءٌ تَخَافُونَهُمْ كَخِيفَتِكُمْ أَنْفُسَكُمْ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ ﴿28﴾ بَلِ اتَّبَعَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۖ فَمَنْ يَهْدِي مَنْ أَضَلَّ اللَّهُ ۖ وَمَا لَهُمْ مِنْ نَاصِرِينَ ﴿29﴾ فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفًا ۚ فِطْرَتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا ۚ لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿30﴾ مُنِيبِينَ إِلَيْهِ وَاتَّقُوهُ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَلَا تَكُونُوا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ﴿31﴾ مِنَ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا ۖ كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ ﴿32﴾ وَإِذَا مَسَّ النَّاسَ ضُرٌّ دَعَوْا رَبَّهُمْ مُنِيبِينَ إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ إِذَا أَذَاقَهُمْ مِنْهُ رَحْمَةً إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِنْهُمْ بِرَبِّهِمْ يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿33﴾ لِيَكْفُرُوا بِمَا آتَيْنَاهُمْ ۚ فَتَمَتَّعُوا فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿34﴾ أَمْ أَنْزَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانًا فَهُوَ يَتَكَلَّمُ بِمَا كَانُوا بِهِ يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿35﴾ وَإِذَا أَذَقْنَا النَّاسَ رَحْمَةً فَرِحُوا بِهَا ۖ وَإِنْ تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ إِذَا هُمْ يَقْنَطُونَ ﴿36﴾ أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ ﴿37﴾ فَآتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَىٰ حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ لِلَّذِينَ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ ﴿38﴾ وَمَا آتَيْتُمْ مِنْ رِبًا لِيَرْبُوَ فِي أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ فَلَا يَرْبُو عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا آتَيْتُمْ مِنْ زَكَاةٍ تُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَ اللَّهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُضْعِفُونَ ﴿39﴾ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ رَزَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ۖ هَلْ مِنْ شُرَكَائِكُمْ مَنْ يَفْعَلُ مِنْ ذَٰلِكُمْ مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۚ سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴿40﴾ ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِي النَّاسِ لِيُذِيقَهُمْ بَعْضَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ ﴿41﴾ قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۚ كَانَ أَكْثَرُهُمْ مُشْرِكِينَ ﴿42﴾ فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ الْقَيِّمِ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ يَوْمٌ لَا مَرَدَّ لَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۖ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَصَّدَّعُونَ ﴿43﴾ مَنْ كَفَرَ فَعَلَيْهِ كُفْرُهُ ۖ وَمَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلِأَنْفُسِهِمْ يَمْهَدُونَ ﴿44﴾ لِيَجْزِيَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْكَافِرِينَ ﴿45﴾ وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ يُرْسِلَ الرِّيَاحَ مُبَشِّرَاتٍ وَلِيُذِيقَكُمْ مِنْ رَحْمَتِهِ وَلِتَجْرِيَ الْفُلْكُ بِأَمْرِهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا مِنْ فَضْلِهِ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿46﴾ وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ رُسُلًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِمْ فَجَاءُوهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَانْتَقَمْنَا مِنَ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُوا ۖ وَكَانَ حَقًّا عَلَيْنَا نَصْرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ﴿47﴾ اللَّهُ الَّذِي يُرْسِلُ الرِّيَاحَ فَتُثِيرُ سَحَابًا فَيَبْسُطُهُ فِي السَّمَاءِ كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ وَيَجْعَلُهُ كِسَفًا فَتَرَى الْوَدْقَ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ خِلَالِهِ ۖ فَإِذَا أَصَابَ بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ إِذَا هُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ ﴿48﴾ وَإِنْ كَانُوا مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ لَمُبْلِسِينَ ﴿49﴾ فَانْظُرْ إِلَىٰ آثَارِ رَحْمَتِ اللَّهِ كَيْفَ يُحْيِي الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ لَمُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ ۖ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿50﴾ وَلَئِنْ أَرْسَلْنَا رِيحًا فَرَأَوْهُ مُصْفَرًّا لَظَلُّوا مِنْ بَعْدِهِ يَكْفُرُونَ ﴿51﴾ فَإِنَّكَ لَا تُسْمِعُ الْمَوْتَىٰ وَلَا تُسْمِعُ الصُّمَّ الدُّعَاءَ إِذَا وَلَّوْا مُدْبِرِينَ ﴿52﴾ وَمَا أَنْتَ بِهَادِ الْعُمْيِ عَنْ ضَلَالَتِهِمْ ۖ إِنْ تُسْمِعُ إِلَّا مَنْ يُؤْمِنُ بِآيَاتِنَا فَهُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ ﴿53﴾ اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ ضَعْفٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِنْ بَعْدِ ضَعْفٍ قُوَّةً ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِنْ بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ ضَعْفًا وَشَيْبَةً ۚ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيمُ الْقَدِيرُ ﴿54﴾ وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يُقْسِمُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ مَا لَبِثُوا غَيْرَ سَاعَةٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَانُوا يُؤْفَكُونَ ﴿55﴾ وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ وَالْإِيمَانَ لَقَدْ لَبِثْتُمْ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْبَعْثِ ۖ فَهَٰذَا يَوْمُ الْبَعْثِ وَلَٰكِنَّكُمْ كُنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ ﴿56﴾ فَيَوْمَئِذٍ لَا يَنْفَعُ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يُسْتَعْتَبُونَ ﴿57﴾ وَلَقَدْ ضَرَبْنَا لِلنَّاسِ فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ مِنْ كُلِّ مَثَلٍ ۚ وَلَئِنْ جِئْتَهُمْ بِآيَةٍ لَيَقُولَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا إِنْ أَنْتُمْ إِلَّا مُبْطِلُونَ ﴿58﴾ كَذَٰلِكَ يَطْبَعُ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ ﴿59﴾ فَاصْبِرْ إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ ۖ وَلَا يَسْتَخِفَّنَّكَ الَّذِينَ لَا يُوقِنُونَ ﴿60﴾
Transliteration In English
Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem
- Ghulibatir Room
- Feee adnal ardi wa hummim ba’di ghalabihim sa-yaghliboon
- Fee bid’i sineen; lillaahil amru min qablu wa mim ba’d; wa yawma’iziny yafrahul mu’minoon
- Binasril laa; yansuru mai yashaaa’u wa Huwal ‘Azeezur Raheem
- Wa’dal laahi laa yukhliful laahu wa’dahoo wa laakin na aksaran naasi laa ya’lamoon
- Ya’lamoona zaahiram minal hayaatid dunya wa hum ‘anil Aakhirati hum ghaafiloon
- Awalam yatafakkaroo feee anfusihim; maa khalaqal laahus samaawaati wal arda wa maa bainahumaaa illaa bil haqqi wa ajalim musammaa; wa inna kaseeram minan naasi biliqaaa’i Rabbihim lakaafiroon
- Awalam yaseeroo fil ardi fa-yanzuroo kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul lazeena min qablihim; kaanooo ashadda minhhum quwwatanw wa asaarul arda wa ‘amaroohaaa aksara mimmaa ‘amaroohaa wa jaaa’athum Rusuluhum bil baiyinaati famaa kaanal laahu liyazli mahum wa laakin kaanooo anfusahum yazlimoon
- Summa kaana’aaqibatal lazeena asaaa’us sooo aaa an kazzaboo bi aayaatil laahi wa kaanoo bihaa yastahzi’oon(section 1)
- Allaahu yabda’ul khalqa summa yu’eeduhoo summa ilaihi turja’oon
- Wa yawma taqoomus Saa’atu yublisul mujrimoon
- Wa lam yakul lahum min shurakaaa’ihim shufa’aaa’u wa kaanoo bishurakaaa’ihim kaafireen
- Wa Yawma taqoomus Saa’atu Yawma’iziny yatafarraqoon
- Fa ammal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati fahum fee rawdatiny yuhbaroon
- Wa ammal lazeena kafaroo wa kazzaboo bi-Aayaatinaa wa liqaaa’il Aakhirati faulaaa’ika fil’azaabi muhdaroon
- Fa Subhaanal laahi heena tumsoona wa heena tusbihoon
- Wa lahul hamdu fis samaawaati wal ardi wa ‘ashiyyanw wa heena tuzhiroon
- Yukhrijul haiya minal maiyiti wa yukhrijul maiyita minal haiyi wa yuhyil arda ba’da mawtihaa; wa kazaalika tukhrajoon (section 2)
- Wa min Aayaatiheee an khalaqakum min turaabin summa izaaa antum basharun tantashiroon
- Wa min Aayaatiheee an khalaqa lakum min anfusikum azwaajal litaskunooo ilaihaa wa ja’ala bainakum mawad datanw wa rahmah; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil liqawminy yatafakkaroon
- Wa min Aayaatihee khalqus samaawaati wal aardi wakhtilaafu alsinatikum wa alwaanikum; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil lil’aalimeen
- Wa min Aayaatihee manaamukum bil laili wannahaari wabtighaaa’ukum min fadlih; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil liqawminy yasma’oon
- Wa min Aayaatihee yureekumul barqa khawfanw wa tama’anw wa yunazzilu minas samaaa’i maaa’an fa yuhyee bihil arda ba’da mawtihaaa inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil liqawminy ya’qiloon
- Wa min Aayaatihee an taqoomas samaaa’u wal ardu bi-amrih; summa izaa da’aakum da’watam minal ardi izaaa antum takhrujoon
- Wa lahoo man fissamaawaati wal ardi kullul lahoo qaanitoon
- Wa Huwal lazee yabda’ul khalqa summa yu’eeduhoo wa huwa ahwanu ‘alaih; wa lahul masalul a’laa fissamaawaati wal-ard; wa Huwal ‘Azeezul Hakeem (section 3)
- Daraba lakum masalam min anfusikum hal lakum mimmaa malakat aymaanukum min shurakaaa’a fee maa razaqnaakum fa antum feehi sawaaa’un takhaafoonahum kakheefa tikum anfusakum; kazaalika nufassilul Aayaati liqawminy ya’qiloon
- Balit taba’al lazeena zalamooo ahwaaa’ahum bighairi ‘ilmin famai yahdee man adallal laahu wa maa lahum min naasireen
- Fa aqim wajhaka liddeeni Haneefaa; fitratal laahil latee fataran naasa ‘alaihaa; laa taabdeela likhalqil laah; zaalikad deenul qaiyimu wa laakinna aksaran naasi laa ya’lamoon
- Muneebeena ilaihi wattaqoohu wa aqeemus Salaata wa laa takoonoo minal mushrikeen
- Minal lazeena farraqoo deenahum wa kaanoo shiya’an kullu hizbim bimaa ladaihim farihoon
- Wa izaa massan naasa durrun da’aw Rabbahum muneebeena ilaihi summa izaaa azaqahum minhu rahmatan izaa fareequm minhum be Rabbihim yushrikoon
- Li yakfuroo bimaaa aatainaahum; fatamatta’oo fasawfa ta’lamoon
- Am anzalnaa ‘alaihim sultaanan fahuwa yatakallamu bimaa kaanoo bihee yushrikoon
- Wa izaaa azaqnan naasa rahmatan farihoo bihaa wa in tusibhum sayyi’atum bimaa qaddamat aydeehim izaa hum yaqnatoon
- Awalam yaraw annal laaha yabsutur rizqa limai yashaaa’u wa yaqdir; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil liqawminy yu’minoon
- Fa aati zal qurbaa haqqahoo walmiskeena wabnassabeel; zaalika khairul lil lazeena yureedoona Wajhal laahi wa ulaaa’ika humul muflihoon
- Wa maaa aataitum mir ribal li yarbuwa feee amwaalin naasi falaa yarboo ‘indal laahi wa maaa aataitum min zaakaatin tureedoona wajhal laahi fa ulaaa’ika humul mud’ifoon
- Allaahul lazee khalaqa kum summa razaqakum summa yumeetukum summa yuhyeekum hal min shurakaaa’ikum mai yaf’alu min zaalikum min shai’; Sub haanahoo wa Ta’aalaa ‘ammaa yushrikoon (section 4)
- Zaharal fasaadu fil barri wal bahri bimaa kasabat aydinnaasi li yuzeeqahum ba’dal lazee ‘amiloo la’allahum yarji’oon
- Qul seeroo fil ardi fanzuroo kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul lazeena min qabl; kaana aksaruhum mushrikeen
- Fa aqim wajhaka lid deenil qaiyimi min qabli any yaatiya Yawmul laa maradda lahoo minal laahi Yawma’iziny yassadda’oon
- Man kafara fa’alaihi kufruhoo wa man ‘amila saalihan fali anfusihim yamhadoon
- Li yajziyal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati min fadlih; innahoo laa yuhibbul kaafireen
- Wa min Aayaatiheee anyyursilar riyaaha mubashshi raatinw wa li yuzeeqakum mir rahmatihee wa litajriyal fulku bi amrihee wa litabtaghoo min fadlihee wa la’allakum tashkuroon
- Wa laqad arsalnaa min qablika Rusulan ilaa qawmihim fajaaa’oohum bil baiyinaati fantaqamnaa minal lazeena ajramoo wa kaana haqqan ‘alainaa nasrul mu’mineen
- Allaahul lazee yursilur riyaaha fatuseeru sahaaban fa yabsutuhoo fis samaaa’i kaifa yashaaa’u wa yaj’aluhoo kisafan fataral wadqa yakhruju min khilaalihee fa izaaa asaaba bihee mai yashaaa’u min ‘ibaadiheee izaa hum yastabshiroon
- Wa in kaanoo min qabli any yunazzala ‘alaihim min qablihee lamubliseen
- Fanzur ilaaa aasaari rahmatil laahi kaifa yuhyil arda ba’da mawtihaa; inna zaalika lamuhyil mawtaa wa Huwa ‘alaa kulli shai’in Qadeer
- Wa la’in arsalnaa reehan fara awhu musfarral lazalloo mim ba’dihee yakfuroon
- Fa innaka laa tusmi’ul mawtaa wa laa tusmi’us summad du’aaa’a izaa wallaw mudbireen
- Wa maa anta bihaadil ‘umyi ‘an dalaalatihim in tusmi’u illaa mai yuminu bi aayaatinaa fahum muslimoon (section 5)
- Allahul lazee khalaqa kum min du’fin summa ja’ala mim ba’di du’fin quwwatan summa ja’ala mim ba’di quwwatin du’fanw wa shaibah; yakhluqu maa yashaaa’u wa Huwal ‘Aleemul Qadeer
- Wa Yawma taqoomus Saa’atu yuqsimul mujrimoona maa labisoo ghaira saa’ah; kazaalika kaanoo yu’fakoon
- Wa qaalal lazeena ootul ‘ilma wal eemaana laqad labistum fee kitaabil laahi ilaa yawmil ba’si fahaazaa yawmul ba’si wa laakinnakum kuntum laa ta’lamoon
- Fa Yawma’izil laa yanfa’ul lazeena zalamoo ma’ziratu hum wa laa hum yusta’taboon
- Wa laqad darabnaa linnaasi fee haazal Quraani min kulli masal; wa la’in ji’tahum bi aayatil la yaqoolannal lazeena kafaroo in antum illaa mubtiloon
- Kazaalika yatba’ul laahu ‘alaa quloobil lazeena laa ya’lamoon
- Fasbir inna wa’dal laahi haqqunw wa laa yastakhif fannakal lazeena laa yooqinoon (section 6)
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
- Lam. Mim.
- The Romans have been defeated
- In the nearer land, and they, after their defeat will be victorious
- Within ten years – Allah’s is the command in the former case and in the latter – and in that day believers will rejoice
- In Allah’s help to victory. He helpeth to victory whom He will. He is the Mighty, the Merciful.
- It is a promise of Allah. Allah faileth not His promise, but most of mankind know not.
- They know only some appearance of the life of the world, and are heedless of the Hereafter.
- Have they not pondered upon themselves? Allah created not the heavens and the earth, and that which is between them, save with truth and for a destined end. But truly many of mankind are disbelievers in the meeting with their Lord.
- Have they not travelled in the land and seen the nature of the consequence for those who were before them? They were stronger than these in power, and they dug the earth and built upon it more than these have built. Messengers of their own came unto them with clear proofs (of Allah’s Sovereignty). Surely Allah wronged them not, but they did wrong themselves.
- Then evil was the consequence to those who dealt in evil, because they denied the revelations of Allah and made a mock of them.
- Allah produceth creation, then He reproduceth it, then unto Him ye will be returned.
- And in the day when the Hour riseth the unrighteous will despair.
- There will be none to intercede for them of those whom they made equal with Allah. And they will reject their partners (whom they ascribed unto Him).
- In the day when the Hour cometh, in that day they will be sundered.
- As for those who believed and did good works, they will be made happy in a Garden.
- But as for those who disbelieved and denied Our revelations, and denied the meeting of the Hereafter, such will be brought to doom.
- So glory be to Allah when ye enter the night and when ye enter the morning –
- Unto Him be praise in the heavens and the earth! – and at the sun’s decline and in the noonday.
- He bringeth forth the living from the dead, and He bringeth forth the dead from the living, and He reviveth the earth after her death. And even so will ye be brought forth.
- And of His signs is this: He created you of dust, and behold you human beings, ranging widely!
- And of His signs is this: He created for you helpmeets from yourselves that ye might find rest in them, and He ordained between you love and mercy. Lo! herein indeed are portents for folk who reflect.
- And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colours. Lo! herein indeed are portents for men of knowledge.
- And of His signs is your slumber by night and by day, and your seeking of His bounty. Lo! herein indeed are portents for folk who heed.
- And of His signs is this: He showeth you the lightning for a fear and for a hope, and sendeth down water from the sky, and thereby quickeneth the earth after her death. Lo! herein indeed are portents for folk who understand.
- And of His signs is this: The heavens and the earth stand fast by His command, and afterward, when He calleth you, lo! from the earth ye will emerge.
- Unto Him belongeth whosoever is in the heavens and the earth. All are obedient unto Him.
- He it is Who produceth creation, then reproduceth it, and it is easier for Him. His is the Sublime Similitude in the heavens and the earth. He is the Mighty, the Wise.
- He coineth for you a similitude of yourselves. Have ye, from among those whom your right hands possess, partners in the wealth We have bestowed upon you, equal with you in respect thereof, so that ye fear them as ye fear each other (that ye ascribe unto Us partners out of that which We created)? Thus We display the revelations for people who have sense.
- Nay, but those who do wrong follow their own lusts without knowledge. Who is able to guide him whom Allah hath sent astray? For such there are no helpers.
- So set thy purpose ( O Muhammad) for religion as a man by nature upright – the nature (framed) of Allah, in which He hath created man. There is no altering (the laws of) Allah’s creation. That is the right religion, but most men know not –
- Turning unto Him (only); and be careful of your duty unto Him and establish worship, and be not of those who ascribe partners (unto Him);
- Of those who split up their religion and became schismatics, each sect exulting in its tenets.
- And when harm toucheth men they cry unto their Lord, turning to Him in repentance; then, when they have tasted of His mercy, behold! some of them attribute partners to their Lord
- So as to disbelieve in that which We have given them. (Unto such it is said): Enjoy yourselves awhile, but ye will come to know.
- Or have We revealed unto them any warrant which speaketh of that which they associate with Him?
- And when We cause mankind to taste of mercy they rejoice therein; but if an evil thing befall them as the consequence of their own deeds, lo! they are in despair!
- See they not that Allah enlargeth the provision for whom He will, and straiteneth (it for whom He will). Lo! herein indeed are portents for folk who believe.
- So give to the kinsman his due, and to the needy, and to the wayfarer. That is best for those who seek Allah’s Countenance. And such are they who are successful.
- That which ye give in usury in order that it may increase on (other) people’s property hath no increase with Allah; but that which ye give in charity, seeking Allah’s Countenance, hath increase manifold.
- Allah is He Who created you and then sustained you, then causeth you to die, then giveth life to you again. Is there any of your (so-called) partners (of Allah) that doeth aught of that? Praised and Exalted be He above what they associate (with Him) !
- Corruption doth appear on land and sea because of (the evil) which men’s hands have done, that He may make them taste a part of that which they have done, in order that they may return.
- Say ( O Muhammad, to the disbelievers): Travel in the land, and see the nature of the consequence for those who were before you! Most of them were idolaters.
- So set thy purpose resolutely for the right religion, before the inevitable day cometh from Allah. On that day mankind will be sundered-
- Whoso disbelieveth must (then) bear the consequences of his disbelief, while those who do right make provision for themselves –
- That He may reward out of His bounty those who believe and do good works. Lo! He loveth not the disbelievers (in His guidance).
- And of His signs is this: He sendeth herald winds to make you taste His mercy, and that the ships may sail at His command, and that ye may seek his favour, and that haply ye may be thankful.
- Verily We sent before thee (Muhammad) messengers to their own folk. Then we took vengeance upon those who were guilty (in regard to them). To help believers is ever incumbent upon Us.
- Allah is He Who sendeth the winds so that they raise clouds, and spreadeth them along the sky as pleaseth Him, and causeth them to break and thou seest the rain downpouring from within them. And when He maketh it to fall on whom He will of His bondmen, lo! they rejoice;
- Though before that, even before it was sent down upon them, they were in despair.
- Look, therefore, at the prints of Allah’s mercy (in creation): how He quickeneth the earth after her death. Lo! He verily is the Quickener of the Dead, and He is Able to do all things.
- And if We sent a wind and they beheld it yellow, they verily would still continue in their disbelief.
- For verily thou (Muhammad) canst not make the dead to hear, nor canst thou make the deaf to hear the call when they have turned to flee.
- Nor canst thou guide the blind out of their error. Thou canst make none to hear save those who believe in Our revelations so that they surrender (unto Him).
- Allah is He Who shaped you out of weakness, then appointed after weakness strength, then, after strength, appointed weakness and grey hair. He createth what He will. He is the Knower, the Mighty.
- And on the day when the Hour riseth the guilty will vow that they did tarry but an hour – thus were they ever deceived.
- But those to whom knowledge and faith are given will say: The truth is, ye have tarried, by Allah’s decree, until the Day of Resurrection. This is the Day of Resurrection, but ye used not to know.
- In that day their excuses will not profit those who did injustice, nor will they be allowed to make amends.
- Verily We have coined for mankind in this Qur’an all kinds of similitudes; and indeed if thou camest unto them with a miracle, those who disbelieve would verily exclaim: Ye are but tricksters!
- Thus doth Allah seal the hearts of those who know not.
- So have patience ( O Muhammad) ! Allah’s promise is the very truth, and let not those who have no certainty make thee impatient.
[From Holy Quran Translation by Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall]
Backdrop of revelation of the Surah – the story of war between Rum and Persia
In the last verse of Surah ` Ankabut’ Allah Ta’ ala had given the good tiding to those who would strive and struggle in His way. It was promised that for such people, He would open the doors toward Him, and that they would succeed in their objectives. The story that marks the beginning of Surah Ar-Rum is a manifestation of that very Divine help. The war referred to in this Surah was fought between Romans and Persians, who were both disbelievers, and had nothing to do with the Muslims. The people of Persia were fire-worshippers, while those of Rum were Christians, and hence, the People of the Book. So, naturally the people of Rum were relatively closer to Muslims. Many of their beliefs, such as faith in the Hereafter, the prophethood, and revelations, were common to Islamic beliefs.
The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) made use of this part of their beliefs in his letter when he wrote to the king of Rum ( Rome) inviting him to accept Islam تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ (come to a word common between us and you – 3:64). In fact it was this affinity between Islam and Christianity that caused the Persians to attack رُوم Rum. It happened when the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) was still living in Makkah. According to Hafiz Ibn Hajar, this war was fought in Syria at a place between Adhru’ at and Busra. The Pagans of Makkah aspired for the victory for the Persians in this war, because the Persians shared them in their belief in polytheism, but the Muslims wished the triumph of the Christians, as they were closer to Islam in their beliefs. But as it happened, the Persians defeated the Christians, and conquered the land right up to Constantinople, and built a temple there for worshipping fire. This victory was the last for Chosroe Parvez. After that, his decline sat in, and ultimately he was removed by the Muslims. (Qurtubi).
At the defeat of Christians, the infidels of Makkah rejoiced, and taunted the Muslims that their favourites have lost. They also claimed that as the Persian infidels defeated the Roman Christians, the same way Makkans would also beat down the Muslims. This claim hurt the Muslims to some extent. (Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim)
The opening verses of Surah Ar-Rum relate to this incident in which it is predicted as a good tiding that the people of Rum will overcome the Persians again in a few years time.
When Sayyidnu Abu Bakr (رض) learnt about these verses, he went to the infidels in the market place and suburbs of Makkah and announced that there was no occasion for them to be happy as after a few years, the Christians would overcome the Persians again. Hearing this ‘Ubayy ibn Khalaf challenged him and said it could not be so, and that he was only telling a lie. Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) said “0 enemy of Allah! You are a liar, I am willing to bet on this issue that in case the Christians would not overcome the Persians in three years time, I will give you ten camels, and if they did overcome, then you will have to give me ten camels”. (This was a case of gambling, but gambling was not prohibited by then). After saying that Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) went to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and narrated the episode.
On that, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said to him that he did not fix the time of three years, because Qur’an has used the word Bid’ Sinin (a few years) under which the time limit could be anything between three to nine years. Therefore, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) asked Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) to go back to the person with whom he had made the bet and ask him that he would bet for hundred camels instead of ten, but the time limit would be nine (and according to some other reports, seven) years and not three. Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) followed the instructions of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، and ‘Ubayy Ibn Khalaf also agreed on the terms of the new bet. (Ibn Jarir) (1)
(1) ‘Ubayy readily accepted the new terms because he was fully confident that the Romans could not defeat the Persians. Given the circumstances prevalent at that time, such an unshaken confidence of ‘Ubayy was not misconceived. The way the Persians had beaten the Roman Empire had left no room for their uprising again. The prediction that the Romans will be victorious against Persians had no basis in the visible possibilities, when it was made. Nobody could foresee, in the world of causes and effects, that such an event might take place. Edward Gibbon, the famous historian of the Roman Empire, has observed:
“Placed on the verge of the two great empires of the East, Muhammad observed with secret joy the progress of their mutual destruction; and in the midst of the Persian triumphs he ventured to foretell that, before many years should elapse, victory would again return to the banners of the Romans. At the time when this prediction is said to have been delivered, no prophecy could be more distant from its accomplishment, since the first twelve years of Heraclius announced the approaching dissolution of the empire”.
It is gathered from various ahadith that this incident had happened five years before the hijrah. After the passage of exactly seven years, at the time of the battle of Badr, the Romans defeated Persians. By that time, ‘Ubayy Ibn Khalaf had died. So Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) demanded a hundred camels from his heirs according to the terms of the bet, to which they complied and handed over the agreed number of camels.
Some versions of the incident state that before the hijrah, Ubayy Ibn Khalaf expressed his apprehension to Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) that the latter might leave Makkah, and in such a situation he would not let him go unless he appointed a guarantor for himself. It was to ensure that when the period of the bet would expire, the guarantor should arrange to deliver a hundred camels. Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) appointed his son, ` Abdur Rahman (رض) ، as his guarantor.
When Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) won the bet according to the agreement and got hold of one hundred camels, he took them to the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، who asked him to give them in charity (sadaqah). Abu Ya` la has quoted these words in Ibn ` Asakir on the authority of Sayyidna Bra’ Ibn ` Azib ھٰذا السُحتُ تَصَدَّق بِہٰ. That is, ‘this is prohibited. Give it in charity (sadaqah).’ (Ruh ul-Ma ani).
Qimar, that is, gambling, is absolutely prohibited according to the categorical Qur’anic injunction. After hijrah to Madinah when liquor was banned, gambling was also prohibited simultaneously. It was declared an act of Shaitan: إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالْأَنصَابُ وَالْأَزْلَامُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ (The truth is that wine, gambling, altar-stones and divining arrows are filth, a work of Shaitan – 5:90) Maysir (مَیسِر) and Azlam (‘ اَزلَام) are nothing but different forms of gambling, which have been prohibited in this verse.
Betting, in which money or commodities are placed on stake and won or lost according to conditions agreed, is also a form of gambling. The bet made between Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) and ‘Ubayy ibn Khalaf was also a form of gambling. But this incident had happened before the hijrah, when the injunction for banning the gambling was not revealed. Therefore, the commodity won in this case was not حَرَام haram (prohibited).
(Gibbon, The decline and fall of the Roman Empire, chapter 46, vol. 2, p. 125, Great Books, V.38, published by the University of Chicago, 1990) Had it not been a news given by Allah Ta’ ala, nobody could have dared to predict such an unlikely event. In particular, it was impossible for a claimant to prophethood that he would put his future at stake by predicting an event that was so improbable. This foretelling, therefore, is one of the solid proofs of the prophethood of Sayyidna Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . (Muhammad Taqi ` Usmni )
The question that arises here is that why did the Holy Prophet ask Sayyidna Abu Bakr 4 to give away the camels in charity when they were not haram (prohibited), especially when in some other versions of the hadith the word سُحت suht is used, which is commonly understood as haram? The answer to this query, as given by the religious jurists, is that although at that time those camels were halal (permitted) but the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) did not like earning through gambling, even at that time. He therefore, asked Sayyidna Abu Bakr to give them away in charity, as they were below his stature. It is identical to the situation that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، and Sayyidna Abu Bakr (رض) did not taste liquor ever, even during the time when it was not prohibited.
As regards the use of the word suht (سُحت), in the first place the scholars of hadith did not accept this narration as correct; and even if it is accepted as authentic, it should be kept in mind that this word has several meanings. One meaning is haram (prohibited), and the other is abominable and undesirable. It is related in one had ith that once-the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said خَسبُ الحَجَّامِ سُحتُ that is, ` The earning of the one who undertakes treatment by cupping is suht’. The majority of religious scholars have taken the meaning of suht here as undesirable or disgusting. Imam Raghib Isfahani in his Mufradat-ul-Qur’an and Ibn Athir in his Nihayah have proved the different meanings of the word suht in the usage of Arabic language and ahadith of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) .
Acceptance of this interpretation of the religious scholars is also necessary because if in fact these camels were haram, then according to religious law this was to be returned to the person from whom it was taken. The commodity, which is haram, can only be given in charity (sadaqah) under any one of the three situations: One, when the owner of the commodity is not known. Two, when it is not possible to deliver the commodity to the owner. And third, when there is any religious complication in the delivery of the commodity. وَاللہُ سبحانَہُ و تعالیٰ اَعلَم
فِيْ بِضْعِ سِنِيْنَ ڛ لِلّٰهِ الْاَمْرُ مِنْ قَبْلُ وَمِنْۢ بَعْدُ ۭ وَيَوْمَىِٕذٍ يَّفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُوْنَ
وَيَوْمَئِذٍ يَفْرَحُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِنَصْرِ اللَّـهِ (And on that day the believers will rejoice with Allah’s help – 30:4). The wording of the text apparently implies that “Allah’s help” in this verse refers to His help for the people of Rum. Although they too were disbelievers, yet compared to others, their kufr was light. Therefore, their being helped by Allah Ta’ ala was not a far-fetched thing, especially when it was a matter of happiness for the Muslims.
The other possibility is that “Allah’s help” in the above sentence means Allah’s help for the Muslims, for which two explanations could be assigned. First, that Muslims had presented the victory of Rum as a sign of the truthfulness of the Holy Qur’an and the veracity of Islam. Hence, the victory of the Romans was in fact the victory of Muslims. The second reason for the help of Muslims could be that, there were two big powers of the disbelievers at that time – Persia and Rum. By making them fight with each other, Allah Ta’ ala made them weak, which helped the Muslims defeat them later. (Ruh).(1)
- There is yet another explanation of this verse offered by Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) etc.They say that the news of the victory of Romans reached the Muslims the very day in which they defeated the pagans of Makkah in the battle of Badr. Therefore, the Muslims were delighted on their own victory when the news of the victory of the Romans added to their delight. According to this interpretation, “rejoicing of the believers with Allah’s help” in the present verse refers to the victory of the Muslims in the battle of Badr, and the good news given by this verse is twofold; one, in relation to the Romans, and the other in relation to the Muslims themselves. (Muhammad Taqi ` Usmani)
يَعْلَمُوْنَ ظَاهِرًا مِّنَ الْحَيٰوةِ الدُّنْيَا ښ وَهُمْ عَنِ الْاٰخِرَةِ هُمْ غٰفِلُوْنَ
(They know something superficial of the worldly life, but of the Hereafter they are negligent.-7). These disbelievers were quite conversant with the mundane needs, that is how to perform trading, which commodity should they trade in, where should they make purchases, where should they sell etc. Similarly, they knew well how to till, when to put seeds, and when to harvest. They were also equally knowledgeable about the construction of buildings and to furnish them with luxury goods. But they were totally ignorant and negligent about the other aspect of the worldly life which in fact is more important, and brings forth the real purpose of its creation; that is to appreciate that he is not a permanent resident of this world, rather his stay in the world is a temporary stay, like that of a visitor on a tourist visa. Man’s permanent abode is in the Hereafter, and he has to collect here the goods for his comfort in the next life. The goods of comfort for the next life are the true faith and righteous deeds. This simple and straight-forward reality is not understood by these so-called intellectuals.
Another point worth consideration in this verse is about the wording used by the Holy Qur’an in this verse. The word “zahiran” with tanwin, according to the Arabic grammar, indicates that even superficial things of the worldly life are not fully known to them;1 what they know is only one aspect of it, while they are ignorant of its other aspects, and are totally negligent of the Hereafter.
- This aspect of the language used by the Holy Qur’ an has been tried to be reflected in the translation above by the words, “something superficial ” instead of “what is superficial”.
Earning of mundane needs by neglecting the Hereafter is no sagacity
The Holy Qur’an is full of admonitory stories of the world. Those who had earned a name for collecting all sorts of luxuries and comforts for themselves, and then their disastrous end was witnessed in this very world, will also be subjected to everlasting torment of the Hereafter. So no sane person will call them intellectual or sagacious. Unfortunately, in the present day world the height of sagacity and wisdom is attributed to the one who could accumulate the largest quantity of wealth, and arrange for himself the best of comforts and luxuries. He is called the most successful and wise, no matter how low he might be in his morals. To call such a person wise is indeed an insult to wisdom – both by religious and moral standards.
By Qur’anic standard, only those are wise who are conscious of Allah and the Hereafter, and strive for the comforts of the next life, keeping their needs of this wordly life at a level at which such needs are necessary; and do not make their achievement the sole purpose of their lives. The following verse depicts the same meaning:إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ لَآيَاتٍ لِّأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ الَّذِينَ يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّـهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِهِمْ وَيَتَفَكَّرُونَ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ رَبَّنَا مَا خَلَقْتَ هَـٰذَا بَاطِلًا سُبْحَانَكَ فَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ (Surely, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are signs for the people of wisdom, who remember Allah standing and sitting, and (lying) on their sides, and ponder on the creation of the heavens and the earth (saying:) “Our Lord, You have not created all this in vain. We proclaim Your purity. So, save us from the punishment of Fire.” (3:190-191).
اَوَلَمْ يَتَفَكَّرُوْا فِيْٓ اَنْفُسِهِمْ ۣ مَا خَلَقَ اللّٰهُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَآ اِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ وَاَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ۭ وَاِنَّ كَثِيْرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ بِلِقَاۗئِ رَبِّهِمْ لَكٰفِرُوْنَ
The first two verses are an appendix and endorsement to the previous subject that these disbelievers are engrossed so much in the temporary mundane glitter and transitory pleasures that they have totally forgotten the real nature of this world and its ultimate end. If they had pondered over this, the secret of this world would have dawned upon them that the Creator of this universe has not created the sky and the earth, and the creatures in between, just for nothing. There is a great wisdom and purpose behind their creation, which is, that people should recognize the Creator through all His creations, and then get on to look for things that He likes and dislikes. Once they know His likes and dislikes, they should strive to please Him as much as possible, and avoid that which displeases Him. It is obvious that there should be rewards for good deeds, and punishments for evil doings, because equating good with bad is against justice and fair play. One should also realize that this world is not the place where his good or evil acts may be recompensed in full. On the contrary, very often it is seen that the evil-doers thrive very well in this world, and the one who abstains from evils suffers the troubles and tribulations.
Therefore, it is necessary that a time should come when this system should come to an end, and a reckoning of good and evil acts of all the persons takes place, on the basis of which rewards and punishments are awarded. The time when this will come is called the Dooms Day and the Hereafter.
The gist of this discussion is that if the disbelievers had pondered over these things, then this very sky and earth and the creatures in between them would have testified that they were not permanent. They are here but for a short time, after which a new world is to come, which will be permanent. This is the essence of the first of the above verses أَوَلَمْ يَتَفَكَّرُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِم (30:8) This was a matter of logical rationale. In the next verse worldly thinking and experiences are presented as a testimony, and the Makkans are addressed in the following words:
اَوَلَمْ يَسِيْرُوْا فِي الْاَرْضِ فَيَنْظُرُوْا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِيْنَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۭ كَانُوْٓا اَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةً وَّاَثَارُوا الْاَرْضَ وَعَمَرُوْهَآ اَكْثَرَ مِمَّا عَمَرُوْهَا وَجَاۗءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنٰتِ ۭ فَمَا كَانَ اللّٰهُ لِيَظْلِمَهُمْ وَلٰكِنْ كَانُوْٓا اَنْفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُوْنَ
أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ (Have they not travelled on earth – 30:9). It means that the Makkans live in a land where there is neither any cultivation and industry nor any tall and beautiful buildings, but for the sake of trade they do travel to Syria and Yemen. So, have they not seen, during the course of their trips, what was the fate of the earlier people, whom Allah Ta’ ala had endowed with skills to make use of the land? For instance, they had the skill to draw underground water by excavating the earth for irrigating fields and gardens, and dig out concealed precious minerals, such as gold and silver, and make use of them to their benefit. For their advanced skills and way of living, they were regarded as civilized nations. But they got engrossed so much in material life, transitory luxuries and comforts that they forgot Allah Ta’ ala and the Hereafter.
Then, Allah Ta’ ala sent prophets and books to remind them of their duties, but they did not pay any heed. Ultimately, they were overtaken by Allah’s wrath even in this world. The ruins of their desolate cities still stand witness to their destruction. At the end of the verse it is suggested to ponder whether they were subjected to any oppression from Allah Ta’ ala, or they subjected themselves to their own cruelty by accumulating causes of the divine punishment.
فَاَمَّا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا وَعَمِلُوا الصّٰلِحٰتِ فَهُمْ فِيْ رَوْضَةٍ يُّحْبَرُوْنَ
فَهُمْ فِي رَوْضَةٍ يُحْبَرُونَ (They will be in a garden, extremely delighted – 30:15). Yuhbarun (يُحْبَرُونَ ) is derived from hubur, (حَبُور)which means happiness, joy, or delight. This word encompasses all types of delight, which the dwellers of paradise will draw from the bounties of Paradise. The Holy Qur’an has not specified this, and has rather kept it generalized. At another place it is said فَلَا تَعْلَمُ نَفْسٌ مَّا أُخْفِيَ لَهُم مِّن قُرَّةِ أَعْيُنٍ (32:17) that is, ` no one knows in this world what delight and joy is in store for them (the people of Paradise) in Paradise’. While explaining this verse some commentators have mentioned various delightful things, which all fall under the category of joy and delight.
فَسُـبْحٰنَ اللّٰهِ حِيْنَ تُمْسُوْنَ وَحِيْنَ تُصْبِحُوْنَ
So, proclaim Allah’s purity when you see the evening and when you see the morning. And to Him be praise in the heavens and the earth, and in the afternoon and when you enter the time of Zuhr (soon after the decline of the sun towards West). (30:17-18)
The word ‘subhan’ (سُبْحَانَ ) is an infinitive which means ‘to declare the purity of someone from defects’. The phrase ‘subhanallah’ (فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّـهِ ) is meant to proclaim Allah’s purity from all defects. To recite this phrase with this intention is called ‘tasbih’. But in general usage, the word ‘tasbih’ often includes all forms of worship and remembrance of Allah, like salah, dhikr, etc. In the present verse, a verb is understood before the infinitive ‘subhan’ which is meant to direct the addressees to make ‘tasbih’ which, in its general sense, includes all forms of remembrance of Allah, and salah in particular, as explained above. In the light of this explanation, the present verse, in its beginning, enjoins upon its followers that they should remember Allah in the morning and evening, and at the end of the verse, it is instructed that they should remember Him at the other two times, عَشِيًّا وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ. One of these times is ‘ashiyy’ (عَشِیّ ) which is the name of the last part of the day, and here it refers to the time of ` Asr; and the other time is when the sun starts declining towards West, that is Zuhr.
In the sequence of the present verse, evening is mentioned before morning, and the end of the day (` Asr) is mentioned before Zuhr. One reason of precedence of evening over morning is that in Islamic calendar evening precedes the morning, and the date changes at the sunset (Maghrib). For precedence of ` Asr over zuhr one reason could be that at the time of ` Asr, which is also called the middle (wusta) prayer, people are generally busy in their work, and hence, it is rather difficult to offer prayer at that time. This is why there is greater emphasis in the Qur’an for offering ` Asr prayers حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَىٰ (Take due care of all the prayers, and the middle prayer, – 2:238)
In the wordings of this verse the prayer (salah) is not specified as such. Hence, all types of worships, whether by actions or by word of mouth, are included in the meaning of the verse. Since prayer is supreme in all worships, it is included here on priority. It is for this reason that the scholars have stated that this verse has clearly described and defined the timings of the five prayers. Someone asked Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) whether the Qur’an has specifically mentioned about the five prayers? He answered in the affirmative, and quoted this verse as a proof. Then explaining his point, he said that the words,” when you see the evening” (حِین تُمسُونَ ) are for maghrib prayer, “when you see the morning” (حِينَ تُصبِحُونَ )for fajr prayer, “in the afternoon” (عَشِیَّا) for ` Asr prayer, “and when you enter the time of zuhr” (وَ حِینَ تُظھِرُون) for zuhr prayer. In this way, this verse has described the four prayers very clearly. As for the ` Isha’ prayer, it is enjoined explicitly in the verse مِن بَعْدِ صَلَاةِ الْعِشَاءِ (After the prayer of ` Isha’ – 24:58). Sayyidna Hasan Al-Basri (رح) has opined that the words, “when you see the evening” include both maghrib and ` Isha’ prayers.
This verse is the dhikr of Sayyidna Ibrahim (رض) which earned him the title of وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ الَّذِي وَفَّىٰ (And Ibrahim who fulfilled his covenant – 53:37). Sayyidna Ibrahim used to recite these words in the morning and evening.
It is reported from Sayyidna Mu` adh Ibn ‘Anas (رض) with authentic proofs that the reason behind awarding the title of ‘fulfilling his covenant’ to Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) was his recitation of this prayer.
Abu Dawud, Tabarani and Ibn- us- Sunni have reported on the authority of Sayyidna Ibn ` Abbas (رض) that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) said about these two verses:
فَسُبْحَانَ اللَّـهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ ﴿17﴾ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَعَشِيًّا وَحِينَ تُظْهِرُونَ ﴿18﴾ يُخْرِجُ الْحَيَّ مِنَ الْمَيِّتِ وَيُخْرِجُ الْمَيِّتَ مِنَ الْحَيِّ وَيُحْيِي الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ
So, proclaim Allah’s purity when you see the evening and when you see the morning. And to Him be praise in the heavens and the earth, and in the afternoon and when you enter the time of Zuhur (soon after the decline of the sun towards West). He brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living, and gives life to the land after it is dead. And in similar way you will be brought out. (30:17-19)
That whoever will recite them in the morning, all shortcomings in his acts during the day will be repaired; and whoever will recite these verses in the evening all shortcomings in his actions during the night will be repaired. (Ruh).
وَمِنْ اٰيٰتِهٖٓ اَنْ خَلَقَكُمْ مِّنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ اِذَآ اَنْتُمْ بَشَرٌ تَنْتَشِرُوْنَ
After narrating the incident of the war between Rum and Persia in the beginning of Surah Ar-Rum, it was declared that the cause of the misguidance of the infidels and their heedlessness towards the truth was their excessive love for material life and paying no heed to the Hereafter. After that, any possible misgiving regarding resurrection on the Dooms Day and about the rewards and punishment after reckoning was clarified from different angles. Then it was suggested that one should, at the first place, look and ponder within his Self, and then should look around and note what had happened to the people who had lived before, and what was their end. After that Allah’s exclusive Omnipotence was described, in which no one is His partner. The obvious conclusion of all these facts and reasoning is that no one else but Allah is entitled to being worshipped, and what He has conveyed through His prophets about the Dooms Day, resurrection, reckoning, Paradise and Hell in the Hereafter should be believed in its totality. In the above verses six manifestations of His Omnipotence together with all-encompassing wisdom are described which are the signs of His incomparable power and wisdom. These realities are termed in these verses as “signs” which in the present context mean “signs of the divine omnipotence”
First sign of divine omnipotence
Man, the most distinguished among all creatures who is the ruler of the universe, is created from earth, which is the most inferior element among all the constituting elements of nature. Among the four well-known elements, that is water, fire, air and earth, the last named does not have the slightest sense, sensation or movement. All other elements have at least some movement, but the earth is devoid of that as well. However, this element is selected by Allah Ta’ ala for the creation of humans. Iblis (Shaitan) was misled by his arrogance as he regarded himself superior to man, since he is made of fire. What he failed to understand was that greatness and superiority is awarded by Allah Ta’ ala. He is free to award it to any one He chooses.
Creation of man from earth is obvious with reference to ‘Adam (عليه السلام) who is the father of all mankind. Since he was created from clay, the entire mankind, being his progeny, is created indirectly from clay. Every man’s creation from earth may also be explained by saying that every man or woman is created from human sperm which is constituted by different ingredients. The origin of most of these ingredients is nothing but earth.
وَمِنْ اٰيٰتِهٖٓ اَنْ خَلَقَ لَكُمْ مِّنْ اَنْفُسِكُمْ اَزْوَاجًا لِّتَسْكُنُوْٓا اِلَيْهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ مَّوَدَّةً وَّرَحْمَةً ۭ اِنَّ فِيْ ذٰلِكَ لَاٰيٰتٍ لِّــقَوْمٍ يَّتَفَكَّرُوْنَ
Second sign of the divine omnipotence
Allah Ta’ ala has created women in the same genus as that of man and they are made their wives as lifelong partners. Men and women are created from the same matter, yet there is a world of difference in their built, appearance, looks, character, habits, morals, disposition etc. If one seeks to recognize God, even this creation provides an excellent example of His supreme power. The wisdom behind the creation of this particular sex is said to be لِّتَسْكُنُوا إِلَيْهَا (So that you may find tranquility in them – 21). If one ponders, it becomes evident that all the requirements of men from women end up in drawing peace of mind, tranquility and comfort. The Holy Qur’an has put all that in one word.
The verse has thus indicated that the total outcome of married life is peace of mind and comfort; the couple that enjoys it is successful in the object of its creation, while the family that is deprived of peace of mind and tranquility is unsuccessful in its married life. This is also true that the very foundation of a successful married life rests on a lawful marriage. If one probes into the societies that developed illicit ways of living together without the bond of marriage, he will certainly discover that the life of such people is devoid of peace and tranquility. Living like animals to fulfill lust may provide temporary pleasure, but not the lasting peace of mind and comfort one draws from a proper married life.
The object of married life is tranquility for which mutual love and affection is the key
The present verse has declared that the object of married life of man and woman is peace of mind. This could be achieved only when there is a mutual recognition of each other’s rights and a sincere effort to fulfill them. Otherwise the demand for meeting one’s own rights only will lead to domestic brawls and shattering of peace. One course for the fulfillment of these rights could have been to lay stress only on legislation and imposing laws, as has been done in the case of other rights of the people, where it is prohibited to usurp the rights of others and after due warnings the punishments have been prescribed, and it is advised to show sympathy and sacrifice toward others. However, it is a common experience that people cannot be corrected only by giving them a set of laws, unless they are accompanied by nurturing taqwa and Allah’s fear in the hearts. That is why the Holy Qur’an, whenever it gives any injunctions regarding the social life of man, comes with the directions of وَاخْشَوْا اتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ (Fear Allah) as a complement to those injunctions.
Mutual relations between man and woman are of such a delicate and sensitive nature that neither a law can ensure the fulfillment of their respective rights completely, nor can any court do full justice to it. It is for this reason that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has selected those verses of the Qur’an for the khutbah (sermon) of nikah in which stress is laid on piety, fear of Allah and the Hereafter. Only these qualities in the spouses could stand as a guarantor for the fulfillment of mutual rights.
In addition to this, Allah Ta’ ala has not made the conjugal rignts merely a matter of rules and regulations, but also a natural and emotional requirement of every man and woman. It is on the same pattern as the mutual rights of parents and children are safeguarded by the natural love they have for each other. Allah Ta’ ala has filled the hearts of parents with such a natural love that they are compelled to protect their children more than their own-selves. Similarly, a degree of natural love is put in the hearts of children for their parents.
The same thing is done in the case of spouses, for which it is said وَجَعَلَ بَيْنَكُم مَّوَدَّةً وَرَحْمَةً (And He has created love and kindness between you – 30:21), that is, Allah Ta’ ala has not restricted-the relationship between spouses to a legal and religious relationship, but has filled their hearts with love and compassion. The literal meaning of wudd and mawaddah is ‘liking’, which results in love and affection. Here Allah Ta’ ala has used two words – one is mawddah (love or friendship) and the other rahmah (kindness). It is possible that mawaddah (love) refers to the young age when spouses are attracted towards each other with love and affection, while rahmah refers to the old age when passions subside and compassion for each other takes over. (Qurtubi)
After that it is saidإِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ (Surely in this there are signs for a people who reflect – 30:21). Although this verse has mentioned only one sign, but at the end of the verse, the word ‘signs’ in plural is used. The reason for this is that conjugal relationship, which is being discussed here, has many aspects, religious and mundane benefits. If all these benefits are taken into consideration, it appears that this relationship contains a number of signs of the divine omnipotence.
Third sign of divine omnipotence
The people living on earth are divided into many races, having different physical features and colours. Some are white, while others are black, brown, and yellow. Rather many have multitude of in-between shades of colours, because of inter-marriages among those having different colours. They speak different languages with many different dialects. The creation of the sky and earth is no doubt a great Divine masterpiece, but the difference of ‘tongues’ between human beings is also an equally astonishing Divine marvel. The difference of ‘tongues’ mentioned in this verse includes the difference of languages. There are hundreds of languages spoken in different parts of the world. Some of them are so much at variance from each other that there seems to be absolutely no link between them. Then, it also includes the difference of accents, pronunciations and the qualities of voices. Allah’s omnipotence has created the voice of each individual distinguishable from that of the others. The voices of men are clearly distinct from those of women, and the voices of children, from those of aged people, and so on, although the apparatus of speech, i.e. the tongue, the lips, the throat etc. are the same in all human beings. تَبَارَكَ اللَّـهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ
وَمِنْ اٰيٰتِهٖ خَلْقُ السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافُ اَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَاَلْوَانِكُمْ ۭ اِنَّ فِيْ ذٰلِكَ لَاٰيٰتٍ لِّــلْعٰلِمِيْنَ
The same way there are differences of colour and hue. It is seen that babies of different colour and hue take birth from the same parents under the same circumstances. All this is the marvel of Allah’s creation. The wisdom behind the difference of colours requires a lengthy description which is beyond our scope, but many of these wisdoms can be easily understood by a little reflection.
While referring to this sign of the divine omnipotence, this verse has mentioned creation or many things, such as sky, earth, the difference of languages and dialects, difference of colour in humans, which are all signs of Divine wisdom and can be recognized and understood with little attention. Hence, it is added at the end of the verse:إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّلْعَالِمِينَ (Surely in this there are signs for the persons of knowledge – 30:22).
وَمِنْ اٰيٰتِهٖ مَنَامُكُمْ بِالَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَابْتِغَاۗؤُكُمْ مِّنْ فَضْلِهٖ ۭ اِنَّ فِيْ ذٰلِكَ لَاٰيٰتٍ لِّــقَوْمٍ يَّسْمَعُوْنَ
Fourth sign of divine omnipotence
Human sleep and economic activities both in daytime and at night have been mentioned in verse 32 as the fourth sign of Allah’s omnipotence. Unlike some other verses, both night and day have been mentioned in this verse as times of sleep; similarly, economic activities are mentioned as activities performed both in daytime and at night. In other verses, sleep is described as something done at night, and earning of sustenance as an act of daytime. The reason is that the major purpose of night is to sleep, and some economic activities are also performed as a secondary function. The case of daytime is the opposite, where the major objective is to work, while a little time may be spent in having rest and sleeping. Therefore, both descriptions are correct. Some commentators have tried to interpret this verse in a way that sleep becomes restricted to night and earning of sustenance to daytime, as mentioned in other verses. However, in the light of explanation given above, such a labored interpretation is not called for.
Sleep and economic activity is not against asceticism and trust in Allah
It is evident from this verse that sleeping at night and working at daytime is made a natural habit for the humans. It is not something that one has to cultivate, but is a natural gift bestowed by Allah Ta’ ala to all His creatures. The point can be proven by the fact that one cannot sleep at times despite making all possible arrangements for the comfort. Sometimes even the sleeping pills become ineffective. But on the other hand, when Allah wills, people go to sleep even on hard floors amidst severe hot and oppressive conditions.
The same principle applies to earning of sustenance. It is a common knowledge that two persons having equal opportunities, knowledge and intellect, and putting in equal efforts and skill for earning their livelihood, do not necessarily succeed equally. One earns more than the other, because it is decreed as such by Allah’s wisdom. Therefore, one should try to earn the living through all the means available to him, but should not ignore the reality that the outcome of his endeavours depends on the will of Allah, as He is the real provider.
At the end of this sign of divine omnipotence it is saidإِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَسْمَعُونَ (Surely in this there are signs for a people who listen – 30:23) Perhaps dependence on listening is placed here because it is commonly seen that the sleep takes over once one lays down in comfort. Similarly, one earns his living by putting in effort and labour in trade, services etc. But the hand of nature in their attainment is not seen by the ordinary eye. This fact is described and explained by the prophets of Allah. Hence it is said that these signs are beneficial for those who listen with care, and once the reality is understood, they accept it without obstinacy.
وَمِنْ اٰيٰتِهٖ يُرِيْكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفًا وَّطَمَـعًا وَّيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَاۗءِ مَاۗءً فَيُحْيٖ بِهِ الْاَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۭاِنَّ فِيْ ذٰلِكَ لَاٰيٰتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَّعْقِلُوْنَ
Fifth sign of divine omnipotence
Allah Ta’ ala shows the flash of lightning to people in which there is risk of its striking, thus destruction. At the same time, there is a hope for rain following the lightning. The rain does follow with His will and gives rise to numerous types of vegetation. At the end of the verse, it is said فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ (Surely in this there are signs for a people who understand – 30:24), because the mysteries of lightning and rain, and the resultant growth of vegetation can be understood by those with intellect.
وَمِنْ اٰيٰتِهٖٓ اَنْ تَــقُوْمَ السَّمَاۗءُ وَالْاَرْضُ بِاَمْرِهٖ ۭ ثُمَّ اِذَا دَعَاكُمْ دَعْوَةً ڰ مِّنَ الْاَرْضِ ڰ اِذَآ اَنْتُمْ تَخْرُجُوْنَ
Sixth sign of divine omnipotence
Existence of the sky and earth is by the command of Allah. When He will command the breakup of this system, this strong arrangement, which is working since thousands of years perfectly without a slight depreciation, will end up in no time. Then by the command of Allah all the dead will assemble in the plain for reckoning.
The sixth sign of divine omnipotence is in fact the sum and substance of the previous five signs, and they were in fact revealed to explain and elaborate this verse. The subject of this verse continues in the next few verses.
وَهُوَ الَّذِيْ يَبْدَؤُا الْخَــلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيْدُهٗ وَهُوَ اَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ ۭ وَلَهُ الْمَثَلُ الْاَعْلٰى فِي السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيْزُ الْحَكِيْمُ
لَهُ الْمَثَلُ الْأَعْلَىٰ (For Him is the highest attribute – 30:27) The word مَثَل mathal is used for any such thing which has resemblance and similarity with something else, but its being exactly like that is not necessary. Therefore, the Qur’an has used the word ‘mathal’ for Allah Ta’ ala at several places, as in this very verse, and in another but Allah Ta’ ala’s Being is completely beyond resemblance. (That is why the word ‘mathal’ has been translated above as ‘attribute’, which is also a possible lexical meaning of the word.)
فَاَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّيْنِ حَنِيْفًا ۭ فِطْرَتَ اللّٰهِ الَّتِيْ فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا ۭ لَا تَبْدِيْلَ لِخَلْقِ اللّٰهِ ۭ ذٰلِكَ الدِّيْنُ الْـقَيِّمُ ڎ وَلٰكِنَّ اَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُوْنَ
The subject of Oneness of Allah has been dealt with in these verses by giving various proofs in different styles which are appealing to all types of people. At first, the point is explained by an example that although your servants and slaves are identical with you in looks, appearance, their makeup of limbs and other physical features, yet you do not permit them to share equally in your power and authority. You are not willing to part with the slightest part of your wealth and power in favour of your subjects, let alone sharing your power and possessions equally. They can neither spend wealth nor time the way they like, as you do. Just as you are scared of your insignificant partners while spending without checking with them, you do not allow even this position to your servants. So pause for a minute and ponder that human beings, angels, and all other things in the universe are created by Allah Ta’ ala and they are all His creations and slaves, then how could you take them as His equals or partners?
In the second verse a warning is sounded that although this argument is simple and straightforward, yet there are people who under the influence of their selfish motives do not accept and concede to anything of wisdom and knowledge.
In the third verse the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is addressed and through him the entire humanity is commanded to take note that when the irrationality and the unjust nature of shirk (associating partners with Allah) is established, you should leave aside all trends of shirk and turn to Islam with full devotion. فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفًا (So, set your face to the Faith steadily – 30:30).
After that, it is elaborated in the following verse as to how Islam conforms to nature and meets its requirements: فِطْرَتَ اللَّـهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّـهِ ذَٰلِكَ الدِّينُ الْقَيِّمُ (this (faith) being the nature designed by Allah on which He has created the mankind. There is no change in Allah’s creation. That is the straight Faith – 30:30).
This sentence فِطْرَتَ اللَّـهِ الَّتِي فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيْهَا (30:30) is the elucidation of the preceding sentence فَأَقِمْ وَجْهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفًا (So, set your face to the Faith steadily – 30:30), and it also mentions a special trait of this Faith, for which it was commanded to be followed in the first sentence, that is, Islam is the religion of nature. Although the commentators have assigned different grammatical constructions to this sentence, yet all of them agree that “the nature designed by Allah” refers to the “straight Faith” that is ordered to be followed in the first sentence. “The nature designed by Allah” is explained in the next phrase that it. is the natural design on which Allah has created all people.
What is meant by nature?
Commentators have given several interpretations to the word fitrah, (nature) used in the verse, out of which two are more common:
The first interpretation is that the word ‘nature’ is used here for Islam. Hence the meaning is that Allah Ta’ ala has made all human beings Muslim by their nature and instinct. In other words, all humans are born Muslims but it is the surroundings and the environment they live in make them astray from the righteous path. Generally it happens that the parents teach the child things and beliefs, which are contrary to Islam, and therefore he is misled into wrong beliefs. According to Qurtubi majority of the elders agree with this interpretation, and it is also recorded in a hadi’th of Sahihain.
The second interpretation is that ‘nature’ means here ‘capability’ or ‘capacity’. If this meaning of the word ‘nature’ is adopted, the meaning of the phrase would be that Allah Ta’ ala has bestowed the capability to every human being to discern his Creator and believe in Him. This capability automatically leads to submission to Islam, provided one makes use of this Divine grace.
There are, however, some difficulties in adopting the first interpretation. Firstly, it is said in this very verse towards the end لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّـهِ (There is no change in Allah’s creation – 30). Here ‘Allah’s creation’ means the same as ‘the nature designed by Allah’, which is mentioned earlier in the verse. Hence the meaning of this sentence would be that no one could change the nature designed by Allah, while a hadith of Sahihain itself says that the parents of a child make him Jew or Christian. If the meaning of nature is adopted as Islam, then how could the hadith be correct in saying that the child changes later as a Jew or Christian when it is said in this very verse that the change is not possible. Moreover, this change is a common experience in that there are more disbelievers in the world than Muslims. If Islam is taken as the meaning of nature, in which any change is not possible, then how is it that there are so many disbelievers who have changed their natural instinct after their birth?
Secondly, it is stated in an authentic hadith about the boy who was killed by Sayyidnna Khadir (عليه السلام) that infidelity was embedded in his nature. It was for this reason that Sayyidna Khadir (عليه السلام) killed him. In that case this hadith is also in contradiction to the statement that all children are born on Islam.
Thirdly, if it is accepted that Islam is something embedded in human nature, and they have no control to change it, then it would not be a voluntary act. In that case there is no room for rewards in the Hereafter, because rewards will be awarded on voluntary good deeds.
Fourthly, the religious jurists have deduced from authentic ahadith that a child, before attaining puberty, is treated in this world according to the faith of his parents. If the parents are infidel, the child will also be taken as an infidel. If he dies, a minor he will not be buried according to Islamic rites.
Imam Torapushti has listed all these doubts in his commentary on Masabih, and has preferred the second interpretation of the word fitrah’ (nature) because of these difficulties. Also, it is appropriate to say that natural capability cannot be changed. The one who is misled by parents into infidelity does not lose his instinct to discern and comprehend Islam. In the case of the boy killed by Sayyidna Khadir (عليه السلام) also, it is not true that he had lost the capability to discern the Truth because of his birth as infidel. Since a man makes use of this divine gift, i.e. the natural capability, with his free will, the reason for his earning its reward is quite evident. By adopting the second interpretation, the statement of the hadith of Sahihain also becomes clear, that although the child is born with the natural instinct to discern the Truth, which should lead him to accept Islam, yet his surroundings and parents make him a Jew or a Christian. As for the traditions of some elders (salf) who have explained the word ‘fitrah’ (nature) by the word ‘Islam’, it seems that they have not used the word of ‘Islam’ in the meaning of the capability to comprehend and accept Islam. Muhaddith Dehlavi (رح) has explained the view of the majority of the Ummah in the same manner. (لمعات شرح مشکوٰۃ)
Hadrat Shah Waliullah Dehlavi (رح) has also endorsed the same view in his book (حُجَّۃَ البَالِغۃ). The essence of his discussion is that Allah Ta’ ala has created innumerable things of various temperaments and disposition, and has placed an inherent quality in the nature of each one of them which helps him fulfill the object of his creation. The verse أَعْطَىٰ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلْقَهُ ثُمَّ هَدَىٰ (He who gave everything its shape, then guidance – 20:50) also describes the same reality that the Creator has instructed every creature how it should fulfill the purpose of its creation. Those instructions are embodied in the capability of performing required acts by various things. The instinct given to honeybee is to distinguish plants and flowers and make selection for drawing juice from them into its belly for storage in the beehive. The same way the humans are graced with a natural instinct and capability to recognize their Creator and submit to Him. This is what Islam is all about.
The above discussion has also clarified the meaning of the sentence لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّـهِ (There is no change in Allah’s creation – 30:30) meaning no one can bring about any change in the instinct and capability bestowed by Allah Ta’ ala, which helps recognize the Truth. The wrong environment can make one an infidel, but cannot eliminate his inherent capability to recognize the Truth.
This explanation also makes the meaning of the verse clear, which says وَمَا خَلَقْتُ الْجِنَّ وَالْإِنسَ إِلَّا لِيَعْبُدُونِ (I have not created Jinn and mankind except to worship Me – 51:56). It means that Allah has created in their nature the inclination towards and capability to perform His worship. If they make use of this capability, they will never go wrong and astray.
It is obligatory to avoid the company of wrongdoers and evil society
Although in this verse the sentence لَا تَبْدِيلَ لِخَلْقِ اللَّـهِ (There is no change in Allah’s creation – 30:30) is in the form of information, which means that no one can change the nature designed by Allah, but it also contains a latent prohibition in the sense that this nature should not be tampered with. Therefore, it is inferred from this verse that one should avoid the situations that render the capability of accepting the truth ineffective or weak. Such situations generally emerge in an evil environment and bad company, or by reading books written by those having wrong beliefs, especially when the reader does not have extensive knowledge and information about Islam.
مُنِيْبِيْنَ اِلَيْهِ وَاتَّقُوْهُ وَاَقِيْمُوا الصَّلٰوةَ وَلَا تَكُوْنُوْا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِيْنَ
وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَلَا تَكُونُوا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ (And establish Salah, and do not be among those who associate partners with Allah – 30:31). In the previous verse it was mentioned that the human nature is designed in a manner that it has an inherent capability to accept the Truth. Now in this verse it is emphasized that establishment of prayer is the first requisite for the acceptance of Truth, because it is the manifestation of submission to Truth and practical affirmation of Faith in Islam. After that, it is said وَلَا تَكُونُوا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ (30:31), that is, ` Do not join those indulging in shirk (associating others with Allah), because they did not avail of their natural capability to accept the Truth. Their misdeeds are mentioned in the next verse which says,
مِنَ الَّذِيْنَ فَرَّقُوْا دِيْنَهُمْ وَكَانُوْا شِيَعًا ۭكُلُّ حِزْبٍۢ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُوْنَ
مِنَ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا (Among those who split up religion and became sects – 30:32) that is, these disbelievers are those who have created a difference between Natural Faith and the true religion, or they have alienated themselves from the Natural Faith, as a result of which they are divided into different sects. شِيَعًا :Shiya’an is the plural of شِيعۃ shi` ah. A group of people following a leader is called shi ah. The fact is that the Natural Faith was based on the Oneness of Allah, by following which the entire human kind should have been one solid unit and one party. But it so happened that people split out from this unity and started following the personal views of their own leaders. Since the personal views and opinions of different people may always vary from person to person, different groups of people invented their own beliefs and religion. As a consequence, people were divided into various groups and sects, and the Shaitan made them believe that they were the only people on the right path كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ (Each group is happy with what it has before it – 30:32). That is, each group is happy and contended in its own beliefs and declare others being wrong, although they all are astray and treading the wrong path.
فَاٰتِ ذَا الْقُرْبٰى حَقَّهٗ وَالْمِسْكِيْنَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيْلِ ۭ ذٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ لِّــلَّذِيْنَ يُرِيْدُوْنَ وَجْهَ اللّٰهِ ۡ وَاُولٰۗىِٕكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُوْنَ
فَآتِ ذَا الْقُرْبَىٰ حَقَّهُ وَالْمِسْكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ (So give to the kinsman his right, and to the needy and the wayfarer – 30:38). In the preceding verse, it was stated that provision of sustenance is the sole prerogative of Allah Ta` a1a. He makes it abundant for whom He likes and curtails the sustenance whenever and whomever He so wills. It clearly gives the message that whoever spends it in the way of Allah, He does not make his sustenance dwindle. But if someone acts miserly and tries to accumulate what he has, then his possession does not expand.
In the background of this divine rule, the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) ، and according to Hasan Al-Basri (رح) ، every person privileged with abundance, is advised not to be close-fisted in spending the wealth Allah has graced him with. Rather it should be spent on needy cheerfully. This spending will not result in shrinking of the wealth. Some avenues of spending have also been enumerated along with this advice. First, kinsman; second, masakin (the needy); third travelers; that is, these categories should be given from the wealth that Allah has granted you. At the same time, it has been clarified that this is the right of these people which has been obligated on your wealth. Therefore, while giving it to them, no favour should be shown to them, because passing on someone’s share to him is an act of fairness and justice and not a favour.
‘Kinsman’ in this verse apparently means common relatives, whether mahrams or otherwise, as explained by the majority of the commentators. The words, ‘his right’ also refers to the rights of the kinsmen in general terms, and encompasses obligatory rights, such as those of parents, children and other close relations. It also includes voluntary acts of beneficence and charity, which carry greater rewards when done for close relations compared to when performed in favour of any other non-relative common person; so much so that the Imam of Tafsir Mujahid (رح) has said that the charity of that person is not acceptable in the sight of Allah who neglects his own close relatives and gives it to someone else. It should also be understood that the right of close relatives is not restricted to financial support, but it includes looking after them, and providing any physical service to them as well. If nothing else is within means, they may at least be treated sympathetically and be consoled in their distress. Sayyidna Hasan (رض) has said that the one who enjoys abundance in wealth should help his close relatives with money, and the one who does not have it, should provide physical service and consolation verbally. (Qurtubi).
After ‘kinsman’, the rights of indigent and then of the travelers follow. For meeting these rights also the same principle applies, that is if one has financial means, he should extend monetary help to them, otherwise physical service and consolation may discharge the right.
وَمَآ اٰتَيْتُمْ مِّنْ رِّبًا لِّيَرْبُوَا۟ فِيْٓ اَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ فَلَا يَرْبُوْا عِنْدَ اللّٰهِ ۚ وَمَآ اٰتَيْتُمْ مِّنْ زَكٰوةٍ تُرِيْدُوْنَ وَجْهَ اللّٰهِ فَاُولٰۗىِٕكَ هُمُ الْمُضْعِفُوْنَ
وَمَا آتَيْتُم مِّن رِّبًا لِّيَرْبُوَ فِي أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ (And whatever Riba [ increased amount ] you give so that it may increase in the wealth of the people, – 30:39). This verse is meant to correct an evil custom which is common in close relatives and the families at large. When people extend a gift or a present to relatives, especially at the time of marriages, they make a note of the amount they have given, in the hope that they will get back an equal amount in return when it is their turn, rather a little more. This custom is known in Urdu as ‘neota’. It is emphasized in this verse that the instruction given in the preceding verse about the rights of relatives should be implemented in a manner that neither it be shown as a favour, nor should it be given in the hope of any return. Whoever gives out money in the hope that it will bring back something more, then it is not worthy of reward in the sight of Allah. Qur’an has referred to it as riba, alluding that it is as bad as usury or interest.1
- This explanation is based on the view of a number of exegetes of Qur an. The word used by the Holy Qur’an is rib a term commonly understood as equivalent to usury or interest, prohibition of which has been detailed in verses 275 to 281 of Sarah Al-Baqarah and verse 130 of Sarah ‘Al ` Imran. Since, according to a large number of scholars, usury was prohibited in Madinah, while the present verse is Makkan, the word riba used here cannot mean usury or interest. Therefore, the word is interpreted here as a gift given to a relative in order to get back a gift of higher value from him. But some other commentators have taken the word riba in the same sense as in Sarah Al-Baqarah, i.e. usury and interest. They argue that usury was prohibited even in Makkah, but its implementation on a state level was carried out in Madinah. The esteemed author has reconciled between these two views by saying that the direct purpose of the verse is to correct the evil custom of giving gifts in the hope of getting a higher return, as mentioned in some traditions, but the word ‘riba’ is used to indicate that this practice is tantamount to the practice of usury where an increased amount is charged from a debtor. ( Muhammad Taqi ` Usmani)
It is extremely contemptible for a person who extends a gift to someone that he expects a return for it, which is forbidden in this verse. But it is morally desirable for the one who receives a gift from someone, that he tries to give a gift to the former on his own accord, whenever he finds a suitable occasion. This was exactly the practice of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) . He used to give present to the person who gave him one. (Qurtubi on authority of Sayyidah ` A’ishah (رض) . However, it should be avoided to give him an impression that the gift is being given in return of his own.
ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ اَيْدِي النَّاسِ لِيُذِيْقَهُمْ بَعْضَ الَّذِيْ عَمِلُوْا لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُوْنَ
ظَهَرَ الْفَسَادُ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِي النَّاسِ (Plight has appeared on land and sea because of what the hands of the people have earned 30:41). The author of Ruh ul-Ma’ ani has explained that the word fasad’ (translated in the text as ‘plight’ ) means all sorts of calamities, such as famine, epidemic diseases, frequency of the incidents of fire, drowning, lack of Allah’s blessing in everything, and reduction in profits and incurring of losses in lucrative businesses. It can also be deduced from this verse that the cause of falling of calamities in the world is commission of sins and other evil acts by the people. Shirk (association of partners with Allah) and infidelity are the most severe of them all, and other sins follow after them.
The same subject has appeared in another verse with a difference أَصَابَكُم مِّن مُّصِيبَةٍ فَبِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَيَعْفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ (42:30) that is, whatever troubles you are inflicted with are due to your own wrong doings. The essence of this statement is that whatever troubles and tribulations people face in this world are brought about by their own sins, despite the fact that many of these sins are pardoned, and many are punished but slightly, and yet some others are left unpunished. There are only a few sins that are punished by way of calamities. If all sins were punished with the intensity they deserve, no one would have been left alive in the world. But it is our good fortune that Allah Ta’ ala forgives so many of our sins and those which are not forgiven are dealt with very mildly, as stated at the end of the verse لِيُذِيقَهُم بَعْضَ الَّذِي عَمِلُوا (So that He (Allah) makes them taste same of what they did – 30:41) that is, He lets them taste a little of their evil deeds. After that, it is pointed out that whatever trouble and tribulation is sent down to them in this world, though as a result of their misdeeds, is in fact blessing and grace from Him, if only one could ponder. The purpose of these worldly troubles is to awaken them from their slumber, so that they get rid of their evil acts. This would naturally result in their favour and bring them blessings, as stated at the end of the verse لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ (In order that they may return (to the right way). – 30:41).
Big calamities fall upon the world because of the sins of people
It is in this backdrop that some scholars have declared that if a man commits an evil deed, he harms the entire human kind, beasts, birds and other animals, because whatever calamities fall upon earth due to his sins, all others are also affected by it. Therefore, each one of the sufferers of the calamities will lodge a claim against the sinner on Dooms Day.
Shaqiq Zahid has said that whoever acquires something unlawfully, he does not harm only the person whom he has taken it from, but also the entire human kind. (Ruh). It is because this opens up the door for others to follow, and thus the whole humanity gets involved in the practice. Secondly, this evil practice invites the calamities which in turn bring about troubles for everyone.
Answer to a doubt
It is recorded in authentic ahadith that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has said, ` this world is a prison for the believers and heaven for the infidels.’ He then elaborated that the infidels get the reward of their good deeds in this world only in the form of wealth and health, whereas the reward of the believers is saved up to be awarded in the Hereafter. Furthermore, the believers in this world are like a branch of tree, which drifts from side to side in the breeze and stands still when the breeze stops; and ultimately they leave the world in this very condition. It is also stated that the worldly tribulations afflict the prophets most and then to those who are near to them, and then to those who are near to the near ones. بَلَاًء أَشَدَّ النَّاسِ (The most severe trials are faced by the prophets, then by those closer to them, then by those closer to them.)
Apparently, all these authentic ahadith seem to be in conflict with the statement given in this verse. Further, it is also a common experience that generally the Muslim believers live a difficult life, whereas the infidels and libertines live a comfortable and easy life. If the troubles and difficulties were afflicted because of sins, as mentioned in the verse, the situation would have been exactly opposite.
Answer to this quandary is that the verse under reference has mentioned the sins as a cause for inviting troubles, but not the only cause (عِ (رح) لَّتِ تامَّہ) in the sense that whenever one is afflicted with troubles, it is only due to his sins. As a rule, if the cause of some happening comes to surface, its resultant effect normally follows. However, in certain cases the normal effect is overtaken by some other cause, suppressing or altogether eliminating the normal effect. For instance if someone says that purgatives are used for moving the bowls, the statement is true as far as the effect of purgatives is concerned. But sometimes they don’t move the bowls under the effect of some other drug or an unknown reason. Similarly, it is also a common experience that at times antipyretics do not bring down the fever and the sleeping pills do not put one to sleep. Therefore, the upshot of the verse is that it is one of the traits of sins to invite troubles and tribulations, but sometimes due to other conflicting reasons, the troubles do not come about. On the other hand, the opposite of this can also happen at times, that is, troubles and tribulations may come about without commitment of sins, because their appearance without sins has not been ruled out in the verse altogether. Therefore, in the case of prophets and pious persons, calamities may visit them without sins. In such situations the cause of vexation is not sins, but for the sake of upgrading their status, tests and trials are conducted by putting them into trouble.
Moreover, the Holy Qur’an has assigned the reason for the troubles and tribulations as sins of people for such situations where these calamities engulf the whole world or the entire city, and all humans and animals are afflicted with that. Normally such calamities fall when sins are committed openly and freely. In the case of individual troubles and tribulations, this rule does not apply, because sometimes calamities befall for trials and tests, and when the individual passes the tests successfully, his position is raised in the Hereafter. In fact, such calamities prove to be blessings and graces of Allah Ta’ ala. Hence it is not correct to call a person sinner, if he is afflicted with calamity. In the same way, it is not apt to consider someone pious and righteous if he is affluent. However, the main reason for the affliction of major troubles and calamities, such as famine, storms, epidemics, inflation and lack of Allah’s blessing is commission of sins openly and defiance of Allah’s rule.
Hadrat Shah Waliyyullah (رح) has commented in (حُجَّۃَ البَالِغۃ) that there are two types of causes, in this world, for good or evil, trouble or comfort and difficulty or ease. Causes of the first kind are visible or outward, while causes of the second type are latent or inward. Outward causes are the material causes which are seen by all and normally regarded as such; whereas the inward causes are those based on human actions, which lead to either help from the angels or to their curse and hate. For example, the causes of rain before the scientists and philosophers are the formation of vapors in the form of clouds over the oceans due to heat, then their drift toward the land by the breeze, then their ascent to heights because of the heat of land, and then freezing of vapors after attaining heights into the cooler strata, and after being defrost by the heat of sun, their ultimate fall from the height in the form of water drops. But the ahadith on the subject tell us that this whole process is an act of the angels. In fact, there is no contradiction in the two statements as there could be many causes for any one process. Hence the outward cause in this case is the scientific explanation referred above, while the inward cause could be the action of the angels. When both these causes are combined, the rain falls according to need and expectation, and if both the causes do not combine, the rainfall may be interrupted.
Explaining the subject further, Shah Waliyyullah (رح) has said that some causes of the tribulations of the world are physical or biological, which do not recognize good or bad. For instance, it is the characteristic of fire to burn, without considering whether someone is pious or sinner, unless it receives a Divine command to act otherwise, as was the case in the fire of Namrud, which was commanded to cool down and be tranquil for Sayyidna Ibrahim (عليه السلام) . The attribute of water is to drown the heavier bodies. So it will always act to perform this duty. Similarly, other elements are also performing their assigned jobs. For some, they become troublesome and arduous, but for others they bring in comfort and ease.
Like the outward physical causes, the good or evil deeds of a person are also effective in bringing troubles and tribulations or ease and comfort. When both outward and inward causes of ease, happiness and comfort join together, the person or a group of people enjoy ease and comfort in life. As against this, if the natural causes bring in distress and problems for an individual or a group of people and his or their actions also call for troubles and tribulations, then the calamities fall as a rule.
Sometimes it happens that whereas the material outward causes are working to bring about troubles and calamity, but the good actions of a person are inclined for ease and comfort in his life. In such a conflicting situation, the inward causes are consumed in countering the influence of the outward causes. As a result, the full benefit of his friendly inward causes is not reaped. Likewise, it happens sometimes that the material causes demand the ease and comfort, but the inward causes or his actions invite troubles and tribulations. In this conflicting situation also, neither full comfort and ease is available nor the calamities take their full toll.
In a similar manner, the material causes are sometimes made unfavorable for a prophet, saint or a pious to put him to test. If this explanation is understood properly, then the mutual harmony and consistency between the Qur’anic verses and the referred ahadith becomes apparent, and any doubts about inconsistency or conflict are removed. وَاللہُ سبحانَہُ و تعالیٰ اَعلَم
Difference between trial or test and punishment or torment when calamities fall
When the calamities fall, they are meant for trial and test for some good people in order to atone their sins or raise their status, and for others to punish them for their sins. In both cases, the form of the calamities look alike. Then how should they be differentiated? Shah Waliyyullah (رح) has said that the calamities on good people for the sake of tests can be recognized by their endurance with contentment, which is a gift of God. They remain happy and contented in troubles and calamities like a patient, who remains contented on his treatment by medicines of bitter taste or by a painful surgery. Not only that he does not complain of the pains he faced during treatment, but also pays fees for it and deploys all sorts of resources for getting himself treated in such a painful manner. As against this, the evildoers, on whom the calamities fall as punishment, take it to heart and cry and moan against the sufferings they are placed in. Sometimes they utter words of ingratitude to the extent of blasphemy.
Sayyidi Hakim-ul-Ummah Ashraf Thanavi (رح) has given another distinction between the two calamities. If one becomes aware of his sins and faults and finds greater inclination toward seeking pardon from Allah Ta’ ala, then it is a sign of His kindness and favour. But if one gets frustrated and indulges more in sins and evil, then it is a sign of Allah’s wrath and torment. وَاللہُ سبحانَہُ و تعالیٰ اَعلَم
وَلَقَدْ اَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ رُسُلًا اِلٰى قَوْمِهِمْ فَجَــاۗءُوْهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنٰتِ فَانْتَـقَمْنَا مِنَ الَّذِيْنَ اَجْرَمُوْا ۭ وَكَانَ حَقًّا عَلَيْنَا نَصْرُ الْمُؤْمِنِيْنَ
فَانتَقَمْنَا مِنَ الَّذِينَ أَجْرَمُوا وَكَانَ حَقًّا عَلَيْنَا نَصْرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (Then We took vengeance upon those who were guilty. And it was due on Us to help the believers. -30:47). This verse tells us that Allah Ta’ ala has taken it upon Himself to help the believers. On the face of this statement, one would have expected that Muslims would never be defeated against the infidels. But on many occasions, results have been exactly opposite. Answer to this confusion is at hand in this very verse, that by the word ‘believers’ those believers are intended who fight with infidels purely for the sake of Allah. Allah Ta’ ala takes revenge of only such believers from the criminals and helps them overpower their adversaries. Wherever the position is different, it is due to some sort of slip on the part of the believers, as Qur’an itself has quoted about the battle of Uhud: إِنَّمَا اسْتَزَلَّهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ بِبَعْضِ مَا كَسَبُوا (Shaitan had but made them slip for some of their deeds – 3:155). Even in such a situation, Allah Ta’ ala graces them with victory and upper hand, once they realize their fault, as it happened in the battle of Uhud. As for such people who are Muslims only by name and are habitual defiant and negligent of the teachings of Islam, and are not penitent even when the infidels gain upper hand, they are for sure not included in this promise of Allah Ta’ ala, and do not qualify for His help. Nonetheless, Allah Ta’ ala provides help by His grace on many occasions without any one deserving it. Therefore, it is always beneficial to beg for His mercy and hope for His help.
اَللّٰهُ الَّذِيْ خَلَقَكُمْ مِّنْ ﮨـعْفٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِنْۢ بَعْدِ ﮨـعْفٍ قُوَّةً ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِنْۢ بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ ﮨـعْفًا وَّشَيْبَةً ۭ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاۗءُ ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيْمُ الْقَدِيْرُ
Greater part of this Surah aims at removing the doubts of the deniers of the Hereafter. For meeting this end, many verses deal with the signs of Allah’s omnipotence and His all-encompassing wisdom in order to awake people from their slumber. The first of the above-referred verses deals with the same subject in a different manner. It is pointed out that man is impetuous by nature, in the sense that he gets involved in the present so much that he forgets the past and the future. This habit leads him to many a serious problems. When he is young, his strength is at its peak, and he does not care about anyone in his over-weaning pride. He finds it difficult to remain within limits. In order to warn people, this verse has given a complete picture of the strength and weakness in human life as they come and go by. It is pointed out in the verse that the man starts his life in a state of weakness and ends it with a similar weakness. It is only in the middle of his life that he gains strength for a short period. It is in his own interest that he should keep in mind the impending weakness while he is still strong, and does not forget how he achieved strength gradually from the state of weakness.
The man is reminded of his real self in خَلَقَكُم مِّن ضَعْفٍ (Who created you in a state of weakness – 30:54). It means that his original base is a dirty drop of semen that has neither strength, nor sense or life. So ponder, who has turned this sickening drop into congealed blood, then into flesh and then transfixed bones into the flesh? After that, who has produced delicate machines of the limbs and organs to turn him into a mobile factory, which is supported by innumerous automatic machines. If one is to look more closely into this factory, one would notice that it is a mini-world of its own in which innumerable models of His creation are set in. The creation and bringing up of man is not brought about in a giant factory but in three dark stages in the womb of his mother. After spending nine months in the womb of mother, man ultimately takes birth to come out into this world. The Holy Qur’an says, ثُمَّ السَّبِيلَ يَسَّرَهُ (Then Allah facilitated exit [ from the womb ] for him – 80:20).
When he came into this world, his condition was that وَاللَّـهُ أَخْرَجَكُم مِّن بُطُونِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ (And Allah has brought you forth from your mothers’ wombs when you knew nothing – 16:78). Then Allah made you learn so many things. The first lesson was to teach you crying, so that you could attract the attention of your parents towards you, and they should look for your needs of thirst and hunger. Then you were taught the skill to suck milk by pressing your lips and gums from your mother’s breasts for your sustenance. Who else had the power to teach these two skills to an infant having no intelligence, to meet all his needs? Indeed no one else but the Power who is responsible for his creation. The infants are weak at that stage of their life. Minor exposure to cold or heat makes them sick. They can neither ask for their needs, nor can they remove any of their miseries. Right from this stage until they attain their youth, one can see in them a gradual development of life and strength – a process only Allah Ta’ ala can create and control and a clear manifestation of His omnipotence, if people could only contemplate.
ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِن بَعْدِ ضَعْفٍ (Then He created strength after weakness – 30:54). When man reaches the stage of his strength, he gets involved in showing off his powers and intelligence. He flies to reach the moon and Mars, and tries to overpower the earth and oceans. He forgets all about his past and becomes oblivious of his future, and cries out مَنْ أَشَدُّ مِنَّا قُوَّةً (Who is stronger than us in might? – 41:15); so much so that in this state of intoxication, he even forgets his Creator and His commands. So the Nature has warned to make him realize his folly ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِن بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ ضَعْفًا وَشَيْبَةً (Then created weakness and old age – 30:54). 0 remiss! Be mindful of the fact that your present strength is temporary and you have to return to the same old weakness, and it will take you gradually to your grey hair. Then all your limbs and organs will change their shape and form.
You need not go through any books and the history of the world, but look into your own concealed self, and you will be left with no other option but to accept and believe that يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيمُ الْقَدِيرُ (He creates what He wills, and He is the All-Knowing, the All-Powerful – 30:54). All this control and running of affairs are by the One who creates them. He does as He pleases, and in a manner as it pleases Him. He has no parallel in knowledge and power. Knowing all this, is there any room for doubt that He can resurrect the dead whenever He likes?
[From Ma’ariful Quran English by Mufti Taqi Uthmani]
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